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עַלְמָה it

. ) In deriving) ;

,בתולה

עַלְמָה and עֶלֶם have עַלְמָה

yet to

.35 .of ch . XX נער קטן the

(ii.) aby signifies eternity (past or future), which is like a sealed book (Rev. v. 1). (iii In

we must take into account its masculine correlative oby; and this may be done by a physiological application of the root-meaning seal. The words would thus carry with them primarily the negation of development, and would be applicable from the time of infancy to the age of the in and

, as their upper limits. For this application of the meaning seal, we may compare, Dinn (Lev. xv. 3); and Cant. iv. 12, where the beloved is described as binh gya, fons obsignata, de puella casta et intemerata' (Gesen. Thesaur. 587 6). (iv.) The usages of oby and

be considered. The former occurs in 1 Sam. xvii. 56: 'Enquire thou whose son the stripling is.' And in 1 Sam. xx. 22, where it is applied to

. . The word naby is allowed, if not to mean etymologically tapOévos, at least to be used of top évol, in all cases except two, viz. Cant. vi. 8 and Prov. xxx. 18—20. But in the former passage hierby is contrasted with queens and concubines, and would thus seem to designate such as are in fact tap évol. The latter passage, which is much disputed, runs as follows: “There be three things which are too wonderful for me; yea, four which I know not: The way of an eagle in the air; the way of a serpent upon a rock; the way of a ship, in the midst of the sea; and the way of a man with

(). woman; she eateth, and wipeth her mouth, and saith, I have done no wickedness. Like phraseology is used in Sap. Sol. v. 10, 11, for the purpose of illustration, but the mention of the serpent is omitted, as though unsuited for the application which is made of the passage: nor again are the things in question there described as wonderful and mysterious. But, to return to the passage, the marvel is said to consist in the invisibility of the eagle's track, &c. Why then should the eagle be chosen, rather than any other bird? The question is answered by Rosenmüller, who in his answer confounds the want of any mark upon the air with the invisibility of the bird itself. But a

; .

Such is the way of an adulterous .(דרך גבר בעלמה) a maid

בלב הים ship cannot be said to leave no track

;
and that especially

All trace no doubt soon vanishes, but less soon in salt-water than in fresh; and thus yn 352' instead of being emphatic is made meaningless, not to say inaccurate. Nor, supposing these preliminary difficulties surmounted, is it easy to apply them to the final clause, via viri in virgine. The result would be at least disappointing, if the great marvel to which all converges were that the neby .quid vitii sibi hæreat ita dissimulat, ut ab aliis id frustra pervestigatur.' But it is altogether unnatural that the invisibility of a bird's track in the air should be described as an impenetrable mystery; and so with the serpent, and the ship.

The word 777 does not mean ixm or vestigium, but modus agendi. The flight of the eagle challenges especial admiration (Job ix. 26); the ship’ at sea, and the strange convolutions of the footless serpent are likewise chosen as fit types of the marvellous. One and all lead up to that crowning mystery, the infatuation of youthful love, which has arrested the attention of parcemiasts, poets and philosophers in all time. After the mention of the 'four things' comes, in ver. 20, an allusion, suggested by the contrast, to the infatuation of an adulterous woman, who 'saith (sc. in her heart), I have done no wickedness.'

To recapitulate—we have concluded that noby (from the root obsignavit) implies a negation of development, and is applicable up to the age at which the term obina or matura becomes applicable. The former word is not used in the Bible of any but map évoi, while the latter may imply, but does not expressly predicate, tapdevia. We proceed to notice

i) ; ii.) . III. These last forms, after the analogy of biglys, busipi, denote (a) the age or time of life of the aby or the naby and the obinz; and (b) the conditions and natural concomitants of those ages. In Jud. xi. 37, the daughter of Jephthah is spared for awhile to bewail the devoted capacities of her early womanhood: by 133x bina, deplorabo ætatem meam virgineam' (Gesen. Thesaur.

.בתולים (.ii) ; עלומים (1)

1 D' seems here to mean strictly sea, though does not necessarily in all contexts. For the whole phrase, cp.

Prov. xxiii. 34.

2 French and Skinner understand nautilus, by ‘ship,' in Ps. civ. 26..

בתולים while the

בתולים

.the reproach of thy widowhood • חרפת אלמנותיך

205, ). In Ezek. xxiii. 3, yomobing, standing in parallelism with

), . denotes the condition of the bby in Job XX. 11, where it stands for the freshness as of extreme youth, in contrast with decay and death;

are the natural concomitants of the age of the obina, and their absence therefore implies some defect. Hence

means primarily signa pubertatis, and then by implication signa virginitatis (Deut. xxii. 14). We may compare further Is. liv. 4, where, in a description of the barren that did not bear, goouby, nya, 'the shame of thy youth,' stands in parallelism with

, It has been noticed above that there is one Biblical meaning of oby undisputed, viz. occultavit, abscondit. Gesenius adds, that “in reliquis linguis cognatis hæc radix non reperitur' (Thesaur. 1035, a). It is noteworthy that the Arabic ple, to which Gesenius refers zeby, nearly coincides with a meaning of y7, to know, while the Hebrew root oby has a directly opposite meaning. In Job xx. 11 is said by some to mean radically strength; and hence it may be seen how easily that meaning might have come to be thought inherent though not really so. Thus, supposing oby to have meant originally obsignavit, the meanings youth, youthfulness and strength might have been successively derived, and the last may then have been taken as primary in the cognate dialects. But inferences from those dialects are precarious unless corroborated by internal evidence from the more ancient Hebrew.

עלומים

INDEX OF TEXTS AND PASSAGES.

Ruth.

xxxiii. 19....
xxxiv. 33.

Page
195
332

ii. 14

Page
235

iii. 5,
iv. 25
ix. 20
X. 23
xi. I.

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Genesis.

Page
ii.
4

xxiii
IO2
219
317

67

XXV
xiv. 17-20..

25
xv. 5.

.219, 298
xv. 7, 8

288, 292
xv. 9-18... 292, 297, 299
xviii. 10

195, 325
xxi. 12

195, 219
xxii. 1-14

294
xxii. 16, 17.

298
xxiv. 16

343
XXV. 21

XXV
XXV. 23

195
xxxi. 36

317
XXXV. 19.

55
xxxvii. 10

55
325

335
xlviii. 7

55
xlix. 6.

146

52
xlix. 10 .....

XXV, 51, 72

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2 Samuel.
vii. 12-16

144, 164

23
xiii. 2, 18

343
20

vii. 29

xxiv. 8

xxiii. 1-7

i Kings.

xlv. 27
xlvii. 31

vi. 13

i. 47

335

xlix. 9

Deuteronomy.
vi. 5

260

xxxi
vi. 16

.... XXX

XXX
157
287
347

343
xxxi, xxxii

337
xxxii. 18.

96

viii. 3
xviii. 15-19
xxi. 17..
xxii. 14
xxiii. 17
XXV. 4
xxv. 13, 14.

2 Kings.
i. 7
XV. 37
xvi......
xxii. 13

28
28
181

xxiii
.. 262, 312

xxxii. 35
xxxii. 40
xxxii. 43

317

164, 327

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Joshua.

51
337
172
172
144
51

xvii. 1, 2...
xvii. 11-14
xxviii.

4

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xxi. 24

2 Chronicles.

Judges.

xi. 2

xi. 37

343
347

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Ixix. 4, 9...
lxix. 19

..... 241

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vi. 10

iv. 4.

4-12

V. IO

316

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317

24
228

1xxx. 14

X. 7

316

xii. 3

337

xiv. 1-7*

314

xvi......

ix. 2-7

xvi. 3
xvi. 8-11 ......
xviii. 49
xix. 4

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232
Ixix. 21......114, 116, 241
lxix. 22—24...... 236, 239
lxix. 26

229
Ixix. 27, 28

. 237, 243
lxxi. 16

185
Ixxiii. 2

273
Ixxviii. 67-69 170

xxii
lxxxix. 3–35

144
xci. 5, 6

331
xci. Il, 12

XXX
xcv, 7, 8.

135
xcvi. 6-8

329
xcvii. 7

164

III
cii. 26-28

164
civ.
4

164
civ, 26..

346
cix. .226, 245, 258
cix. 20
:250, 259, 269

18
CX. I

16, 164
cx. 3

17
cxvi. 10

33+
cxvi. U 1

324
cxvii i..
cxxvii. 3
cxxxii. 10--14 143
cxxxvii. 8, 9

268
cxxxiv. 14

263
316
324

Isaiah.
iv, 2

70

92
vii.

....32, 46, 47
vii. 6

XXV
vii. 13-16

30, 33, 41
vii. 17-25

31, 34, 35
viii. 1-4

31
viii. 8
viii. 14-19

......42, 44
ix. I

-36, 48, 56

-36, 41, 48
ix. 13

29
X. 15

.48, 103
X. 20

29
X. 21...

-37, 45
xi. 1

..68, 71, 75
xi. 10..

122, 327

67

46
xxi. 10

91

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92
xxii...

110, 114
xxii. I

115
xxii. 7, 8.

115, 248
xxii. 15

242
xxii. 18

115
xxii. 31.

. 237, 242
xxviii.

262
xxxi. 5

115
xxxiv, 10....... 273
xxxiv. 20 107, 322
XXXV. -8
XXXV. 19

241
xxxvi. 1-4.

316
xxxvii. 25

273
xxxvii. 37, 38. 236
xl...

178
xl. 6-8 176, 181, 185

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.243, 261

[blocks in formation]

...

[blocks in formation]

227
XXV. 7, 8..

329
xxvi. 2...

XXVI
xxvi. 14

326
xxviii, 16

42
xxix.

.... 240
xxxviii. 9–22 ... 31, 140
xl. 10

, 250, 258
xlvi. 1-7

210
xlvii. 1, 9..

.269, 344
li. 17, 18

85
lii. 2-12

82
lii. 13-15 ... 7++, 88, 102
liii.

xxii. 13

...............255, 257
xlv.

9, 10

xli. 9...

..................

- 75+, 88

Prayer-Book Version.

+ New Translation,

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