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of those who envied him, and that he had been at« tacked with great violence :” to whom Reincfius replied, " that he also was persecuted by certain calous wronges headed people ; that there was little true frien<fhipin the “ world, and little justice and order among the learned " and that, to avoid the storm, he had concealed liimies " the greatest part of his life. Having been ,freert's “ invited to accept of academical profefforihips," adus ile, “ I refused them. I believed, that it would not be poco « fible for me to bear with the ill-humours of certain

persons, witlu whom I should have been obliged to 6 associate ; and I chose rather to live here at Alten" burgh, though I lrad not a very easy life.”

We find by his printed letters, that he was confolted as an oracle ; that he answered very learnediy, whatever quchtions were brought to him ; that he was extremely kille? in the families of ancient Rome, and in the study of in scriptions. A very fine elogium is given of his mcrit, is well as of his learned and political works, by Grevius, in the dedication of the second edition of Casaubon's epistles, dated Amsterdam, August 31, 1655. He partook of the liberality, which Lewis XIV Thered to the most celebrated scholars of Europe, an dreceived with the present a very obliging letter from Colbert; which favour he returned, by dedicating to him his “ Observations .ch " the fragment of Petronius," in 1666. The religion si Reinesius was suspected to be of the philosophical kind,

&c. 1903.

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RELAND (HADRIAN), an eminent orientalist and very learned man, was born at Ryp, a village in NorthHolland, July 17, 1676. His father was minister of that Niceror, village, but afterwards removed to Alkinaar, and then to

Sorun Amsterdam. In this last city Reland was çducated withiriei, Oration infinite care ; and at eleven years of age, having passed Funebris in through the usual courses at school, was placed in the col

landi. Tra lege under Surenhufius. During three years of study un-ject. 1915, der this profeffor, he made a vast progress in the Hebrew, 410. Syriac, Chaldee; and Arabic languages; and at his leisure hours: applied himself to poetry, in which he succeeded very well. At fourteen, he was sent to Utrecht; where he studied under Græyius and Leusden, perfected himself in the Latin and Oriental tongues, and applied himself also to philofophy, in which he took the degree of doctor. At seventeen, he entered upon divinity under the direction of Herman Witlius and others; but did not abandon

the

the Oriental languages, which were always his favourite Atudy: After he had resided six years at Utrecht, his father fent him to Leyden, to continue his theological studies under Frederic Spanheim and others; where he soon received the offer of a professorship at Linden, either in philofophy or the Oriental languages. He would have accepted it, though but just two and twenty ; but his father's ill state of health would not allow him to remove fo far from Amsterdam. In 1699, he was elected profeffor of philosophy at Harderwick, but did not continue there long; for, king William having recommended him to the magiftrates of Utrecht, he was offered in 1701 the professorship of oriental languages and ecclesiastical antiquities, which he readily accepted. In 1703, he took a wife, by whom he had three children. In 1713, a fociety for the advancement of Christian knowledge was eftablished in England, as was that for the propagation of the gospel in foreign parts the ycar after : of both which Reland became a member. He died of the small-pox at Utrecht, Feb. 5, 1718, in his 42d year. He was a man of an excellent difpofition, and of great humanity and modeity. He had a correspondence with the most eminent scholars of his time.

He wrote and published a great number of works, in order to promote and illustrate facred and oriental learning; the chief of which are these. “ De Religione Mo“ hammedica libri duo, 1705," 12mo. The first book contains a 1hort account of the faith of the Mahometans, in an Arabic manuscript with a Latin translation; the fecond vindicates them from doctrines and inputations falfely charged upon them. A second edition with great additions was printed in 1717, 12mo.

" Differtationum " Miscellanearum Partes Tres, 1706, 1707, 1708,” in 3 vols. 1 2.10. There are thirteen differtations upon the following curious fubjects : • De fitu Paradili Terreftris ;” " Dc Mari Rubro ;' De Monte Garizim ;” “ De 0

phir ;" “ De Diis Cabiris ;” “ De Veteri Lingua Indica;" “ De Samaritanis ; " " De Reliquiis veteris lin

" De Perficis vocabulis Talmudis," “ De jure Militari Wohammedanorum contra Chriftianos “ bellum gerentium ;” “ De linguis Infularum quarun“ da orientalium ;" “ De linguis Americanis,"

;“ De " Gemuis Arabicis.” His next work was, Antiqui

tates Sacræ Veterum Hebræorlin, 1708,” 12ino; but the bat cuition is that of 1717, 12010, there being many

additions.

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additions. Then he published, “ Differtationes Quinque ** de. Nummis veterum Hebræorum, qui ab inscriptarum * literarum forma Samaritani appellantur. Accedit dis" sertatio de marmoribus Arabicis Puteolanis. 1709, 12mo. But his greatest work was, “ Palestina ex monu* mentis veteribus illustrata, & cliartis Gcographicis ac" curatioribus adornata. Traject. 1714," 2 vols. 4to.

. This edition is superior in all respects to that of Nurem berg, 1716, 4to. “ De Spoliis Templis Hierofolymitani is in arcu Titiano Romæ confpicuis liber, cum figuris, 1.716," 12mo.

Reland published many finaller things of his own, among which were Latin poems and orations; and was allo concerned as an editor of books written by others: His works are all in Latin, and reatly printed.

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REMBRANDT VAN REIN, a Flemish painter of great eminence, was the son of a miller, and born near Leyden in 1606. He is one of those who owed all the ikill in his profession to the strength of his own genius; for the advantages of education were few or none to him. His turn lay powerfully towards painting, insomuch that he seems to have been incapable of learning any thing else ; and it is said, that he could scarcely read. We muit hot therefore expect to find correctness of design, or a gufto of the antique, in the works of this painter. He had old pieces of armour, old initruments, old head-dresses, and abundance of old stuff of various forts, hanging up in his work-shop, which he said were his antiques. His fole aim was to imitate living nature, such as it appeared to him; and the living riature, which he had continually before his eyes, being of the lieavy kind, it is no wonder, that he should imbibe, as he did, the bad taste of his country. Nevertheless, he formed a manner entirely new and peculiar to himself; and drew abuiidance of portraits with wonderful strength, sweetness, and resemblance. Even in his etching, which was dark, and as particular as liis style in painting, every individual stroke did its part, and expressed the very flesh, as well as the spirit, of the persons it represented. The union and harmony in all his compositions are fuch, as are rarely to be found in other masters He understood the Claro Obfcuro in the highest degree i his local colours are a help to each other, and appear beft by comparison; and his carnations are as true, as fresh, and as perfect, as Titian's. VOL. XI.

There

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There was as great a singularity in the behaviour of this painter, as in his taste and manner of painting: and he was an humouriit of the first order, though a inan of sense and a fine genius. He affected an old-fashioned slovenly dress, and loved mean and pitiful company,

though he had got substance enough to keep the best. Graham's Some of his friends telling him of it, he answered, “ When

6. I have a mind to unbend and refreth my mind, I seck painters, not honour fo much as liberty:" and this humour he fubjoired to indulged, till, as it usually happens, he reduced his forart of paini-tuues to a level with the poorest of his companions. He ing, p. 372. died in 1668; "s for noihing more to be admired,” says Lond. 1716.a certain writer, " than for his having heaped up a noble

“ treasure of Italian prints and drawings, and making no
" better use of thicin.”

hort ac

count of

RENAUDOT (EUSEBIUS), a French writer, very learned in Oriental history and languages, was born at Paris in 1646; and, being taught clailical literature by the Jesuits, and philofophy in the college of Harcourt, afterwards entered into the congregation of the oratory, where he did not continue long. His father being first physician to the dauphin, he was early introduced to scenes, where his parts, his learning, and his politeness, made him admired. His reputation was afterwards advanced and establithcd by several learned works, which he published. In 1700, he attended cardinal de Noailles to Rome; and received great honours, together with the priory of Frosiay in Bretany, from pope Clement V. Returning by Florence, he was honoured in tlic fame manner by the great duke ; and was also made a member of the academy de la Crufca. On his return to France, he devoted himself entirely to letters, and compofed a great number of learned differtations, which are printed in the - Memoirs of " the Academy of Infcriptions;" of which he was a member, as well as of the French academy. He died in 1720, with high fentiments of devotion. Voltaire fays, that

" he may be reproached withi liaving prevented Bayle's Louis XIV... Dictionary from being printed in France."

Ile was the grandson of Thicoplırastus Renaudot, a phyfician, and a man learned in many respects : and who disitinguished himself by being the first author of Gazettes in France in 1631, and by foras literary productions. Theophrastus as born at Loudun in 1583, and died at Paris, where he had fpent the çrratait part of his life, in 1653.

RETZ

Siécle de

tom. 11.

RETZ (CARDINAL DE). See GONDI.

REUCHLIN (JOHN), a learned German, who contributed much to the restoration of letters in Europe, was born at' Pforzheim in 1450. His parents, perceiving in Reuchlini him good parts and a turn to books, were easily persuaded Maiorana to give him a liberal education; at a time when learning cof. 1687, and the sciences, by being so rarely met with, were so 8vo. much esteemed and honoured. He went to Paris, then the seat of literature in these western parts, with the bishop of Utrecht; where he studied grammar under Jou annes à Lapide, rhetoric under Gaguinus, Greek under Tiphernas, and Hebrew under Werlelus. Being returned to his own country, he took the degree of doctor in philosophy at 'Basil, where he lived four years ; then went to Orleans to study the law, and was admitted doctor in 1479. He taught the Greek language at Orleans, as lie had done at Balil; and composed and printed a grammar, a lexicon, some' vocabularies, and other works of a like nature, to facilitate the study of that language. He gained prodigious reputation by this; for the knowledge of the two languages was at that time fo rare an accomplishment, that it was actually made a title of honour. This appears from the following infcription of a letter : " Andro“ nicus Contoblacas, natione Græcus, utriusque linguæ

peritus, Joanni Reuchlino," &c. that is, “ Andronicus o, Contoblacas, a Greek, skilled in both languages, to " John Reuchlin," &c.

After some time, Eberhard count of Wirtemberg being to make the tour of Italy, Reuchlin was pitched upon among others to attend him ; chiefly because, during his residence in France, he had corrected his own German pronunciation of the Latin, which appeared fo rude and savage to the Italianis. · They were handsomely received at Florence by Laurence de Medicis, the father of Leo X. and became acquainted with many learned men there, as Chalcondylas, Ficinus, Politian, Picus earl of Mirandula, &c. They proceeded to Rome, where Hermolaus Barbarus prevailed with Reuchlin to change his name to Capnio, which signifies the same in Greek, as Reuchlin does in German ; that is, smoak. Count Eberhard entertained so great an esteem for Capnio, so he was afterwards called, that, upon his return to Germany, he made him his ambassador to the emperor Frederic III. ; at whose court' he eame to be so much considered, that the

emperor

F 2

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