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theirs alone; and to the hope of national restoration they added the loftier aspiration that all the ends of the world might turn to JEHOVAH, and all the kindreds of the nations bow before Him. Thus was the fall of them the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles.

3. The word karávu&us? (Rom. xi. 8) is used to describe the effect of a stupefying draught; the same word being used by the LXX. in connection with othw. In the original of the passage cited, the corresponding word is that for ‘a deep sleep;' but, at the same time, there is an explicit contrast of the condition described with that of the drunkard. “Stay yourselves, and wonder : cry ye out, and cry: they are drunken, but not with wine; they stagger, but not with strong drink. For the Lord hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep' (Is. xxix. 9, 10). In Ps. lx. 3, katávv&is is again used with motícw. “Thou hast made us to drink the wine of astonishment.' By St Paul, this vehua katavusews is represented as taking away sight and hearing (ver. 8), and as, in fact, working out the curse of Ps. lxix. 23, 'Let their eyes be darkened, that they may not see, and bow down their back alway. It would seem then, so far as may be argued from St Paul's citation, that the darkening of eyes, &c. spoken of in Ps. Ixix. was such as would result from a stupefying potion; and this seems to corroborate the opinion that a stupefying draught is described in the verse : 'They gave me also gall for my meat (?); and in my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink.' i.e. they drugged my food, contriving that my table might become a snare to take myself withal, &c. The objection to this explanation, which arises from the use of the plural (their table) rather than the singular, has been already adverted to. In its favour is its avoidance of an abrupt transition in the tone of the Psalmist, and the lack of any particle to mark such transition. It may be well to reiterate, in conclusion, that the application of these curses is to be discussed independently of the second series, in ver. 27, 28; and that if the former proceed from the Psalmist, this of itself is no argument for assigning to him the latter also. The question of the application of the latter is mainly grammatical, and not dependent upon any hypothesis with regard to the subject of the Psalm. A certain phrase introduces these imprecations. The phrase is used once more, and once only, viz. in Ps. ii. 7. If this phrase is to be applied analogously in the two cases, then the imprecations of Ps. lxix, 27, 28 must be attributed to the Psalmist's enemies, and the Psalmist himself be taken as one against whom they are imprecated,

i karávučcs h. 1. notat tábos ex frequentissima punctione in stuporem desinens' (Bengel). See Wratislaw, Notes and Diss. But may it not denote a

throbbing and confusion of the brain, indicative of intoxication; or the internal pricking sensation which accompanies some forms of numbness ?

VII. Further Citations from Psalm LXIX.

"When it is said (Joh. xv. 25), that the enemies of Jesus hated Him without a cause, and this is looked upon as a fulfilment of Scripture, the reference,' writes Mr Perowne, is probably to ver. 4, though it may be also to xxxv. 19. To Him, and the reproach which he endured for the sake of God, St Paul refers the words of this Psalm (ver. 9), when he writes: For even Christ pleased not Himself; but, as it is written, The reproaches of them that reproached Thee fell on me' (Rom. xv. 3). The Cleansing of the Temple brings to the disciples' remembrance those other words of ver. 9: 'The zeal of Thine house hath eaten me up' (Joh. ii. 17). The zeal of &c.' in the Psalm, may have a similar meaning to, 'vengeance of &c.' above cited from Jer. 1., li.; or it may mean more generally "zeal for the honour of... ;' zeal for God's service and worship. Perhaps the former meaning of indignation,' is the more appropriate; but, in any case, the profanation of the Temple by heathen violence which the Psalmist deplored, presents an analogy to its later profanation, which stirred the righteous 'zeal' of JESUS. "In ver. 12,' continues Mr Perowne, we have a foreshadowing of the mockery of our Lord by the soldiers in the prætorium (Matt. xxvii. 27—30); in ver. 21, the giving of the vinegar and the gall found their counterpart in the scenes of the Crucifixion' (Matt. xxvii. 34). In Joh. xix. 28, there is an allusion, probably, to ver. 21 of this Psalm, and to xxii. 15. The imprecation in ver. 25 is said, in Acts i. 20, to have been fulfilled in the case of Judas Iscariot, though, as the words of the Psalm are plural, the citation is evidently made with some freedom.' Some MSS. however read their (for his habitation' in Acts i. 20, and with reference to this Dr Henry Owen writes in his Modes of Quotation - There is in this quotation, it must be acknowledged, some difficulty. And this difficulty I know not how otherwise to solve, than by observing that Judas is not here specified as the only traitor, though the chief and most infamous; but as the guide of them that took Jesus. And as the prophecy was now singularly fulfilled in Judas, the head; so, with reference to its plural construction, it was a plain presage, that the rest, the body of the Jews, would surely meet with the like fate—which fate they wofully experienced not long after.'

NOTES ON CHAPTER XI.

A. The rendering of Ps. ii. 7: 'I will declare for (i.e. so as to be) a decree,' is well supported. With this use of po 58, compare 133 78, for certain ;' Ojn x'to no purpose.'] "But whether this, or the usual rendering be right, it may be argued, that, as in Ps. ii., po 58 777008, I will declare &c.' is followed by the actual words of the speaker's declaration ; so in Ps. Ixix., 1750975672830 'they declare & c.,' might be expected to be followed by the actual words of the Psalmist's enemies, who are there represented as the speakers. It is more usual to render X, concerning. Gesenius and Fuerst bring one example (Ps. xxii. 31) to prove a like meaning for , , ' 2785 perhaps means, “He shall be accounted for, or as, LORD [to

יספר But it may be suggested in passing , that .ספר following ,ל

1 See pp. 114-119.

that generation].' Thus, the verse may be freely rendered : 'A seed shall serve Him; the generation to come shall own Him for their LORD.'

B. It might appear that the received interpretation of this clause is more natural : this makes ver. 22—25, curses uttered by the Psalmist against his enemies. “Let their table &c. For, or because, they have persecuted those whom Thou hast smitten.' Ps. xxxv. 7 might be quoted to support this :

-For...without cause have they digged a pit for my soul. Perhaps the next verse in Ps. xxxv. should be attributed to the Psalmist's enemies, as Mr Mason suggests, thus :-saying, Let destruction come upon him at unawares...' * But my soul Wall,' continues the Psalmist, shall exult &c.' The change to the singular, upon him,' favours this transference. The analogy of Ps. xxxv. thus explained, would favour the attributing of Ps. lxix. 22—26 to the Psalmist, and ver. 27, 28 to his enemies. But though the first imprecations in the two Psalms are not unlike ['Let their way be dark and slippery,' xxxv. 6; lxix. 23), there are some special arguments (supra) for supposing the persecutors to be the speakers in Ps. Ixix. 22—26.

c. Let them be wiped out of the book of the living, or of life]. • The figure is borrowed,' as Mr Perowne notes, from the civil lists or register in which the names of the citizens were enrolled. To be blotted out of this denotes exclusion from all the blessings and privileges of the theocracy, and therefore from all hope of salvation, as is evident from the next clause...the righteous being the true Israelites as in Hab. ii. 4.' This text has been much discussed with reference to predestination. (See Poole in loc.) But as regards the form of representation, the names of the persons spoken of would seem to be actually written in the book of life. They are not thought of as heathens, but as Israelites. Thus the argument of $ 3, p. 237, is confirmed.

CHAPTER XII.

The Imprecations of Psalm CIX.

BEFORE referring to the original of this Psalm, it may be well to note some of the most striking features of the familiar English versions, from which the subjoined translation differs only in details, and those comparatively unimportant for our present purpose.

The Psalmist's enemies have overwhelmed him with false accusations (ver. 2), and rewarded him evil for good; but in his unmerited sufferings, he gives himself wholly and unreservedly to prayer? Deliver me, for I am helpless and poor; and my heart is wounded within me.

I go hence like the shadow that departeth ; and am driven away as the grasshopper ... Though they curse, yet bless THOU; and let them be confounded that rise up against me, but let Thy servant rejoice' (ver. 21—28). The Psalmist is 'helpless and poor,' and an object of derision to his enemies; who are described in ver. 20, as 'those that speak evil against my soul.' If, then, they are expressly styled his cursers, and his resource is prayer to JEHOVAH for deliverance; it would seem a priori natural to assign the curses specified, not to the Psalmist as speaker, but to his enemies. This distribution of its parts seems to give to the Psalm a more complete structural consistency than do the usual renderings, which assume a sudden change of tone at ver. 6, and a return, at ver. 21, after a series

inson 1989 might be rendered idiomatically: ‘but I (am all] prayer.'

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