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Serv-o, servatum, to keep, to save : as, observe, to see; preserve, reservoir, desert.

Sign-um, a mark, a seal : as, assign, to allot; consign, to give to ; design, resign, to give back.

Simil-is, like : as, assimilate, to make like to; similar, like; simulate.

Sist-o, to set, to stop, to stand : as, assist, to stand up to ; desist, to stand from ; insist, subsist.

Solv-o, solutum, to loose, to melt, to free, to pay: as, dissoluble, that may be melted; solve, to loosen, to explain.

Soph-ia, wisdom, learning : as, theosophy, divine wisdom; sophism, philosophy.

Speci-o, to see, to look : as, despise, to look down with contempt ; espy, expect, specie.

Spir-o, spiratum, to breathe : as, expire, to breathe out; inspire, spiracle, spiry, suspirel.

Spond-eo, sponsum, to promise or undertake : as, respond, to answer, espousal, response.

Stas-is, a standing ; a weighing; apostasy, extasy, extatic.

Stingu-o, stinctum, to prick, to thrust: as, distinguish, to mark the difference; distinct, prestiges.

St-o, statum, to stand, to set: as, constancy, a standing firm; stable, firm ; understand, to comprehend fully ; extact, obstacle, instanter.

String-o, strictum, to hold fast, to bind, to contract : as, constrict, to draw together; straight, strain, strict.

Stru-o, structum, to build : as, destroy, to pull down; construct, extruct, self-destruction.

Sum-o, sumptum, to take : as, consume, to take up; resume, to take back, insume.

2. Tang-o, tactum, to touch : as, contract, a touching; pertingent, reaching to; intire, tangible, taction.

Tempus, tempor-is, time : as, temporize, to comply with the time ; tempest, tense, timous, extempore.

Tend-o, tensum, to stretch, to go, to strive : as, attention, or stretching towards ; extend, to stretch out; distend, intense.

Ten-eo, tentum, to hold : as, abstain, to hold from; contain, to hold ; tenable, that may be held ; tenet, tenor.

Termin-us, a limit or boundary, end: as, exterminate, to root out; terminate, to bound ; termly, terminal.

Test-is, a witness: as, attest, to bear witness to ; testify, to bear witness ; detest, testate, protest, testimony.

The-os, God : as, monotheist, believer in one God; atheist, enthusiasm, Timothy, theology.

Thesis, a placing or putting : as, thetical, laid down ; epithetic, metathesis, anathema.

Tom-as, a cutting, a division : as, anatomize, to dissect an animal ; atom, indivisible particle ; epitome, lithatomic.

Ton-os, tension or stretching; a tone : as, binitonous, of two notes ; astound, attune, oxytone, thunder, tonic.

Tort-um, to turn or bend, to twist : as, contort, to twist together; extort, torment, torsel.

Trah-o, tractum, to draw : as, attract, to draw to; contract, to draw together, substract, drag, draw, trail, trace, trail, treason, treatise, treaty.

Tres, tria, three : as, tripid, three-cleft; tribocular, threecelled ; trident, trivet, trey, trinity.

Tum-eo, to swell, to puff up: as, intumesce, to swell; tumble, to roll, to fall; tumefy, to swell.

3. Und-o, undatum, to rise in waves, to swell, to abound : as, exundate, undulary, redound.

Un-us, one, alone ; the same: as, disunite, to separate; union, a making one ; untie, to make into one ; unit, triune.

Utor, usus, to use: as, abuse, ill use ; unutility, uselessness.

4. Val-eo, to be well, to have strength, to be worth : as, avail, to profit; invalid, of no force; convalescence, disvalue.

Veh-o, vectum, to carry: as, convey, to carry ; inveigh, to rail against ; devex, vection.

Vel-o, to cover, to hide : as, develop, to uncover ; envelop, reveal, inveiled, unveil.

Ven-io, ventum, to go, to come, to arrive, to find : as, convene, to come together; intervene, to come between; advent, intent.

Vert-o, versum, to turn : as, divert, to turn aside ; avert, averse, divorce, obvert, veer, verse, verter.

Vi-a, a way: as, deviate, to go from the way ; convoy, invious, trivial, voyage, way.

Vid-eo, visum, to see : as, visible, that can be seen ; visit, to go to see; envy, adviser, proviso, purvey, perview, review, revise, vedet, visor, vista.

Vidu-o, to part, to deprive of : as, avoid, to shun ; device, divide, void, widow.

Vinc-o, victum, to conquer, to subdue : as, invincible, not to be conquered ; vanquish, to conquer; evince, victim, evict.

Viv-o, victum, to live : as, revive, to live again ; survive, to outlive ; vital, vivid, vivacy, viand, victual.

Voc-o, vocatum, to call : as, convoke, to call together; invoke, to call on; equivocal, provoke, vocal, vowel.

Volv-o, volutum, to roll : as, devolve, to roll down; evolve, to unfold; obvolute, revolt, volt, wallow.

Vot-um, a vow, a promise made to God: as, vow, a solemn promise ; devout, vote, votary.



§ 43. 1. A, ea, ai, ei, ay, ey, and ao, have sometimes the long sound of a : as, baker, great, eight, straight, delay, survey, gaol.

2. A, au, ua, and ea, have sometimes the Italian sound of a, as in far : as, balm, vaunt, guard, heart.

3. A, au, aw, awe, oa, and ou, have sometimes the broad sound of a, as in hall : as, walk, laurel, law, awe, broad, fought.

4. A and ua have sometimes the short sound of au : as, what, wad, caught.

5. A, ai, ay, ei, e, and ea, have sometimes the sound of ai, as in pare : as, bare, repair, prayer, their, there, swear.

6. E, ee, ea, ie, ei, i, ay, and ey, have sometimes the long sound of e, as in feet: as, severe, feel, hear, neither, mien, antique, quay, parley.

7. E, ea, ai, ay, ie, ei, have sometimes the short sound of e, as in fed : as, red, bread, said, friend, heifer.

8. I, ie, igh, y, ye, ine, ign, ite, eight, yte, yne, have sometimes the long sound of i, as in pine: as, mine, die, high, deny, bye, dine, sign, anodyne, contrite, right, height, proselyte.

9. I, in some words, when followed by a vowel, has the sound of y: as, senior, filial, opinion. 10. O, oa, oe, oo, ou, ow, owe, ough, eau,


have times the long sound of o, as in hope: as, snow, hoe, broach, roe, floor, court, marrow, owe, though, beau, shew.

11. 0, 00, ou, and u, have sometimes the sound of u, as in sun: as, none, flood, double.

12. 0, 00, ou, oeu, oe, and u, have sometimes the sound of oo, as in spoon : as, entomb, rood, group, maneuver, shoe, bush.


13. Oi and oy are sounded as in oil, joy. 14. Ou and ow are sounded as in loud, bow.

15. U, ui, ieu, ue, ew, iew, ou, ewe, eau, and eu, have sometimes the long sound of u, as in truth: as, cube, bruise, adieu, blue, blew, view, you, ewe, beauty, virtue.


§ 44. B is silent before m, as in dumb; and before t, as in doubt.

1. C has the sound of k before a, o, and u: as, cape, cot, cube ; and the sound of s before e, i, and y: as, cent, cite, and cycle. It has also the sound of z in some words : as, suffice, pronounced suffize.

2. F has the sound of v in of.

3. G has a hard sound before a, 0, and u: as, in gay, gone, gun; and before e, i, and


the sound of j: as, in ginger. It has sometimes the hard sound before e, i, and y: as, get, gilt. It is silent before n: as, in

gnaw. 4. H is silent after r: as, in rhetoric. 5. K is silent before n: as, in knife. 6. L is silent before f, k, and m: as, in half, talk, psalm. 7. N is silent when it follows m: as, in hymn. 8. P is silent before s and t: as, in psalm and tempt.

9. In the unaccented termination re, the r is sounded after the e: as, in centre.

10. S has the sound of z, as in bosom ; and a hissing sound, as in sister. It is sometimes silent: as, in isle.

11. S, c, and a, following an accented syllable and followed by i before another vowel, have the sound of sh or ch: as, expulsion, social, combustion.

12. W is silent before r, as in wrong. When it precedes h, the h is sounded first : as, in what, pronounced hwat.

13. X, when it ends an accented syllable, or precedes any consonant but h, has the sound of ks : but when the next syllable begins a vowel, or h, it is sounded like gz: as, in exert.. At the beginning of words, it has the sound of z: as, in Xenophon.

14. Ph has the sound of 'v in Stephen, in all other cases the sound of f:

15. Ch has the sound of tsh, as in church; the sound of sh, as in chaise ; and the sound of k, as in character.

16. Th has two sounds; aspirate, as in thick, and vocal, as in this.

17. Gh has sometimes the sound of f at the end of words, and is sometimes silent. The h is sometimes silent, as in ghastly.


45. Monosyllables ending with f, 1, or s, preceded by a single vowel, double the final consonant: as, staff, mill, pass, &c. Ex. Of, if, as, is, has, was, yes, his, this, us, and thus.

46. Monosyllables ending with any consonant but f, l, or s, and preceded by a single vowel, never double the final consonant. Ex. Add, ebb, butt, egg, odd, err, inn, bunn, purr, and buzz.

47. Monosyllables, and words accented on the last syllable, ending with a single consonant preceded by a single vowel, double that consonant, when they take another syllable beginning with a vowel: as, wit, witty; thin, thinnish; to abet, an abettor; to begin, a beginner.

§ 48. If a diphthong precedes, or the accent is on the preceding syllable, the consonant remains single : as, to toil, toiling; to offer, an offering; maid, maiden.

§ 49. Words ending in y, preceded by a consonant, upon assuming an additional syllable beginning with a consonant, commonly change y into i : as, happy, happily, happiness.

1. Words ending with y, preceded by a consonant, form the plural of nouns, the persons of verbs, verbal nouns, past participles, comparatives, and superlatives, by changing y into ie : as, spy, spies, I carry, thou carriest, he carrieth or carries; carrier, carried ; happy, happier, happiness.

2. The present participle in ing, retains the y that the i may not be doubled: as, carry, carrying ; bury, burying.

3. But y preceded by a vowel in such instances as the above, is not changed: as, boy, boys ; I cloy, he cloys, cloyed, &c.; except in lay, pay, and say, from which are formed laid, paid, and said; and their compounds, unlaid, unpaid, unsaid.

$ 50. When y is preceded by a vowel, it is very rarely changed in the additional syllable: as, coy, coyly ; boy, boyish, boyhood ; annoy, annoyer, annoyance; joy, joyless, joyful.

§ 51. Words ending with any double letter but l, and taking ness, less, ly, and ful after them, preserve the letter double:

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