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Lincoln's Inn, 119–Joins the Tories, 120—Pitt brings him into Parliament, 121

-He enters the House as Member for Newport, 123–His first speech, 124–

Defends the Habeas Corpus Suspension Act-His support of Pitt, 125—Their

political system, 130—Made Foreign Under-Secretary of State, 132—Starts the

Anti-Jacobin, 134-quoted, 135, 140—His speech in favour of war, 142-Advo-

cates the abolition of slavery–His ambition, 144—Resigns office—His dislike of,

and attacks against Addington, 147—Quoted, 153, 160—Pitt's death—Bell

quoted, 163—The Grenville-Fox Ministry, 165— Canning becomes Leader of

Opposition-Quoted, 166-Conduct in Opposition, 169—The Portland (or

Perceval) Ministry, 174–Sydney Smith quoted-Canning made Foreign Secre-

tary, 177—The bombardment of Copenhagen, 179—The Peninsula campaign,

182—Difficulties of the Ministry, 183—Canning aspires to the Premiership, 186

-He resigns office, 187—His duel with Castlereagh-Fall of the Portland

Ministry-Perceval succeeds Portland, 188—Assassination of Perceval, 194–

The Liverpool Ministry-Canning refuses to join it, 195—Returned for Liverpool

-Goes to Lisbon as Ambassador, 197—His conduct concerning the R. C. Laws,

and the charge against the Princess of Wales, 199–His return from Lisbon-

Made President of the Board of Control, 203—Quoted, 204–His sanction of

arbitrary laws, 205—Quoted, 206-Agitation in the country, 207–Canning's

vacillation, 211-Death of George the 3rd–Difficulties concerning the Queen

Consort, 212—Canning sides with the Queen, 215–He resigns, 216–Quoted,

217Accepts Governor-Generalship of India—Goes to Liverpool, 219—Death

of the Marquis of Londonderry (Lord Castlereagh)—Canning his probable suc-

cessor, 220~Quoted, 221–Offered the Leadership, 225-Accepts it, 226–Quoted,

227–His position as Leader of the Commons and Foreign Secretary, 229–His

Foreign policy, 231, 239—The Crown opposes him, 237—Quoted, 240—Death of

Lord Liverpool, 246—Canning succeeds him, 249–His illness, 254–His death,

256—Personal details, 258–Miss Martineau quoted, 265—Sir A. Alison quoted,

267– The Times quoted, 268.

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Resigns, 303— Resumes the office of Home Secretary under the Duke of Wel-

lington, 304—Repeal of Test and Corporation Acts, 306—Catholic Claims, 308—

The Ministerial Quarrel, 309–His conduct concerning the Catholic Questions,

319—The Catholic Relief Bill, 322—Peel's speech, 323–The Bill passed—Inter.

view with the King-Peel resigns, 328—Withdraws his resignation, 330—His

share in the Catholic measure—Quoted, 333—Death of George the 4th- Accession

of William the 4th-Dissolution of Parliament, 334–Peel succeeds his father, 340

- Parliament dissolved, 341-Earl Grey's Administration, 350—The Reform Bill,

351—Peel's speech, 354—Political agitation, 356—Parliament dissolved, 361–

Character of the new Parliament, 362—Bill passed in the Commons, 363—The

Revised Reform Bill in the Lords, 365—Rejected-Peel opposes it—Quoted,

368 – The Bill passed, 376—The new Whig Parliament, 379_Peel supports the

Bill for the suppression of disturbances in Ireland—Quoted, 380—Supports the

Emancipation Act-His growing popularity, 381–Earl Grey resigns, 385–

Lord Melbourne's Ministry, 386—The King dismisses him and recalls the Duke

of Wellington-Peel forms a new Administration, 388—The Peel Ministry, 389—

His manifesto, 390—The advance of his opinion, 391–Parliament dissolved,

392—The new Parliament, 393—Peel's measures, 395—Quoted, 396—Resigns-

His rise in public esteem, 399-Lord Melbourne succeeds him—Position of the

Whig Ministry, 400—The Municipal Corporation Act, 405—Peel supports it, 406

-The Irish Tithe Bill, 407—Continued rise of Peel's popularity, 410—Death of

William the 4th and Accession of Queen Victoria, 411–Banquet to Sir R. Peel,

412~Quoted, 413—The Canadian difficulty, 415—The Jamaica difficulty, 418

-Peel quoted, 419, 421—Resignation of the Ministry -Peel undertakes to form

the new Government, 422—Difficulty concern ing the Royal Household, 423–

Return of Lord Melbourne, 426-Bad condition of the country, 428—State of

the Ministry, 429—The Corn Laws, 431-Peel proposes a vote of want of confi-

dence—The Debate, 434—Dissolution of Parliament, 436—Peel quoted, 438–

Lord Melbourne resigns, 440—The Peel Ministry, 444–The Corn Laws, 447–-

Quoted, 449— The Bill passed-Peel's financial policy, 450—Free Trade, 457—

Collapse of the Irish agitation, 458—Mr. Gladstone, 464-Peel quoted, 466—

The Free Trade question, 467—Mr. Disraeli, 468—The Irish Potato Famine,

473-Peel resigns, 480—His recall, 482—Quoted, 484—The Corn Law Bill passed

- Personal attacks on Peel, 487–Quoted, 488—He resigns, 492–Quoted-

Popular sympathy with him, 493–His closing years 495 -- His death, 497.

ENGLISH PARTY-LEADERS.

WILLIAM PITT.

.

IV.

We have now arrived at the period which witnessed the dissipation of Pitt's dreams of a golden age of peace and prosperity. The French Revolution was destined to transform the sincere lover of peace, the statesman whose system was one of reform and retrenchment, into a War Minister, constantly devising new measures of taxation, and annually making large additions to the National Deht. In 1792, even after the beginning of a violent democratic movement in France, Pitt reduced the army

and promised a continual reduction of taxation during the next fifteen years. “Although,” he said, “We must not count with certainty on the continuance of our present prosperity during such an interval, yet unquestionably there never was a time in the history of this country when, from the situation of

1

and navy,

VOL. II.

2

RESULTS OF THE REVOLUTION.

Europe, ve might more reasonably expect fifteen years of peace than we may at the present moment." We know how completely events falsified this prediction. We know that Pitt himself helped very energetically to falsify it. But, at first, we are willing to admit, with great reluctance. He was a Minister of Peace, and his policy was peace. He had as strong a dislike of foreign entanglements as Walpole had. Into the war with France he was driven by the united impulse of the Court, the aristocracy, the clergy, and the people.

We of the present generation are able to sum up with calmness the good and evil of the French Revolution, and, striking an impartial balance, we see that the good largely prevails. We recognize now that, whatever it may have been politically, it was the development of a higher intellectual and ethical force than Europe had previously known. We owe to it the secure establishment of the cause of progress, the acknowledgment by all thoughtful statesmen that politics is a branch of moral science, the acknowledgment of the necessity of just dealing between classes if the social well-being is to be maintained, and the acknowledgment of the great truth that the principle of a common responsibility and a common duty applies to nations as well as to individuals. We owe to it the suppression of the lingering follies and inequalities of feudalism. We owe to it the infusion into international politics of a sense of the sublimity of justice, and of a higher conception of the moral obligations of government. We know that if Europe did not pass through the furnace without some scars from the flames, its thorough purification more than

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