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bonds, and a martyr for his truth. Some of his writings are now. loft, fome may be seen in Fox; and some are exhibited in his Life written by Dr. Glofter Ridley, 4to $ to which we must refer the reader, if he is desirous of fuller account of this excellent perfon's life, learning, and sufferings.

RIDLEY (Dr. GLOSTER). This worthy divine was Nichols's descended collaterally from Dr. Nicholas Ridley, bishop lection of of London, who was burnt in the reign of queen Mary. Poems, He was born at sea, in 1702, on board the Gloucester vol. VII. East Indiaman, to which circuinstance he was indebted P. 75. for his Christian name. He received his education at Wijchester school, and thence was elected to a fellowship at New-college, Oxford, where he proceeded B. C. L. April 29, 1729. In thote two seminaries he cultivated an early acquaintance with the Muses, and laid the foundation of those elegant and folid acquirements for which he was afterwards so eminently distinguished, as a poet, a historian, and a divine. During a vacancy in 1728, he joined with four friends, viz. Mr. Thomas Fletcher (afterwards bishop of Kildare), Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Eyre, Mr. Morrison, and Mr. Jennens, in writing a tragedy, called “ The Fruitless Redress,” each undertaking an act, on a plan previously concerted. When they delivered in their several proportions, at their meeting in the winter, few readers would have known that the whole was not the production of a single hand. This tragedy, which was offered to Mr. Wilks, but never acted, is still in MS. with another called “ Jugurtha.” Dr. Ridley in his youth was much addicted to theatrical performances. Midhurst in Sussex was the place where they were exhibited; and the company of gentlemen actors to which he belonged confifted chiefly of his coadjutors in the tragedy already mentioned. He is said to have performed the characters of Marc Antony, Jaffier, Horatio, and Moneses, with distinguished applause, a circumstance that will be readily believed by those who are no strangers to his judicious and graceful manner of speaking in the pulpit. Young Cibber, being likewise a Wykehamist, called on Dr. Ridley soon after he had been appointed chaplain to the East-India Company at Poplar, and would have pers fuaded him to quit the church for the stage, observing that " it usually paid the larger salaries of the two." For great part of his life, he had no other preferment than the


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finall college living of Westow in Norfolk, and the donative of Poplar in Middlesex, where he resided. To these his college added, fome years after, the donative of Romtord, in Efex. "Between these two places the curricle “ of his life had," as he expreffed it, "rolled for some “ time almost perpetually upon post-chaise wheels, and " lett him not time for even the proper studies of eco“ noiny, or the necessary ones of luis profeflion.” Yet in this obscure fituatior. he remained in potletion of, and content with, domestic happiness; and was honoured with the intimate friendship of tome who were not less distinguished for learning than for worth : among these, it may be sufficient to mention Dr. Lowth (now Bp. of London), Nr. Christopher Pitt, Mír. Spence, and Dr. Berriman. To the last of those he was curate and executor, and preached his funeral Sermon. In 1740 and 1741 he preached

Eight Serinons at Lady Vloyer's lecture,” which was publithed in 1742, Svo. 'In 1756 he declined an offer of going to Ireland as firit chaplain to the duke of Bedford ; in return for which he was to have had the choice of promotion, either at Chrift-Church, Canterbury, Westminster, or Windsor. His modesty inducing him to leave the choice of these to his patron, the consequence was that he obtained no one of thein all. In 1763, he published the “Life of bishop Ridley,” in quarto, by subscription, and cleared by it as much as bought him 8col. in the public funds. In the latter part of his life. he had the misfortune to lose both his fons, each of them a youth of abilities. The elder, James, was author of "'The Tales of the Genii," and some other literary performances. Thomas, the younger, was sent by the East India Company as a writer to Madrass, where he was no sooner fettled than he died of the small-pox. In 1765 Dr. Ridley published his “ Review of Philips's Life of “ Cardinal Pole ;” and in 1768, in reward for his labours in this controversy and in another which“ Thc “ Confessional” produced, he was presented by archbishop Secker to a golden prebend in the cathedral church of Salisbury (an option), the only reward he received from the great, during a long, useful, and laborious life, devoted to the duties of his function. At length, worn out with infirmities, he departed this life in 1774, leaving a widow and four daughters, of whom the only married 'one (Mrs. Evans) has published a novel in two volumes. He was buried at Poplar; and the following epitaph, writ


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ten by Dr. Lowth, bishop of London, is inscribed upon his monument:

" H. Ş. E.
Vir optimus, integerrimus;

Verbi Divini Minister
Peritus, fidelis, indefessus :

Ab Academia Oxonienfi
Pro meritis, et præter ordinem,
In facrà Theologia Doctoratu infignitus.

Poeta natus,
Oratoriæ facultati impenfius ftuduit.
Quan fuerat in concionando facundus,

Pluriinorum animis diu infidebit;
Quam variâ eruditione instructus,
Scripta ipfius femper teftabuntur.
Obiit tertiâ die menfis Novembris,

A. D. 1774, Ætatis 72.”
Two poems by Dr. Ridley, one styled “ Jovi Eleutherio,

or an Offering to Liberty,” the other called “ Psyche, are in the third volume of Dodsley's Collection. The {equel of the latter poem, intituled “Melampus," with

Pfyche” its natural introduction, was printed 1782, by subscription, for the benefit of his widow. Many others are in the 8th volume of Nichols's “ Collection.” Be.. fides the Sermons abovementioned, nine others by him are enumerated in Gent. Mag. 1774. pp. 503, and 554. His transcript of the Syriac Gospels, on which he had bestowed. incredible pains, was put into the hands of Profeffor White ; who has published them with a literal Latin Translation, in 2 vols. 4to. Oxford, at the expence of the Delegates of the press. The MISS. Codex Heraclensis, Codex Barsalibæi, &c. (of which a particular account may be seen in his Dissertation “ De Syriacarum Novi “ Federis verfionum indole atque utu, 1761,” were bequeathed by Dr. Ridley to the library of New college, "Oxford. Of these ancient MSS. a fac-simile specimen was published in his Dissertation abovementioned. A copy of “ The Confessional, with MS. Notes by Dr,

Ridley," was in the library of the late Dr. Winchester, RIENZI (NICHOLAS GABRINI DE), who, from a Memoirs of low and despicable situation, raised himself to sovereign Gabrini de authority in Rome, in the 14th century, assuming the Rienzi, title of "Tribune, and proposing to restore the ancient free from ue G 3

French of republic,

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Promoy & republic, was born at Rome, and was the son of no Cerceau,

greater a personage than a mean vintner [A], named Law rence Gabrini, and Magdalen, a laundress. However, Nicholas Rienzi, by which appellation he was commonly distinguished, did not form his sentiments from the meanness of his birth. To a good natural understanding, he joined an uncommon assiduity, and made a great proficiency in ancient literature.

Every thing he read, he “ compared with similar passages, that occurred within “ his own obfervation; whence he made reflections, by " which he regulated his conduct. To this he added a

great knowledge in the laws and customs of nations. “ He had a vast ineinory: he retained much of Cicero, " Valerius Maximus, Livy, the two Senecas, and Ca sar's Commentaries especially, which he read continually, " and often quoted by application to the events of his “ own times. This fund of learning proved the basis " and foundation of his rife: the desire, he had to diftin" guish himself in the knowledge of monumental history,

drew him to another fort of the science, which few “ men at that time exerted themselves in. He passed " whole days among the inscriptions which are to be “ found at Rome, and acquired soon the reputation of a

great antiquary in that way." Having hence formed within himself the most exalted notions of the justice, liberty, and ancient grandeur of the old Romans, words he was perpetually repeating to the people, he at length perfuaded not only himself, but the giddy mob, his followers, that he should one day become the restorer of the Roman republic. “ His advantageous ftature, his countenance, " and that air of importance which he well knew how to s assume, deeply imprinted all he said in the minds of his “ audience:" nor was it only by the populace that he was admired; he also found means to infinuate himself into the favour of those who partook of the administration, Rienzi's talents procured him to be nominated one of the deputies, fent by the Romans to pope Clement the fixth, who resided at Avignon. The intention of this deputation was to make his holiness sensible, how prejudicial his absence was, as well to himself, as to the interest of Rome.

" At his first audience, our hero charm“ed the court of Avignon by his eloquence, and the

sprightliness of his conversation. Encouraged by suc[^] By fome authors, particularly in the " Hitoire des Papes,Lawrence Gabrini is said io have been a miller.

s cess,

& cefs, he one day took the liberty to tell the pope, that * the grandees of Rome were avowed robbers, public si" thieves, infamous adulterers, and illustrious profligates ; “ who by their example authorized the most horrid

crimes. To them he attributed the desolation of “ Rome, of which he drew so lively a picture, that the "holy father was moved, and exceedingly incensed against “ the Roman nobility.” Cardinal Colonna, in other re{pects a lover of real merit, could not help considering these reproaches as reflecting upon some of his family and therefore found means of disgracing Rienzi, so that he fell into extréme misery, vexation, and sickness, which, joined with indigence, brought him to an hospital. Nevertheless, “ the fame hand that threw him down, raised “ him up again. Thre cardinal, who was all compassion, caused him to appear before the pope, in assurance of * his being a good man, and a great partizan for justice " and equity. The pope approved of him more than ever; and, to give him proofs of his esteem and con

fidence, made him apoftolic notary, and sent him back 4 loaded with favours." Notwitliftanding which, his subsequent behaviour Chewed, that “ resentment had a

greater ascendency over him than gratitude.” Being returned to Rome, he began to execute the functions of his office; wherein, by affability, candour, assiduity, and impartiality, in the administration of justice, he arrived at a fuperior degree of popularity ; which he still improved by continued invectives against the vices of the great, whom he took care to render as odious as poflible ; till at last, for some ill-timed freedoms of speech, he was not only severely reprimanded, but displaced. His dismission did not make him desist from inveighing against the de bauched, though he conducted himself with more prudence. From this time it was his constant endeavour to inspire the people with a fondneis for their ancient liberties; to which purpose, he caused to be hung up in the most public places emblematic pictures, expressive of the former splendour and present decline of Rome. To these he added frequent harangues and predictions upon the same subject. In this manner he proceeded, till one party looked on him only as a mad man, while others caresfed him as their protector. Thus he infatuated the minds of the people, and many of the nobility began to come into his views. The senate in no wife miftrufted a man, whom they judged to have neither intereit nor ability



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