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emo, ēmi, emptum, buy. Its compounds, with the

exception of coëmo, change ě into 7-as adimo, adēmi, ademptum.

So also eximo, interimo,

peržmo, redimo. premo, pressi, pressum, press.

168. Verbs ending in no deviate from the general rule for the formation of the perfect and supine, with the exception of temno and its compounds, which make the perfect tempsi, and the supine temptum — as contemno, contempsi, contemptum. The following are peculiar :съпо, сécini, cantum, sing. Among its compounds, concēno and

occīno (also occăno) make their perfect concinui and occinui, and the supine con

centum and occentum.
gigno, gěnui, gěnitum, beget.
pono, posui, positum, place.


lītum, anoint, daub. Another form is linio, linire. 8īvi, , situm, allow, permit. Desino, perf. desivi, admits

of contraction - desii, desisti, desiit, de

sieram, &c. cerno, crēvi, (crētum), separate, perceive. 8perno, 8prēvi, sprētum, despise. sterno, strāvi, strātum, throw down.

169. Verbs in ro generally form the perfect and supine irregularly, but r being changed into s cannot be regarded as an irregularity, s and r being convertible, asgěro, gessi, gestum,


curro, cũcurri, cursum,

run, race. 170. Verbs in so (xo), usually form their perfect in ui, like those of the second conjugation; but in the supine they generally drop the connecting vowel i before tum, asvīso, visi,

depso, depsui, , depstum, knead.

{ pinsui, or

pingum, pound.




171. Those in esso make their perfect in ivi, and the supine in itum, as verbs of the fourth conjugation: arce880, arce88īvi, arce88ītum, send for. The passive infinitive accer80, accer8īvi, accersitum, is sometimes arcessiri, саревво, сареввіvі, capes8ītum, strive to obtain,




facesso, facessīvi, facessitum,
lace88o, lacessivi, lace88ītum, provoke.
incesso, incessivi,

attack. 172. In many verbs ending in cto the t is only an increase of the stem in the present, and is accordingly omitted in the perfect and supine, the original stem ending in c as flecto, flexi, flexum ; but the following are not reducible to any rule: měto, messui,

me88um, mitto, misi,

missum, send.
\ pětīvi, or

} petitum,

seek, aim at. sisto, 8tīti, stătum,

cause to stand. In its intransitive

meaning, “I stand,' its perfect is stěti (from sto, stare), and the su

pine stătum. sterto, stertui, verto, verti,


turn. 172. In verbs ending in sco, the sco either belongs to the stem, and is consequently retained in conjugation, or sco is a sufix, by means of which verbs are derived from verbs, substantives, and adjectives. This class of derivative verbs is called inchoative, and denotes an action or condition as beginning to take place. There are few verbs in which the sc belongs to the stem :disco, didžoi,

learn. posco, poposci,

demand. glisco,

increase. 174. Inchoative verbs take the perfect of the simple verbs from which they are formed -as incalesco, perf. incalui (from caleo); ingemisco, ingemui (from gemo); deliquesco, delicui (from liqueo, perf. liqui or licui.)

Few inchoative verbs have the supine of the verbs from which they are derived. Some, which are derived from adjectives in us, a, um, or er, a, um, form a perfect in ui, but have no supine - as maturesco, (grow ripe), perf. matururi; obmutesco (grow dumb), ohmutui ; percrebresco (become frequent), percrebrui ; and so also evilesco, evilŭi, though it is derived from the adjective vilis. Irraucesco (grow hoarse, from raucus) makes the perfect irregularly irrausi. All others derived from adjectives in is, and many of those derived from adjectives in us, have neither perfect nor supine.

175. The following inchoatives have also the supine of their simple verbs :coalesco, coalui, coalătum, grow together (from alo.) concupisco, concupivi, concupitum, desire strongly (from cupio.)

disappear from the obsolete

convalesco, convalui, convalītum, grow well, strong (from valeo.) exardesco, exarsi, exarsum, begin to blaze (from ardeo.) inveterasco, inveteravi, inveteratum, grow old (from invetero). obdormisco, obdormivi, obdormītum, fall asleep (from dormio.) revivisco, revixi, revictum, revive (from vivo.)

176. The following verbs, though originally inchoatives, have lost their inchoative meaning, or are derived from simple verbs which are no longer in use, and may therefore be regarded as simple verbs : adolesco, adolēvi, adultum, grow up, exolesco, exolēvi, exolētum,

[oleo, grow. cresco,

crēvi, crētum, grow. compesco, compescui,

tame, subdue. dispesco, , dispescui,

sever, separate. hisco,

yawn. nosco, novi, nötum, become acquainted. Its com

pounds makes the supine in štum — as agnosco, agnitum ; cognosco, cognitum ; but ignosco

(pardon) has ignotum. равсо, pāvi, pastum, feed. quiesco, quiēvi, quiētum, rest. 8uesco, suēvi, suētum, accustom myself. всisco, , 8cīvi, 8cītum, ordain, sanction (from scio.)

177. The following deponent verbs also form their supine, or rather their perfect participle, peculiarly:fruor,

enjoy (part. fut. fruiturus.)

, grădior,

gre88u8 sum, proceed. aggrědior, aggre88us sum,

attack. liquor,

melt. loquor, locutus sum,

speak. 8ěquor, sēcutus sum,

follow. mõrior,

mortuus sum, die (part. fut. moriturus.) nitor,

lean upon, strive. nisus sum, pătior, passus sum,

suffer. amplector, and amplexus, and

embrace (from plecto.) complector, complexus sum, quěror,

questus sum, complain.' ringor,

gnash the teeth. ūtor, ăpiscor, aptus sum,

obtain; adipiscor, adeptus sum, defetiscor, defessus sum,

grow weary. [is more common. expergiscor, experrectus sum, awake. irascor,

am angry. comminiscor,

commentus sum,

devise. reminiscor,

remember. nactus, or nanciscor,

obtain. nanctus sum,

(fructus cum }

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irātus sum,


nascor, obliviscor, paciscor, proficiscor, ulciscor, vescor, revertor, divertor,

nātus sum, oblitus sum, pactus sum, profectus sum, ultus sum,

am born (part. fut nasciturus.)
make a treaty.
depart, travel.
feed on.
turn aside.

reversus sum,



178. Verbs of the fourth conjugation make their perfect by adding to the stem vi for the perfect, and tum for the supine ; but the following make the perfect in si, and the supine in tum, before which the i of the stem is often omitted :

} decree.

Sfartum, or stuff. In compounds the a is changed farcio, farsi,

1 farctum, into e- as refersio, refersi, referfulcio, fulsi, fultum, prop.

[tum. haurio, hausi, haustum, draw (part. fut hausturus, or haususanctum, or

[rus.) sancio, sanxi,

sancitum, sarcio, sarsi, sartum, patch. sentio, sensi, sensum,

feel. saepio, saepsi, , saeptum, hedge in; is also spelled sepio. vincio, vinxi,


bind. 179. The following present various irregularities :amicio, amicii, amictum,

clothe. cio, cīvi, citum,

summon, call. eo, īvi, žtum,

go. ferio,

strike. ăpério, ăpěrui, ăpertum, open. répěrio, rēpëri, répertum, find; the perfect is better spelled rep

përi. So also comperio, compēri,


leap. In compounds the a is changed sălio, ,

into imas desilio, desilui, or desilii,

desultum. sẽpělio, 8ěpělīvi, sépultum, bury. There is also a perfect sepeli. věnio, veni, ventum,

{ sălui,or } saltum,


180. Desiderative verbs end in urio, and are derivatives denoting a desire to do that which is implied in the simple verb: they have neither perfect nor supine-as dormiturio, wish to sleep, or am sleepy; esurio, want to eat. The same is the case with some derivatives from adjectives—as caecutio (from caecus), am blind; ineptio (from ineptus), am silly.


181. There are also some deponents of the fourth conjugation which form the past participle differently from the general rule:

assentior, a88en8u8 rum, assent.
expérior, expertus sum,

mětior, тепви8 8ит,

} wait for.
opperītus sum,
ordior, orsus sum,

ortus sum,

rise (fut. part. orătūrus, and

gerundive oriundus. In the present indicative, orior is inflected according to the third conjugation - as orěris, orătur, orğmur ; in the imperfect subjunctive we find both orērer and orirer. The same is the case with the compounds coörior and exorior; but adorior follows the fourth conjugation in every respect.

oppărior, {oppertus, or


182. Irregular verbs are those which not only form their perfect and supine in an unusual manner, but also differ from the ordinary forms in the manner in which the terminations are added to the stem. Most of these irregularities, however, arise from euphonic changes, syncope, contraction, and from the fact, that different tenses of one verb are formed from different stems, as in the case of the verb esse.

183. The number of simple irregular verbs is eleven-sum, possum, edo, fero, volo, nolo, malo, eo, queo, nequeo, and fio, to which their derivatives and compounds must be added : these, however, are conjugated like the simple verbs.

184. The verb possum (I am able, or I can) is a compound of pot (from potis, pote, able) and sum, the t before s being assimilated to s, but reappearing wherever sum begins with a vowel ; in the perfect, and the tenses derived from it, the f (of fuo) is thrown out.




Sing. pos-sum, I am able, I can. Sing. pos-sim, I am able, or

may be able. pot-ěs.

pos-sis. pot-est.

pos-sit. Plur. pos-sūmus.

Plur. pos-simus. pot-estis.

pos-sitis. pos-sunt.


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