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$ 22. EXAGGERATION OR HYPERBOLE.
1. Hyperbole consists in magnifying a natural object beyond its bounds; thus, “as swift as the wind;" “as white as snow;" as slow as a snail;" and the like, are extravagant hyperboles.
“I saw their chief, tall as a rock of ice; his spear, the blasted fir ; his shield, the rising moon; he sat on the shore like a cloud of mist on the hill.”
$ 23. IRONY.
1. Irony is a figure in which one existence is signified by the opposite existence; or, where we speak of one thing and design another, in order to give greater force to our meaning. We can reprove negligence by saying, “you have taken great care indeed.”
§ 24. PERSONIFICATION.
1. Personification is a figure which consists in giving life and action to inanimate objects; thus, “the sword of the Gaul trembles at his side, and longs to glitter in his hand.”
§ 25. APOSTROPHE.
1. Apostrophe is an address to some person, either absent or dead, as if he were present and listening to us.
1. Climax consists in heightening all the circumstances of an object or action, in order to place them in a strong light. Cicero gives a fine example, when he says, “ It is a crime to put a Roman citizen in bonds; it is the height of guilt to scourge him ; little less than parricide to put him to death. What then shall I call the act of crucifying him ?"
2. Vision, repetition, interrogation, and exclamation are so plain that they need no explanation.
3. Tropes consist in a word's being employed to signify something that is different from its original and primitive meaning ; so that if you alter the word, you destroy the figure ; as," high climbing hill,” "'Tis ours the chance of fighting fields to try,” “ Jovial wine,” “ Drowsy night,” “ Panting heights.”
Questions on Figures of Speech. What are figures of speech? How did men at first communicate their thoughts? Why were they obliged to do this? What are the figures most commonly used ? What is a metaphor ? Give an example of a metaphor. Tell the difference between a metaphor and a simile.
What is a simile ? What is an allegory? Is the subject expressed or conceived in the mind? Give an example of a simile. What is metonymy? Give an example. What is synecdoche ? Give an example. Difference between them? What is hyperbole? Give an example. What is irony ? Give an example. What is personification? Give an example. What is apostrophe ? Give an example. What is climax? Give an example. Difference between hyperbole and climax? What is a trope ? Give an example.
$ 27. PREFIXES.
The following prefixes are the most important in the English language. It will be important that the pupils commit them.
1. A, signifies on, in, to, or at : as, afoot, on fooi; abed, in bed; atield, to the field ; afar, at a great distance.
A, ab, abs, signifies from or away : as, avert, to turn from; abduce, to lead from; abstain, to hold from.
A, ad, ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at, signifies to : as, adhere, to stick to ; ascribe, to give to; accede, to yield to; affix, to fix to; aggravate, to make heavy to; alleviate, to make light to, (to ease or soften ;) annex, to gain to; appeal, to refer to ; arrogate, to ask for or assume to, one's self; assimilate, to make like to ; attract, to draw to.
Am, signifies around, or about : as, amputated, to cut around, or about.
Amphi, signifies both, or double : as, amphibious, living 'both on land and in water.
Ana, signifies through, up, back, or again : as, anatomy, to cut through or up.
Ante, before : as, antecedent, going before.
Anti, opposite to or against : as, antarctic, opposite to the north.
Apo, from: as, aphelion, from the sun ; apostle, one sent from.
2. Be, to make, sometimes near, about, on, at : as, becalm, to make calm.
Be and bis, two: as, biform, having two forms.
3. Cata, down, from side to side : as, catarrh, a flowing down, catastrophe, spreading from side to side, (producing ruin.)
Circum, about, or round : as, circumvent, to come round, (to cheat.)
Cis, on this side : as, cisalpine, on this side of the Alps.
Con, co, cog, col, com, cor, together or with: as, connect, to join together ; cooperate, to work together; cognate, born with another; collect, to gather together; compress, to press together.
Contra and counter, against : as, countermarch, march against, (or back;) contradict, to speak against.
4. De, down or from: as, depart, to go from.
Di, dis, dif, away, asunder : as, disarm, to take arms from; dispel, to drive asunder; disperse, to scatter asunder; differ, to bear asunder, (to vary.)
Dia, through : as, diameter, to measure through.
5. En, em, in, into, or on : as, enthrone, to place on a throne ; empower, to give power to.
Ex, e, ec, ef, out, out of : as, extend, to stretch out; educe, to lead out; ecstasy, a standing out of, (an excess of joy ;) efface, to take out.
Epi, upon : as, epithet, placing upon.
7. Im, to make : as, to imbitter, to make bitter.
In, il, im, ir, before a verb, in or into, on or upon : as, inject, to throw in ; illuminate, to make light in ; impose, to place on or upon; irradiate, to make rays upon.
In, ig, il, im, ir, before an adjective, not, implying privation or want : as, infinite, not finite; ignoble, not noble; illegal, not legal; immortal, not mortal ; irregular, not regular.
Inter, intro, between, among, within : as, intermix, to mix among; introduce, to lead within.
8. Meta, beyond, after, according to: as, method, according to a way or path.
Mal, evil : as, maltreat, to treat evil.
9. Ob, oc, of, op, in the way, up, against, out : as, object, to cast in the way ; occupy, to take up ; offend, to strike against ; oppose, to plan against.
Out, beyond : as, outlive, to live beyond another.
Over, above, too high : as, overflow, to flow over ; overcharge, to charge too much.
10. Para, side by side, near to, like : as, parhelion, near the Peri, round, about : as, peripatetic, walking round.
Per, through, or thoroughly: as, perennial, through the year; perfect, thoroughly done.
Post, after : as, postscript, written after.
Preter, beyond : as, preternatural, beyond the course of nature.
Pro, for, forward, out: as, proceed, go forward ; provoke, to call forth.
Poly, many: as, polysyllable, many syllables.
11. Re, back, or again, anew: as, recall, to call back; recommence, to begin anew.
Retro, backward : as, retrograde, going backward.
Sub, suc, suf, sug, sup, under or after: as, subsequent, following after ; suppress, to press under.
Super, supra, above, more than enough : as, supervisor, one who looks over.
Syn, sy, syl, sym, together with : as, system, standing together; sympathy, feeling with.
Sur, above, over : as, survive, to live above, or after.
13. Trans, across, over, beyond, change : as, transgress, to go over or beyond.
14. Ultra, beyond: as, ultra marine, beyond the sea. Un, before a verb, to take off : as, uncrown, to take off a
Un, before an adjective, not : as, unable, not able.
NOTE.-Many of the prefixes in many words seem to have lost their primitive meaning.
§ 28. AFFIXES TO NOUNS.
1. An, ian, ant, ac, ant, any, ate, ee, eer, ent, er, ist, ite, ive, ier, ice, or, ster, one who, person
that : as, historian, one that writes history; assistant, one who assists ; beggar, one that begs; drunkard, one who drinks ; votary, one who is devoted to any thing; graduate, one who obtains a degree (at College ;) absentee, one who is absent; mountaineer, one who dwells on a mountain ; patient, one that suffers ; baker, one that bakes ; oculist, one that cures eyes; Levite, one who is descended from Levi; captive, a person who is taken in war; doctor, one who is learned ; songster, one that sings; clothier, one who dresses cloth; accomplice, one who is associated with.
Ling, little, young : as, duckling, a young duck.
Acy, ance, ancy, ence, ency, ness, tude or ude, ty, y, being, or state of being : as, accuracy, being accurate; vigilance, state of being vigilant ; adherence, state of being adherent ; consistency, state of being consistent; multitude, being many; novelty, state of being new; jealousy, the being jealous.
Age, the thing, or being collectively, an allowance for: as, peerage, being a peer; carriage, an allowance for the thing carried.
Ary, the place where, or the thing that : as, library, the place where books are kept.
2. Cle, little or small : as, canticle, a little song.
3. Escence, state of growing : as, putrescence, state of growing or becoming rotten.
4. Ice, the thing done, or thing that : as, service, the thing served.
Ics, the doctrine, service, or art of: as, mathematics, science of quantity.
Ion, act of, state of being : as, commotion, a moving together.
Ism, an idiom, or doctrine of as, parallelism, state of being parallel.
5. Ment, being, act of, the thing that: as, concealment, the act of concealing.
6. Ory, ry, the place where, or thing that, the art of: as, dormitory, a place to sleep in.
7. Ure, the thing, power, art of: as, creature, the thing created, agriculture, the art of cultivating the fields.