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emperor conferred many honours upon him, and made him many prefents. He gave him, ili particular, an ancient fiebrew manuscript bille, very neatly written, with the text and paraphrate of Onkelos, and the notes of the Małorets. Frederic died in 1493 ; and Capnio returned to count Eberhard, who died all about three months after the emperor : when, in usurpation succeeding, Capnio was banished. He retired to Worms, and wrote books: but the elector palatine, having a caufe to defend at Rome fome time after, felceted him as the fittest and ableft man for his purpose ; and accordingly, in 1498, Capnio made in oration before the pope and cardinals, concerning the riçhts of the German princes, and the privileges of the Gerinan churches. He itayed more than a year at Rome ; and had to much leisure, as to perfect himself in the Hebrew tongue under Abdias a Jew, and alto in the Greck, ander Argyropylus. He was vexed in his old age by an unhappy difference with the divines of Cologne, occafioned by a few named Pfefferkorn, who, though an inpoftor detected, contrived to be fupported by these noodles in a dispute with Capnis, while all the learned were of his side. His enemies would have embroiled hin in Luther's cause; but he continued always a Catholic, and gave them no advzdırtage.

He died in 1522, after having done as much as any man of liis age to provirote literature, both by teaching the Latin, Greek, and Hebrew languages, and by writing books. He may be confidered as the first man who introduced the study of the Hebrew among modern Christians. He is supposed to have been tire chief, if not sole, author of the celebratéd work, intituled, “ Epiftoiæ Obscurorum 66 Virorum."

RHENAMUS (BEATUS), a very Icarried German, was born in 1485; at Sckcleftat ; whence he removed to Paris, afterwards to Strasburg, and then to Bafil. At Baf he corrected Frobenius's press, and at the same time contracted a very intimate friendship with Erasinus : there is a Preface of his at the head of Erasmus's works, whofe life he also wrote, He died at Strasburg in 1947. He was the firft who presented the public with “ Paterculus :" and he wrote notcs upon Tertullian, the elder Pliny, Livy, and Tacitus. But his Hiftory of Germany, undet the title of “ Res Germanice,” in 2 vols. folio, paffes for his capital work. He aliò wrote “ Illyrici Provinciarum


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RHODOMAN (LAURENTIUS), a learned German, was born in 1546 at Salfowerf, belonging to the counts of Stolberg in Upper Saxony. The happy genius, which Bayle's he had discovered from his tender years, induced those counts to maintain him in the college of Ilfeld. tinued there six years ; and made fo great a progress in literature, that he was thought a proper man to teach in the most eminent schools and most flourishing universities. He was especially skilled in the Greek tongue. He composed some Greek verses, which have been admired by the best judges ; but Scaliger did not like his Latin poetry. He was very successful in a Latin translation of “ Diodorus Siculus,” which he published with the original : he translated also into Latin the Greek poem of * Cointus Smyrnæus,” or “Quintus Calaber," concerning See QUI the taking of Troy; and added some corrections to it. TUS. At last, he was appointed professor of history in the university of Wittemberg, and died there in 1606. He wrote a great number of books, which it is not material to mention here : a catalogue of them may be seen in Niceron's “ Hommes Illuftres," &c. tom. LXII.

He Britan.

RICAUT, or RYCAUT (Sir PAUL), an English writer, was the tenth son of Sir Peter Ricaut, and the author of some useful works. When and where he was Colliers

Dict. and born is not mentioned ; nor yet where he was educated :

Biograph. but his education was undoubtedly a genteel one. travelled many years, not only in Europe, but also in Asia and Africa ; and performed fome public services. In 5661, when the earl of Winchelsea was sent ambassador extraordinary to the Ottoman Porte, he went as his fecretary; and while he continued in that station,' which was eight years, he wrote “ The present State of the Ottoman Empire, in three books; containing the “ maxims of the Turkish Politie, their Religion, and

Military Discipline.” Illustrated with figures, and printed at London, 1670, in folio. Ricaut asserts, in this work, that the Mahometan women have no hopes of going to Heaven : but, as Bayle observes, he is mistaken, DIA HAthey expecting to be one day admitted there as well as the LIBEIGH men. Afterwards, he was made consul for the English

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nation at Smyrna; and during his rcfidence here, at the
command of Cliarles II. composed “ The present State
“ of the Greck and Armenian churches, anno Cliristi
1678.” Upon his return to England, he presented it
with his own hands to his majesty ; and it was published
in 1679, 8vo. Having acquitted himfelf, for the space of
eleven years, to the entire satisfaction of the Turkey-
Company, ile obtained Icave to return to England; where
he lived in honour and good eem. The earl of Cla-
rendon, being appoin::d lord lieutenant of Ireland in
1685, made him his principal fecretary for the provinces
of Leinster and Connaught: and James II. knighted
him, con?ituted him one of the privy council for Ireland,
and judge of the high court of adaiiralty, which he en-
joyed till the Revolution in 1689. Soon after this, lie
was emplcyed by kin: Tiilliar?, as his resident with the
Haníc-towns in Lower Saxoil;, namely, liamburg, Lu-
beck, Bremen ; where he continued for ten years, and
gave the utmcft fatisfaciion. At length, worn out with
age and infirmitics, he had lave in 1700 to return to
England, where he died that year. He was fellow of the
Royal Society, for many ycars before his decease; and a
paper of his, upon the “ Sable Mice,” or “ Mures Nor-

wegici,” is published in the Philosophical Transactions. He understood perfectly the Greek both ancient and modern, the Turkih, Latin, Italian, and French languages.

He was the author of other productions, berides those already mentioned. He wrote a continuation of Knolles's “ History of tlie Turks,” from 1623 to 1677, 1680, in folio: and again from 1679 to 1699, 1700 in folio, making together with Knolles's three volumes. He continued Platina's “ Lives of the Popes,” from 1471 to his own time. He translated from the Spanish of Garcilasso de la Vega into English, “ The Royal Coinmentaries of Peru, in

two parts," folio ; and there 'goes also under his name “ The Spanish Critic, 1681," 8vo,

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Weidleri RICCIOLUS (JOANNES BAPTISTA), an Italian Astronomiae'astronomer, mathematician, and philosopher, was born at Hilticapi, Ferrara in 1598; and, at sixteen, admitted into the foxv. sect. 5.

ciety of the Jesuits. He had very uncommon parts joined with as uncommon application; so that the progress he made in every branch of literature and science was very extraordinary. He was ordered to teach rhetoric, poetry, philosophy, and fcholaftic divinity, in the Jesuits colleges


ač Parma and Bononia; yet applied himself in the mean time to making observations in geography, chronology, and astronomy. This was his natural bent; and at length he obtained leave from his superiors to quit all other employment, that he might devote himself entirely to it. He projected a large work, which was to be divided into three parts, and to contain as it were a complete system of philofophical

, mathematical, and astronomical knowledge. The first of these parts, which regards astronomy, came out at Bologna 1651, 2 vols. folio, with this title : “ J. B. Riccioli Almagestum Novum, Astrono“ miam veterem novamque complectens, observationibus " aliorum et propriis, novisque theorematibus, proble“ matibus ac tabulis promotam.” Ricciolus imitated Ptolemy in this work, by collecting and digesting into proper order, with observations, every thing ancient and modern, which related to his subject ; so that Gassendus very justly called his work, “ Promptuariuin et thefaurum in vita Coingentem Aftronomiz."

pernici. Ricciolus did not complete his plan, by publishing his second and third parts : he only published some select portions of those parts : as “ Geographia et Hydrographia “ Reformata, 1661 ;" “ Aftronomia Reformata, 1665;" " Chronologia Reformata, 1669;" all printed at Bologna in folio. He died in 1671, aged 73.

RICHARDSON (SAMUEL), inventor of a peculiar Anecdntes species of moral romance, was born in 1689, the lon of a of Bow yes, farmer in Derbyshire. He had no acquaintance with the toy Nichols,

PD. 156. learned languages but what the grammar-ichool of Christ's Hospital afforded; his mind, like that of Shakspeare, being much more enriched by nature and obfervation. He exercised the profession of a printer, with the highest reputation, for a long series of years in Salisbury Court, Fleet-street. Diffimilar as their geniuses may fecin, when the witty and wicked duke of Wharton (a kind of Lovelace) about the year 1723 fomented the spirit of oppo. sition in the city, and became a meml:er of the Wax. chandlers company; Mr. Richardson, though his political principles were very different, was much connected with, and favoured by him, and for some little tine was the printer of bis " True Briton," published twice a week. He so far exercised his own judgement, however, in peremptorily refusing to be concerned in such papers as



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he apprehended might endanger his own fafety, that he stopt at the end of the fixth number, which was possibly his own production. [A]. He printed for some time a news-paper called “ The Daily Journal ;” and afterwards “ The Daily Gazetteer.” Through the interest of his friend Mr. Speaker Onflow, he printed the first edition of the “ Journals of the House of Commons.” Mr. Onslow had a high esteem for him; and not only might, but ac, tually would have promoted him to foine honourable and profitable station at court; but Mr. Ricliardson, whose business was extensive and profitablı, neither defircd nor would accept of such a favour.

In 1754 he was matter of the company of Stationers. He purchased a moiety of the patent of law-printer at Midsummer 1760, and carried on that department of business in partnership with llits Catherine Lintot (B). By his firit witė Martia Wilde, daughter of A1r. Allington Wilde, printer, in Clerkenwell, he had tive fons and a daughter, who all died young. His second wife (who survived him many years) was Elizabeth fifter of the late Mr. Leake, book. seller of Bath. Dy her he had a son and five daughters, The fon died young; but four of the daughters survived him ; viz. liary, married in 1757 to Mr. Ditcher, an eminent surgeon of Bath, since dead; Martha, mar, ried in 1757 to Edward Bridgen, efq. F. R. and A. SS.; Anne, unmarried; and Sarah, married to Mr. Crowther, surgeon, of Boswell Court, and since dead. His country Tetirement, first at North End near Hammersmith, and afterwards at Parfons Green, was generally filled with his friends of both sexes [c]. He was regularly there from

[A] Informations were lodged a Dr. Delany, the right honourable Ara gainst Payne the publisher, for Num- thur Orlow, Mr. George (now lord) bers 3, 4, 5, and 6, as more than com Ontlow, Miss Talbot, Miss Lintot, mon libels," as they not only insulted Mrs. Millar (now lady Grant), Mr,

every branch of the L-gillature, but Dyson, Mr. Poyntz, Mr. Yeates, Mr. “manifestly tended to make the con Barwell, Mr. Hatsell, Mr. Stracey, “ {titution itself odious to the people.” Mr. Harper, Mr. S. Harper, Mrs. ChaPayne was found guilty; and Mr. pone, Mr. James Bailey, Air. John Richardson escaped, as his name did Rivington, Mr. William Tewley (his not appear to the paper. The danger faithful overseer), and eleven others. made him in future still more cau In enumerating his friends, he appears ţious.

to have been einbarrafled by the mul. [B] After Mr. Richardson's death, rirude which occurred to him. his widow and Miss Lintot (fince mar “I given rings,” he says, “ to all the ried to Sir H. Fletcher, bari.) were for “ladies who have honoured me with fome time jout patentees.

“their correspondence, and whom I [c] Many of these he has particu- rifincerely venerare for their amiable larly diftinguished, in his last will, by “qualities, it would, even in this latt the bequest of a ring; namely, te solemn act, sppear like oftentation." po kind Dr. Heberden,” Dr. Young,


“ Had

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