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a ruinous fluctuation of prices. In years when the crop is luxuriant, the impossibility of exportation, and the consequent depression of price, will involve the agriculturists in the same difficulties with which they are now struggling. And, on the other hand, when the crop is deficient, as it is sure to become after a period of great depression, prices will rise to the famine level, and the manufacturing and commercial classes will be driven to despair! The resolutions agreed to at some of the late agricultural meetings, disclaim any intention of seeking additional protection; and so far they deserve our commendation. But the Legislature must not stop here. It would be insanity to impose additional restrictions; but it is nothing less to maintain those already in existence. Until they are entirely abolished, it is worse than absurd to expect either the tranquillity or prosperity of the country. So long as the present wretched system is maintained, our ears will, at one time, be stunned with the complaints of the agriculturists, and, when these have subsided, they will be assailed with the louder and still more piercing cries of the manufacturing population-with the noise of radical rebellions, and fresh suspensions of the Habeas Corpus act! It was the exclusion of foreign corn that was the cause of the high price of 1817 and 1818; and it was this high price which was the real cause of those popular commotions which were made the pretext for the late encroachments on the Constitution. Of all rebellions,' says Lord Bacon, THOSE • OF THE BELLY ARE THE WORST.

The first remedy or pre6 vention is, to remove, by all means possible, that material cause

of sedition of which we speak, which is WANT AND POVERTY in the estate.'

The second point we have established, is the unreasonableness of the existing restrictions on the corn trade, on the principles of the agriculturists themselves, and on the supposition that fluctuation could be avoided. We have shown that, instead of enabling the country to bear the enormous load of taxes by which it is oppressed, the Corn Laws really constitute our heaviest burden ; that taxation does not aflect agriculture more than it affects any other department of industry, and that the manufacturers derive no benefit from, and are ready to relinquish, the restrictions and prohibitions intended to protect them from foreign competition.— In short, that if we mean to place agriculture in the same situation as the other departments of industry, we must, instead of framing new restrictions, abolish those already in existence.

Before bringing this article to a close, we must be permitted to express our approbation of the manner in which the Report

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of the Agricultural Committee is drawn up. It evinces a familiar acquaintance with many of the soundest, though not the most obvious, principles of economical science, and is, on the whole, liberal and enlightened. The principles laid down by the Committee all conspire to establish the injustice and impolicy of restricting the trade in corn. But instead of recommend ing, as they ought in consistency to have done, that the restrictions should be abolished, and the trade thrown open, the Committee suggest, that such a fired duty should be imposed on

the importation of foreign corn as might compensate the grower for the loss of that encouragement which he received

during the late war, from the obstacles thrown in the way of importation.' In making this supposition, Mr Huskisson, who framed the Report, has doubtless sacrificed his own better judgment to the prejudices of the majority of the Committee. It would be impossible to estimate what ought to be the amount of such a duty with any degree of precision. And if it were imposed, it would, by restricting importation, and elevating the home produce, occasion those fluctuations whose disastrous effects we have described. But supposing it were possible to get rid of these effects, why should such a boon be granted to the agriculturists at the expense of the rest of the community ? The commercial and manufacturing classes have been deprived of whatever advantages they enjoyed in consequence of the hostilities in which we were so long engaged; and why should not the agriculturists, who have shared equally with the others in all the blessings of peace, also bear their fair share of the revulsion it has occasioned? We should doubtless have considered the French Government as little better than insane, had they attempted, after the intercourse with the West Indies was renewed, to secure to the raisers of sugar from the beet root, a continuance of all the advantages they had enjoyed during the exclusion of colonial produce from the Continent ! But sugar is not one of the principal necessaries of life; and any measure for keeping up its price, however absurd it may appear, must be infinitely less prejudicial than a measure which goes to maintain the price of corn at a forced elevation. In justice, however, to the Committee, we must say that they do not themselves seem to have been much captivated with this suggestion. And it has evidently got a place less on account of its own presumed worth, than that it might serve to soften the indignation of the agriculturists against those parts of the Report which make so strongly in favour of the only sound principle on which the trade in corn can ever be conducted that of PERFECT FREEDOM!

ART. VII. Euvres Completes de Demosthene et L'Eschine, en

Grec et en Français. Traduction de L'Abbé AUGER, de l'Aca. demie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres de Paris. Nouvelle Edition, Revué et Corrigée par J. PLANCHE, Professeur de Rhetorique au Collége Royal de Bourbon. Tome dixieme.

Paris. Année 1821. EVERY great master of the Art of Speaking or Writing, is,

in some degree, a mannerist. By this, however, we would not be understood as implying a servile and continued imitation of some admired model, or a constant and affected recurrence to some favourite turn and peculiarity of expression. Our sense of the phrase extends to cases of a much higher order, and to persons of a far different degree of merit,--to those, in short, whose compositions are, generally, agreed to be the most faultless and perfect. Who, for instance, was ever more just in his conception of a subject, or more fortunate in the choice of his expressions, than Virgil ? Generally speaking, would any critick presume to say, that he is above or below the point,--too hot or too cold,—too vulgar or too refined, -too long or too short, -too passionate or too tame,-any thing, in one word, but what is right? If no such hypercritick has yet appeared, and almost every reader will be found to concur in the opinion, that he approaches, perhaps as nearly as possible, to the standard of true taste; it follows, pretty much of course, that it cannot, with any truth, be asserted, that there is any thing singular and peculiar, except that exquisite delicacy of judgment and feeling, which is the foremost of those transcendent qualities and excellences which excite such general admiration.

Yet is he, assuredly, however exempt from eccentricity or oddity, most perfectly like himself. He cannot be mistaken. No one, of ordinary proficiency in literature, and with the most moderate acquaintance with this Poet, can, possibly, read a dozen lines indifferently chosen, and doubt whose they are. He could not, in guessing, blunder upon Ovid, or Lucretius, or Claudian, or Lucan, or Silius, or Catullus or any one else. The bustling conflicts of the Bees, and the more durable battles of the Men, -the story of Dido's unhappy love, in all the minute tenderness of its detail, and the short, but sweet, allusion to Orpheus and Euridice,-the visit to the shades in the Georgicks, and the like in the Eneid, are all portraits of the same master.-> They are Virgil all over.

Now, this manner, constituting, as it were, the identity of each author, is what the Translator ought to catch; and is, never

theless, the very thing, which is apt to evaporate in translation. For which reason, expedients are frequently resorted to, which may, at least, bring the original to our recollection, no matter whether with the most favourable impressions or not. Every reader, we doubt not, has felt, in some degree, a wearisome effect from the studied brevity and affected sententiousness of Tacitus; and that some deduction must, on this account, be made from his general merit, which consists in vigour, justness of reflexion, and philosophical remark. Davanzati, however, as if determined to make the most of this failing, and to be upon a level with the Roman historian in his principal, or only defect, professes his plan to be to make his Italian translation consist of fewer words than the original Latin; a plan (however the execution may be in other respects) as preposterous as any of those conceits, which constrained the author to disburthen himiself of his whole stock of prose or verse, on any particular subject, within the compass, and in the figure of a birda heart-an altar, or whatever else the pruriency of a vicious fancy might prescribe. Soine such taste, at least, if not design, produced the aping of Milton by Philips, and of Shakespeare by Rowe; and of a kindred spirit and principle was the imitation of those mock-Catos amongst the Romans, whose whole resemblance to the philosophical patriot consisted, we are told, in the affectation of bare feet and sour faces. Demosthenes, to take another example, loads Æschines with sundryodious epithets, and calls him many sorry names; and, moreover, takes the most absolute and unrestrained liberty with all the personages, male and female, of the antient Pantheon. Yet, should we suppose, that no great approximation was made towards his general munner, because these parts were rendered to the life, and the Attic blasphemy and reviling were equalled, or even surpassed, by flowers of oratory, which might be culled in the purlieus of Billingsgate or St Giles.

To transfer, by translation, the true character of an author from one language to another, with spirit and fidelity, requires, in composition, a quality equivalent to what expression is in painting. That artist, who, by a diligent and attentive examination of the human subject, exhibits in his picture,--not a minute and exact delineation of this or that detached limb or feature, but a general representation-the true effect, and full description of the whole person, may be said, to translate Nature. Such a proficient, for such a purpose, would not be satisfied with snatching a glimpse or resemblance of his subject at one particular moment, and still less with mimicking some glaring and obvious peculiarity, but must endeavour to seize the result of various attitudes, and gestures, and looks, assumed at different times and occasions, and embody them into one uniform, but general design. Every body knows it to be quite possible, for the merest dauber, to spread upon his canvass the exact superficies of human flesh, with the different varieties and undulations of surface; to exhibit the red and the white, not only with a faithful attention to their exact amount, but to their actual disposition and admixture; nay, that in his Jaborious process he may have caused the very hairs of the • head to be numbered,' and yet produce, after all, in no genuine sense of the word, or with reference to the higher efforts of the art,-a likeness, but an insipid and spiritless caricature. So does it usually fare with translators,- if they chance to rise to the merit of producing a likeness at all. And, indeed, without calculating upon the difficulties thrown in the way by a change of manners, of customs, of laws, and religion, to which we formerly adverted, (Vol. 22, Art. 8.); when we come to consider the numerous, and, in some respects, inconsistent qualities which are requisite for the execution of such a work,--an observance approaching to tameness and servility of the original meaninga power, spirit and comprehensiveness, which are the characteristics of true genius, to transmit the entire sense, perfect and unimpaired, in the tone ana feeling of the author-and judgment and discretion to distinguish, when, for the sake of modern idiom, to abandon, and when to retain,--why need we wonder at failure? And what renders the case more desperate and incurable (if, indeed, we did not think, as we do, that the requisite abilities would be misemployed in such an undertaking) is, that if talents could be increased to any extent upon demand, it does not, of necessity, follow, that success in translation would be increased in the same proportion. If it might not seem whimsical to object to an excess of such a rarity, we should say, that it would be as likely to produce a work of a new and independent character, as to reproduce that likeness,-that identity, -that image of the original, which it is the limited duty of a translator supply. Those of our readers who recall to their recollection some of the efforts of Dryden and Pope, will not be at a loss for the application of these remarks. The Paraphrase (for instance, as it is termed by the former) of the 19th Ode of the third Book of Horace, contains, in the description of the mastery which Time gives over Fortune, some gorous, spirited, and masculine lines, as are to be found in our own, or probably any other language,-but no more resembling, in style and manner, that ode of Horace, (or any other), than the ballad of Chevy Chace. The translation, in

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