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Army, Sanitary Condition of the,. Edward Jarris, M. D.

Autumnal Tints,..
.A. D. Thoreau.

Axtell, Jr.,....

148, 312, 432, 552, 721
Birds, The Life of,.
T. W. Higginson....

Blind Tom,...
. Author of " Margret Howth

Cerebral Dynamics,..
Isaac Ray, M. D...


Children's Cities, The,.

Author of Charles Auchester".


David Gaunt..

. Author of " Margret Houth".


Disagreeable People, Concerning, .. Author of " Recreations of a Country Parson" 164
Ericsson and his Inventions,
Epes Sargent


Fossil Man, The,..

C. L. Brace.


Friend El's Daughter,..
Bayard Taylor


Friends, A Complaint of, .

Gail Hamilton..


Froude's Henry the Eighth,.
C. C. Hazewell.

Gabriel's Defeat,
T. W. Higginson.

Hour, The, and the Man,.
C. C. Hazerell..



.J. Elliot Cabot.


Kindergarten – What is it?.
.E. P. Peabody..

Leaders of Secession, Conversational Opinions of the,


Leamington Spa,..

.Nathaniel Hawthorne..


Life in the Open Air,.....

. Theodore Winthrop..

203, 293, 526, 678
Methods of Study in Natural History, Professor Louis Agassiz..

87, 325, 571

Moving, .

Gail Ilamilton.


My Hunt after “ The Captain,"
0. W. Holmes...

My Lost Art, .
M. D. Cunway

New Atlantic Cable, The,..
George B. Prescott.


New Gymnastics, The,

.Dio Lewis, M. D.


New Upposition Party, The,..

One of my Clients,



D. A. Wasson


Plays and Play-Acting,

A. Dexter...


Presence, .

Mrs. S. M. Daris


President's Proclamation, The,
R. W. Emerson.

Procession of the Flowers,.
T. W. Higginson

H. W. S. Cleveland .

Rite, How to Choose a,..
.H. W. S. Cleveland .

Russian Sert-Systein, The Developinent and Overthrow of the...Prof. A. D. White. 538
Sam Adams Regiments in the Town of Boston, The,. . Richard Frothingham...

San Domingo, The Horrors of,
.John Weiss.

212, 347

Sheppari, Elizabeth Sara,..


Some Soldier-Poetry,
John Weiss


South, Resources of the,

E. H. Derby.


Taxation no Burden,.
E. Atkinson...

R. W. Emerson.


Iwo and One,...

Miss S. Hale.


War-Jatters, Chiefly about,

Nathaniel Hawthorne


Warwick, About,
Nathaniel Hawthorne

Wild Apples,
...H. D. Thoreau


Woman, A,

Rose Terry..





VOL. X.-JULY, 1862.-NO. LVII.


It is certain that since the time of abound in all countries; but even the Homer the deeds and circumstances of “Marseillaise," the gay, ferocious“ Carmawar have not been felicitously sung. If gnole," and the “Ça Ira,” which somebody any ideas have been the subject of the wrote upon a drum-head in the Champ strife, they seldom appear to advantage de Mars, do not belong to fighting-poetry. in the poems which chronicle it, or in the The actual business of following into the verses devoted to the praise of heroes. Re- field the men who represent the tendenmove the “Iliad,” the “ Nibelungenlied,” cies of any time, and of helping to get some English, Spanish, and Northern bal- through with the unavoidable fightinglads, two or three Old-Bohemian, the jobs which they organize, seems to inspire war-songs composed by Ziska, and one the same rhetoric in every age, and to or two Romaic, from the field of investi- reproduce the same set of conventional gation, and one is astonished at the scan- war-images. The range of feeling is narty gleaning of battle-poetry, camp-songs, row; the enthusiasm for great generals and rhymes that have been scattered in is expressed in pompous commonplaces; the wake of great campaigns, and many even the dramatic circumstances of a of the above-mentioned are more bistor- campaign full of the movement and sufical or mythological than descriptive offering of great masses of men, in bivouac, war. The quantity of political songs and upon the march, in the gloomy and perilballads, serious and satirical, which were ous defile, during a retreat, and in the suggested by the great critical moments hours when wavering victory suddenly of modern history, is immense. Every turns and lets her hot lips be kissed, are country has, or might have, its own pe scarcely seen, or feebly hinted at. The culiar collections. In France the troub- horizon of the battle-field itself is limited, les of the League gave an impulse to and it is impossible to obtain a total imsong-writing, and the productions of Des- pression of the picturesque and terrible portes and Bertaut are relics of that fact. After the smoke has rolled away, time. Historical and revolutionary songs the historian finds a position whence the

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1862, by TICKNOR AND Fields, in the Clerk's Omce

of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. VOL. X.



scenes deliberately reveal to him all their campaign itself have been conducted in connection, and reënact their passion. He the poet's study as its situations be delibis the real poet of these solemn passages erately transferred there to verse. The in the life of man.*

“ Wallenstein's Camp" of Schiller is not One would think that a poet in the poetry, but racy and sparkling pamphletranks would sometimes exchange the eering. Its rhyming does not prevent it pike or musket for the pen in his knap- from belonging to the historical treatment sack, and let all the feelings and land- of periods that are picturesque with many scapes of war distil through his fine fancy passions and interests, that go clad in from it drop by drop. But the knapsack jaunty regimental costumes, and require makes too heavy a draught upon the ner- not to be idealized, but simply to be devous power which the cerebellum supplies scribed. Goethe, in his soldier's song in for marching orders; concentration goes “Faust,” idealizes at a touch the rough to waste in doing porter's work; his tent- work, the storming and marauding of the lines are the only kind a poet cares for.

mediæval Lanzknecht; set to music, it If he extemporizes a song or hymn, it might be sung by fine dilettanti tenors is lucky if it becomes a favorite of the in garrison, but would be stopped at any camp. The great song which the soldier outpost in the field for want of the counlifts during his halt, or on the edge of tersign. But when Goethe describes battle, is generally written beforehand what he saw and felt in the campaign by some pen unconscious that its glow in France, with that lucid and observwould tip the points of bayonets, and ant prose, he reproduces an actual situcheer hearts in suspense for the first ation. So does Chamisso, in that powcannon-shot of the foe. If anybody un- erful letter which describes the scenes dertakes to furnish songs for camps, he in Hameln, when it was delivered to prospers as one who resolves to write the French. But Chamisso has written anthems for a prize-committee to sit on: a genuine soldier's song, which we init is sutler's work, and falls a prey to the tend to give. The songs of Körner are provost-marshal.

well known already in various English Nor are poets any more successful, when dresses. they propose to make camp-life and sol- But the early poetry which attempts the diers' feelings subjects for æsthetic consid- description of feats at arms which were eration. Their lines are smooth, their wrought by men who represented turningimages are spirited; but as well might the points in the welfare of nations — when, * There is a little volume, called Voices

for instance, Germany was struggling to from the Ranks, in which numerous letters have her middle class against the priviwritten by privates, corporals, etc., in the Cri- leges of the barons — is more interesting mea, are collected and arranged. They are than all the modern songs which nicely full of incident and pathos. Suffering, daring, and humor, the love of home, and the religious See translations of Von Zedlitz's Middependence of men capable of telling their night Rerier, of Follen's Blücher's Ball, of own Iliad, make this a very powerful book. In Freiligrath's Death of Grabbe, of Rückert's modern times the best literature of a campaign Patriot's Lament, of Arndt's Field- Marshal will be found in private letters. We have Blücher, of Pfeffel's Tobacco-Pipe, of Gleim's some from Magenta and Solferino, written by War-Song, of Tegner's Veteran, (Swedish) Frenchmen; the character stands very clear in of Rahbek's Peter Colbjornsen, (Danish,) The them. And here is one written by an English Death-Song of Regner Lodbrock, (Norse,) and lad, who is describing a landing from boats in Körner's Sword-Song, in Mr. Longfellow's PoFinland, when he shot his first man. The act ets and Poetry of Europe. See all of Körner's separated itself from the whole scene, and soldier-songs well translated, the Sword-Song charged him with it. Instinctively he walked admirably, by Rev. Charles T. Brooks, in up to the poor Finn; they met for the first Specimens of Foreign Literature, Vol. XIV. time. The wounded man quietly regarded See, in Robinson's Literature of Slaric Nahim; he leaned on his musket, and returned tions, some Russian and Servian martial pothe fading look till it went out.


depict soldiers' moods.* Language itself as conventional, but they show that anwas fighting for recognition, as well as other power has taken the field, and is industrial and social rights. The verses willing to risk the fortunes of war. Norse mark successive steps of a people into poetry loses its vigor when the secure consciousness and civilization. Some of establishment of Christianity abolishes this battle-poetry is worth preserving; a piracy and puts fighting upon an alfew camp-rhymes, also, were famous lowance. Its muscle was its chief charenough in their day to justify translating. acteristic. We speak only of war-poHere are some relics, of pattern more or etry. less antique, picked up from that field of Here, for instance, is the difference Europe where so many centuries have plainly told. Hucbald, a monk of the met in arms.

cloister St. Amand in Flanders, wrote The Northern war-poetry, before the “ The Louis-Lay," to celebrate the vicintroduction of Christianity, is vigorous tory gained by the West-Frankish King enough, but it abounds in disagreeable Louis III. over the Normans, in 881, commonplaces : trunks are cleft till each near Saucourt. It is in the Old-Highhalf falls sideways; limbs are carved for German. A few lines will suffice:ravens, who appear as invariably as the

The King rode boldly, sang a holy song, Valkyrs, and while the latter pounce up

And all together sang, Kyrie eleison. on the souls that issue with the expir- The song was sung; the battle was begun; ing breath, the former banquet upon the Blood came to cheeks ; thereat rejoiced the remains. The celebration of a victory is Franks; an exulting description of actual scenes

Then fought each sword, but none so well as

Ludwig, of revelling, mead-drinking from mount

So swift and bold, for 't was his inborn nature; ed skulls, division of the spoils, and half

He struck down many, many a one pierced drunken brags f of future prowess. The through, sense of dependence upon an unseen

And at his bands his enemies received Power is manifested only in superstitious A bitter drink, woe to their life all day.

Praise to God's power, for Ludwig overcame; vows for luck and congratulations that

And thanks to saints, the victor-tight was his. the Strong Ones have been upon the con

Homeward again fared Ludwig, conquering quering side. There is no lifting up of

king, the heart which checks for a time the joy And harnessed as he ever is, wherever the of victory. They are ferociously glad need may be, that they have beaten. This prize-fight- Our God above sustain him with His majesty! ing imagery belongs also to the Anglo- Earlier than this it was the custom for Saxon poetry, and is in marked contrast soldiers to sing just before fighting.. Tawith the commemorative poetry of Franks citus alludes to a kind of measured warand Germans after the introduction of

cry of the Germans, which they made Christianity. The allusions may be quite more sonorous and terrific by shouting it

into the hollow of their shields. He calls Among such songs is one by Bayard Tay- it barditus by mistake, borrowing a term lor, entitled Annie Laurie, which is of the from the custom of the Gauls, who sang very best kind.

before battle by proxy, – that is, their † Braga was the name of the goblet over

ards chanted the national songs. But which the Norse drinkers made their vows. Probably no Secessionist ever threatened more

Norse and German soldiers loved to sing. pompously over his whiskey. The word goes

King Harald Sigurdson composes verses back a great distance. Paruf is Sanscrit for just before battle; so do the Skalds before rough, and Rágh, to be equal to. In reading the Battle of Stiklestad, which was fatal to the Norse poetry, one can understand why

the great King Olaf. The soldiers learn Braga was the Apollo of the Asa gods, and why the present made to a favorite Scald was

the verses and sing them with the Skalds. called Bragar-Laun (Lohn). Bravo is also a

They also recollect older songs, — the far-travelled form.

Biarkamal,” for instance, which Biarke

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