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ger. After his death, she refused a proposition to escape, because the attempt could only be made by leaving her children behind. Our author was acquainted with the particulars of this plan; and says it had been well digested by trust-worthy persons, and appeared sure of success. He saw, likewise, the Queen's letters upon the subject. When brought to the scaffold, her appearance was wofully changed by the sorrows and hardships through which she had passed; her features were altered; her hair was blanched; and she had almost lost the use of one eye. The last words of Louis, when the noise of the drums interrupted his address, are well known. · Français ! Je meurs in• nocent ; je pardonne à mes ennemis, et je souhaite que ma mort • soit uile au peuple! - La France.' Those of the Queen were equally remarkable and appropriate. Seigneur ! eclairez
et touchez mes bourreaux ; Adieu, mes enfans! je vais rejoindre · votre père.' We may add that, from a conversation which this ill-fated Princess had with our author, upon a letter full of warm expressions just received from her nephew the Emperor Francis, it is clear she never placed the least reliance upon his exertions in her behalf. · Mon nevie' (she said) ne pouvoit * pas m'ecrire autrement ; mais cela ne veut rien dire.' - He could not help saying as much ; but it all means nothing.'
The anecdotes of Madame Goupil and Madame Caponet are only curious as showing the innumerable frauds which are practised in a court, by the creatures both of princes and ministers; and how easily, without any participation in the spoil, or even any knowledge of such proceedings on the part of the principals, the grossest corruption may be carried on by subaltern agents in a government, the transactions of which are veiled from publick view. But the piece which closes this volume deserves more attention; it is a sketch of Baron de Thugut, so long prime minister of Austria, and who held that high office during the greater part of the late war. Our author justly observes, that there was much in his character and habits equally interesting to the philosopher and the politician. Possessed of supreme power for so many years, and undergoing all its labours as well as anxiety, he seemed wholly indifferent to every one of the gratifications for which other men desire it.
• Il ne voyoit dans l'cclat de la representation, dans un accroissement de fortune, que des soins fatigans et de brillans embarras. Sans entours, sans protégés, il écartoit de lui le faste, ne connoissoit pas le luxe; il ne donnoit jamais de ces audiences publiques, ou souvent l'orgueil jouit des empressemens d'une multitude d'hommes toujours prêts à se courber devant le credit. Suivi d'un scul laquais, le premier ministre de la Monarchie Autrichienne, se rendoit matin et VOL. XXXVI. NO. 72.
soir dans le carrosse le plus simple, de la modeste maison qu'il habitoit dans un faubourg de Vienne, à la Chancellerie d'état, comme un connuis se rend à son bureau. Maître de cet hotel ou habitoient ses predecesseurs, il en dedaignoit les appartemens somptueux, pour se refugier dans un petit cabinet de travail ; là il étoit tout entier aux affaires, ouvroit de sa main les dépêches les plus importantes, récevoit les ministres étrangers qui lui avoient demandé audience, enfermoit ensuite ses papiers sous clè, et retournoit chez lui diner avec une ou deux personnes insignifiantes, qu'il faisoit discourir, sans jamais laisser échapper le moindre mot qui pût devoiler ses projets ou ses opinions.'
Mr Crawfurd knew this singular man personally, and had an opportunity of conversing intimately with him after his retirement, and when he had no interest in deceiving; he also knew a great number of persons who had long been upon the most familiar terms with him. It requires this authority to make us believe in the existence of such a minister,-most rare indeed any where, but in a German court hardly conceivable. He adds, that his person was unknown to the greater part of the people at Vienna, where he lived and ruled.
Il avoit, en général, de la politesse dans ses manières et ses discours, mais il ignoroit ou dedaignoit l'art de se concilier l'affection. Sans gout, sans passion, sans famille, * insensible aux jouissances de la vanité, il avoit pour la fortune cette insouciance qu'on peut remarquer dans plusieurs savans absorbés par l'étude, et qui nait de l'aversion de tout soin domestique. Loin de rechercher les honneurs, il paroissoit plutôt vouloir les eriter. Son détachement de tout intérêt, et de tout desir d'élevation, ajoutoit puissamment à son esprit d'independance. D'autant plus inébranlable dans sa place, qu'on saroit qu'il la quitteroit sans régret, il s'y maintenoit par le seul ascendant de son genie, malgré l'opposition de toute la noblesse qui, blessée de voir un homme qui n'toit point de sa classe, occuper la premiere place de la Monarchie, se declara overtement contre lui. Avec ces diverses qualités, il faut faire contraster une certaine lenteur ou negligence qui, s'emparant de lui quelquefois, lui faisoit perdre des moments precieux ; des accès d'humeur l'empèchoient de chercher des rapprochemens, soit avec les personnes, soit avec les puissances; rapprochemens que la bonne politique exigit cependant.
What the combined etřorts of the Austrian gran iees could not effect, the intrigues of Russia and Eagland succeedled in secomplishing, under the guidance of that trus wretched parts, the French Emigrants who made it a rule is distrust and to blacken every statesman whose good sense and knowledge of
Except a sister who was a nun at Liats, and whja ke 2"owel a Skall pension of thirty pounds a year, and a brucher, wäre and dicà a ciers in his otice.
affairs led him to adopt a moderate, rational, and practicable line of policy. Thugut was removed; but not till after the same English and Russian influence had dictated to the Cabin net of Vienna, and the truly able general then in its confidence, those changes in the Swiss campaign which proved fatal to the Allies, and afterwards to the Austrian monarchy. A remark afterwards made by Thugut to our author, upon the events of those times, merits the attention of those who still affect to admire Mr Pitt's foreign policy. “The greater part,” he said, • of the schemes which had been pressed upon him, founded
upon the reports of faithless agents, or upon fanciful assump• tion, were more fit to make a supplement to the adventures of • Don Quixote, than to become the subject of a serious discus
sion.' At a later period, we have heard of a similar observation being drawn forth by that project, which, whether we regard its conception or its results, may be allowed to have cast all Mr Pitt's failures into the shade-we mean the celebrated Walcheren expedition. When the intention of our sage rulers to operate a diversion in that island, for the advantage of the Austrian arms, and to pour into its pestilential marshes our whole disposable force, was imparted to our allies, the imperial minister is said to have asked, with an archness that overcame the Germanic phlegm, in what part of the world this same Walcheren was situated.
Let it not be said that we have bestowed too much attention upon this volume, in proportion to its bulk, or to the modest pretensions of its contents. The facts related by Mr Crawfurd, from his personal observation, are among the few safe materials that will remain for illustrating the history of these eventful times; and the future annalist will gladly have recourse to the testimony of one who, though unquestionably he may have been biassed by partiality, yet noted what he saw and heard, in circumstances which preclude all suspicion of a wish to deceive.
ART. III. 1. The Third Report of the Committee of the Society for the Improvement of Prison Discipline, and for the Reforma
tion of Juvenile Offenders. London, 1821. 2. Remarks upon Prison Discipline, &c. &c. in a Letter addressed
to the Lord Licutenant and Magistrates of the County of Essex. By C. C. WESTERN, Esq. M. P. London, 1821. THERE never was a Society calculated, upon the whole, to do
more good than the Society for the Improvement of Prison Discipline; and, hitherto, it has been conducted with equal energv and prudence. If now, or hereafter, therefore, we make any criticisms on their proceedings, these must not be ascribed to any deficiency of good will or respect. We may differ from the Society in the means-our ends, we are proud to say, are the same.
In the improvement of prisons, they consider the small number of recommitments as the great test of amelioration. Upon this subject we have ventured to differ from them in a late Number; and we see no reason to alter our opinion. It is a mistake, and a very serious and fundamental mistake, to suppose that the principal object in jails is the reformation of the offender. The principal object undoubtedly is, to prevent the repetition of the cilence by the punishment of the offender; and, therefore, it is quite possible to conceive that the offender himself may be so hindly, gently, and agreeably led to reformation, by the efforts of good and amiable persons, that the effect of the punishment may be destroyed, at the same time that the punished may be improvedl. prison may lose its terror and discredit, though the prisoner may return from it a better scholar, a better artificer, and a better man. The real and only test in short of a good prison system, is the diminution of oitences by the terror of the punishment. If it can be shown, that, in proportion as attention and expense have been employed upon the improvement of prisons, the number of commitments has been diminished, this indeed would be a convincing proof that such care and attention were well emplored. But the very reverse is the case; the number of commitments within these last ten years having nearly doubled all over England.
The following are stated to be the committals in Norfolk county seal. From 1796 to 1815, the number averaged about 80.
1:2 I816 it wa
was 13+ 1817
923-Report, p. 57. In Stailordshire, the commitments have gradually increased from 195 in 1815, to 419 in 1820-though the jail has been built since Howard's time at an expense of 50,0001.- Report, p. 67. In Wiltshire, in a prison which has cost the county 40,0001., the commitments have increased from 207 in 1817, to 504 in 1821. Within this period, to the eternal scandal and disgrace of our laws, 378 persons have been conmitted for Game offencesconstituting a sixth part of all the persons committed ;-so much for what our old friend, Mr Justice Best, would term the un
speakable advantages of country gentlemen residing upon their own property !
When the Committee was appointed in the county of Essex in the year 1818, to take into consideration the state of the gaol and houses of correction, they found that the number of prisoners annually committed had increased, within the ten preceding years, from 559 to 1993; and there is little doubt (adds Mr Western) of this proportion being a tolerable specimen of the whole kingdom. "We are far from attributing this increase solely to the imperfection of prison discipline. Increase of population, new statutes, the extension of the breed of pheasants, landed and mercantile distress, are very operative causes. But the increase of commitments is a stronger proof against the present state of prison discipline, than the decrease of recommitinents is in its favour. We may possibly have made some progress in the art of teaching him who has done wrong, to do so 110 more; but there is no proof that we have learnt the more important art, of deterring those from doing wrong who are doubting whether they shall do it or not, and who, of course, will be principally guided in their decision by the sufferings of those who have previously yielded to temptation.
There are some assertions in the Report of the Society, to which we can hardly give credit,—not that we have the slightest suspicion of any intentional misrepresentation, but that we believe there must be some unintentional error.
· The Ladies' Committees visiting Newgate and the Borough Compter, have continued to devote themselves to the improvement of the female prisoners, in a spirit worthy of their enlightened zeal and Christian charity. The beneficial effects of their exertions have been evinced by the progressive decrease in the number of female prisoners recommitted, which has diminished, since the visits of the Ladies to Newgate, no less than 40 per cent.
That is, that Mrs Fry and her friends have reclaimed forty women out of every hundred, who, but for them, would have reappeared in jails. Nobody admires and respects Mrs Fry more than we do; but this fact is scarcely credible; and, if accurate, ought, in justice to the reputation of the Society and its rcal interests, to have been thoroughly substantiated by names and documents. The Ladies certainly lay claim to no such extraordinary success in their own Report quoted in the Appendix ; but speak with becoming modesty and moderation of the result of their labours. The enemics of all these reforms accuse the reformers of enthusiasm and exaggeration. It is of the greatest possible consequence, therefore, that their statements should be correct, and their views practical; and that all strong assertions should be supported by strong documents. The Eng