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ed by the Popes Julius the II., Clement the VII., and Pius V.: and, at a later period, it was recommended to extirpate all brush and underwoods as a means of meliorating the air.

The whole of this question, as far as relates to the present and former state of the Campagna-to the influence of agriculture on its salubrity,—and to the effects which have been at different times produced by the neglect of agriculture, by regulations respecting it, or by attempts at cultivation and drainage, is, we are well aware, one of great difficulty. Those who have paid the greatest attention to it are by no means agreed; while, whatever the causes may have been, it seems a prevalent opinion, that the country round Rome is, in reality, less salubrious than in ancient times, although, being assuredly drier than in the earliest periods of the city, it is held that it ought to be more healthy. To say no more of Brocchi's peculiar theory respecting dress, we doubt if his reasoning, with respect to the condition of the soil, is correct; and are rather inclined to consider that the land is more productive of miasma, principally because it is less incumbered with lakes, and apparently drier.

We have already attempted to show, that the circumstances under which miasma is produced from certain soils, are very little understood. It appears at times to arise from clear waters, where it would not be suspected; and even from ordinary grass meadows, where nothing like putrefaction exists, In a thousand instances, neither marshes nor wet woods produce it: in some cases, it is the produce of peat bogs; in others, not. In many places, it is peculiar to salt marshes: in others again, the occasional influx of the sea is a preventive. It sometimes falls with rains and dews, as in Africa; in others, it rises from the ground. The driest east winds waft it from distant regions: the hot steam of the slave coast carries it far out to sea. If in Holland and Batavia, it is the produce of canals; in many parts of Italy, it is generated in dry land, Under such difficulties, if we can prove nothing positive respecting its generation and progress, neither can we form a negative decision. We think it, therefore, very possible, that notwithstanding the differences between the condition of the former and present Roman district, it may actually have been less productive of malaria in ancient times. The pools, or lakes, or marshes, of the Rutuli and Volsci, of the thirty-one rustic classes, and of the Velabra, might easily, for aught we can prove to the contrary by any reasoning or experience, have been more salubrious than ihe same land in its present state; when, these cavities having been filled up by the gradual increase of their subaqueous soil, or partially drained by artificial means, it retains beneath the surface that water which was once


exposed to view. Nor shall we be surprised if this should in reality be the true solution of all these difficulties. But we must think of drawing this article to a conclusion.

To what other causes but this we are to attribute the rapid progress which the malaria is now annually making through the city, we can scarcely conjecture; unless it may partly be accounted for by the very fact itself, by the depopulation and de sertion of certain parts of the town which it is producing. If its progress is resisted by the effects of a dense population, and by the peculiar state of the atmosphere which this produces, it must necessarily gain ground in an accelerating ratio as the inhabitants retire before it. Should it go on long as it is now doing, the time cannot be very far distant when the Eternal City shall be no more; when the modern Babylon, the place of her who sitteth on the Seven Hills, shall be what Babylon the great now is, a den for all unclean and creeping things.

That it is actually so spreading, that it every year reaches some part of Rome where it was before unknown, is certain; while, at the same time, there is a peculiarity in the lines on which it marches, and in the mode of its progress, which the inhabitants have not succeeded in explaining. Appearing to enter by the Porta del Popolo, it reaches to a certain distance along the Corso, the banks of the Tiber, and the west side of the Pincio. Here it creeps along the base of this elevation by the church of the Trinitá de Monti, and thus round the foot of the Quirinal and Viminal Hills to the church of Santa Maria Maggiore. In its further progress, it reaches the church of San Pietro in Vencoli, diverging towards the Campo Vaccino, and proceeding onwards to the eastward of the Colosseum. On the east side of the city, it is also entering by the quarter of the Porta Maggiore and that of San Giovanni ; occupying, to a very severe degree, the district of St John Lateran, and holding its course over the Cælian hill towards the church of St Gregory, where it spreads to the southward of the Palatine, towards the ancient seat of the great Velabrum and the river. Thus we see that its chief source seems to lie to the north ward and eastward; or rather, that it is by means of the peculiar property of these winds, that the miasma is conducted. But the political vitality of Rome is far from exhausted; it possesses an elastic force which may long resist destruction. Should that, however, be materially impaired, --should it diminish in a ratio similar to that in which the malaria increases,-it will be in vain that the name of Eternal has been conferred on it; and Rome, the mistress of the world, will at length be blotted out from her place among the nations.

ART. X. Draft of an Act for the better Establishment and Re

gulation of the Free Grammar School of Sir Andrew Judd, in the Town of Tonbridge, in the County of Kent, and for disposing of the Revenues thereof; with Preliminary Observations and Appendir: Addressed to the County of Kent. By C. R.

PRINSEP, M. A. London. Ridgway, 1822. Our

directed their attention to the results of the Inquiry which the Commissioners under Mr Brougham's Act had instituted into the affairs of Tonbridge School. It then appeared very manifest, for the reasons which we stated from the Report, that the Skinners' Company had, for a series of years, appropriated to other uses a large revenue, belonging, of right, to the school : but this position was contested, and the discussion was carried on in the Court of Chancery. Early in 1820, the Vice-Chancellor made a decree against the Company; an appeal was prosecuted to the Lord Chancellor; and, after the fullest hearing, every step of which only threw a stronger light upon the fallacy of the arguments maintained by the Company, the decree was affirmed by his Lordship last Michaelmas term. The result is, that the charity is found to be possessed of between four and five thousand pounds a year of present revenue, certain to be greatly increased upon the falling in of building leases, from which it chiefly arises; and also arrears of post rents, amounting at the least to nearly twenty thousand pounds. The practical question, therefore, which suggests itself upon this case, and to which Mr Prinsep directs his view, is, How this fund shall be applied ?

One thing is quite clear--and it is perhaps the only point which will admit of no dispute--the funds have so far outgrown their original destination, that they can no longer be applied as the founder intended. The master and usher of the school indeed filed a Bill, the prayer of which was, that the whole revenues of the endowment should be applied to their support, and the repair of the buildings ! in other words, that one of them should have a sinecure of three thousand a year, and the other a place of one thousand, with almost as little work as he chose to do. But this proposal, Mr Prinsep observes, was too preposterous to be entertained for a moment.' Let us here pause to remark, that, absurd as the notion appears to be, it proceeds upon the very same principles which are so pertinaciously clung to by all the defenders of the notorious abuses in grammar school endowments. The vast increase of the revenues, in this instance, makes the absurdity appear more glaring; but, in principle, 'the thing is the same, whether three hundred or three thousand a year are received, either for doing nothing, or for doing far less than the founder intended. The case of all those endowments is simply this. At a time when Latin was necessary for persons of a rank inferior to those who now learn it, pious persons endowed schools for teaching it; thus directing the revenues to be given in consideration of that work being performed. Now, the revenues exist, and are in every instance greatly increased; but the work is not required, because parents who wish to have their children taught Latin, do not desire to have it taught for nothing. There is, therefore, in many cases a total, and in the others a partial, failure of the consideration for which the fund was given. But the enemies of all reformation, the fast friends of abuse, contend that no change whatever can be made in those endowments, because the founders expressly directed Latin to be taught gratuitously, and nothing else. The argument therefore is, that we must adhere to the letter, in order to counteract the spirit; for whatever the intention of the founders may have been, it is very clear what it was not; it certainly was not to create sinecures; to give the revenues for nothing at all. Had those pious persons been now living, with the power of changing the original destination of the funds, there may be some doubt what new objects their bounty would have selected, when the first objects no longer existed; but there can be no doubt whatever that they would have selected any objects in preference to the present claimants, the schoolmasters themselves.

To comply with the request of the Tonbridge Master and Usher, would simply have been (our author says) to pamper • the indolence of a couple of fat sinecurists, as in the noted • case of the Pocklington School in Yorkshire.' The same observation is applicable, in different degrees, to all the grammar schools which are founded in parts of the country where a demand for classical learning no longer exists; and where the masters, to comply with the letter of the foundation, offer (as they may very safely) to teach Greek, Latin, and sometimes Hebrew, for nothing, but charge soundly for reading, writing, and accounts, as to which alone there is any demand for their instruction ; receiving considerable salaries for giving little or nothing of what the funds were originally intended to purchase, and occupying premises which they devote to the accommodation of boarders. Many of those seminaries are excellent establishments of classical education; and the complete departure from the founders' intentions, is more than redeemed by hlages resulting from the change; but in many there is


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nothing remarkable beside the abuse-nothing to compensate any more than to sanction the deviation ;-while, in all of them, care should be taken to secure some useful gratuitous instruction for the classes which were the objects of the endowment, according to the spirit of the foundation ; and in none of them is it possible to maintain the present practice, upon the ground so injudiciously taken, of strict adherence to ihe letter of the foundation. Nothing, indeed, can be more preposterous than the line of argument adopted. The revenues are received for doing nothing (we put a very ordinary case); and if you conplain that this is the greatest possible deviation from the founder's intention, the answer is, that no children come to be taught Latin ; and consequently the change of circumstances renders that greatest possible deviation necessary.

But then, if you suggest that reading and cyphering might be taught with some part at least of the revenue, the reply immediately is— Not

for the world-because the founder only speaks of grammar, and there must be no departure from his declared will.'

The short question which arises in the case of the Tonbridge school is, How the surplus revenue shall be applied ? After paying every expense hitherto incurred by defraying the taxes and repairs of the school premises, and providing for the salaries of the masters, and for the exhibitions at the University, a revenue of more than four thousand a year, and an accumulation of twenty thousand pounds of arrears remains to be disposed of. Mr Prinsep looks to the will of the founder; and finding a grammar school to be the object of his bounty, he is for appropriating the augmented funds to support a large school, with fellowships and exhibitions on an extended scale at the Universities. But is there, let us calmly ask, any reason for this deference to the supposed will of the founder? He intended to establish a school upon a certain scale, and endowed it accordingly. When we speak of four thousand a year as the revenue unappropriated, we assume that above five hundred a year is left to the school in its present state, an income far more than sufficient to defray. now every expense that the founder intended to provide for. He meant to teach gratuitously all the children in Tonbridge and the neighbourhood; and, supposing the demand for grammar learning to be as great now as it was then, this revenue of five or six hundred a year would amply suffice to afford such instruction, and maintain the exhibitions annexed to the school. What the founder's intentions would have been, had he been. called upon to dispose of a revenue nine or ten times as great, no man can pretend to conjecture. The surplus is, in the strictest sense of the word, unappropriated ; and we have no

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