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" nounced to such a true penitent, devout, and hum“ ble foul, I could not but have there comfortabic " thoughts, that what was thus declared remitted upon “ earth, would be remitted in heaven also. After this, I “ gave him the Sacrament of the Lord's-lupper, which as so it is men's duty often to receive in the time of lealth, " so at the hour of death, he said, it was a necessary via“ ticum, he thought, for the great journey he was now


men's So

RAY (BENJAMIN), a most ingenious and worthy Hin. of man, poffeffed of good learning, but ignorant of the world, Gentleindolent and thoughtless, and often very absent. He was ielv at a native of Spalding, where he was educated under Dr. Spalding, Neve, and afterwards admitted of St. John's College, ". xxxii. Cambridge. He was perpetual curate of Surfleet, of which he gave an account to the Spalding Society; and curate of Cowbitt, which is a chapel to Spalding, in the gift of trustees. His hermitage of ofiers and willows there was celebrated by William Jackson of Boston, in a MS. heroic poem. He communicated to the Royal Society an account of a water-spout raised off the land in Deeping fen, printed in their " Transactions," vol. XLVII. p. 447, and of an ancient coin to “ Gent. Mag. 1744.

There are several differtations by him in that miscellany. He was Secretary to the Spalding Society 1735. Mr. Pegge, about 1758, had a consultion with Dr. Taylor, residentiary of St. Paul's, and a friend of Ray's, to get him removed to better situations; and the Doctor was inclined to do it: but on better information, and mature confideration, it was thought then too late to transplant him. He died a bachelor at Spalding in 1760. See his communications to the Society, in the Reliquiæ Galeanæ, pp. 57, 58, 63: He also communicated in MS. “ The truth of the Christian

religion demonstrated from the report that was propa“ gated throughout the Gentile world about the birth of " Chtift, that a Mefliah was expected, and from the

authority of heathen writers, and from the coins of " the Roman emperors to the beginning of the second « general perfecution under Domitian, in ten sections, never printed. Also a MS. catalogue of household goods, furniture, and ten pictures, removed out of the presence chamber, 26 Charles II. 14 Dec. 1668, from Mr. Brown, and of others taken out of the cupboard in the chamber, 24 Dec. 1668, by Mr. Church. Thele wcie in number E 3


60. (Percy Church, elq. was fome time page of honour and equerry to the queen mother Henrietta Maria.) A MS. catalogue of Italian princes, palaces, and paintings, 1735, now in the Society's Museum. 1740, a large and well-written history of the life and writings of the great botanist, his namefake, by Mr. Dale, which was read, and approved. Tolin Ray's account of Cuba, where he was on thore some months. Mr. Johnson calls him his kin [.2.11, and says in honour of him, he finds an inscription on the lower ledge of an altar tomb, on which lies a mutilated alabaster knight in armour and mail in Golberkirke, alias Goiberton chapel, now a school at Sursieet, to belong to Nicholas Kie, who was theriff of Lincolníhire 5 and 6 Edw. I. 1278, and died 1279 or 80.

toin. II,

* REAL (CESAR VICHARD de St.), a polite writer in French, was the son of a counsellor to the fonate of Cham

berri in Savoy, where he was born; but it is not menNiceron, tioned in what year. He came very yonng to France, and eloge at

Was some time a disciple of M. de Varillas ; and afterthe head of wards distinguished himself at Paris by feveral ingenious his works. productions. In 1675, he returned to Chamberri, and

went thence to England with the duchess of Mazarine ; but foon after came back to Paris, where he lived a long time, without title or dignity, intent upon literary purfruits. He returned a focond time to Chamberri in 1692, and died there the same year, pretty old, but ilot in the beft circumstances. He was a man of great parts and penetration, a lover of the sciences, and particularly fond of history, which he wiihed to have studied in a very different marner from what it usually is, not as a bare recital of facts and speeches, but as a picture of human nature under its various inodes of witdom, folly, knavery, and madness. He wrote a piece with this view, “ De si l'ulage die l'Historie, Paris, 1672," 121110 ; which is full of sensible and judicious reticctions. In 1674, he published, “

Conjuration des Espagnols contre le Republique 66 de Venice en 1678,"12 mo. “ We have had historians,"?

fays Voltaire, " but noi a Livy. The style of. The ConLouis XIV. si spiracy of Venice' is comparable to that of Salluft : it is

evident the abbé de St. Real had him in his eve, and

perhaps has surraífed him.” He loft as much reputation by his “ La Vie de Jefus Christ,” published four years after, as he had gained by his “ Conspiracy of . * Venice.” He wrote many other things : fome to il


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lustrate the Roman history, which he had made his parti-
cular study; some upon subetjects of philosophy, politics,
and morals; and notes upon the two first books of
Tully's “ Letters to Atticus," of which he made a
French translation.

A neat edition of his works was published at the Hague
1722, in 5 vols, 12mo, without the letters to Atticus;
which however were printed in the cdition of Paris 1745,

3 vols. 4to, and fix 12mo.

REAUMUR (RENE-ANTOINE FERCHAULT fieur de), a French philosopher, was born of a good family in 1683 at Rochelle, where he was grounded in letters. Then he was sent to Poitiers for philofophy; and, in 1699, went to Bourges to ftudy the law. In the mean time, he had early discovered a turn for mathematics and physics ; and he now went to Paris, to cultivate these sciences. So early as 1708, he was judged worthy to be a member of the academy of sciences ; and he foon justified the choice that was then made of him by that fociety. He made innumerable observations, and wrote a great number of pieces, upon the various branches of natural philofophy. His “ History of Insects,” in 6 vols. 4to, at Paris, is his capital work. Another edition was printed in Holland in 12 vols. 12mo. He died in 1757, not of age, although he was old, but of the consequences of a fall. He is an exact and clear writer; and there is an elegance in his style and manner, which is not always to be found among those who have made only the sciences their study. He is represented also as a man of an amiable composition, and with qualities to make him beloved as well as admired. He left a great variety of papers and natural curiofities to the academy of sciences.

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REDI (FRANCIS), an Italian physician and very polite scholar, was descended from a noble family, and born at Arezzo in Tuscany, 1626. His first studies were made Niceron, at Florence, whence he removed to Pifa, and there was tom. III. admitted doctor in philosophy and medicine. His ingenuity and skill in these and other sciences acquired him great reputation ; and Ferdinand Il, duke of Tuscany, chose him his first physician. His constant employ did not hinder him from cultivating the belles lettres : he devoted much of his time to the study of the Italian tongue, and contributed not a little towards compiling E 4


the diâionary of La Crusca. Menage, in his “ Origines

de la Langue Italienne,” acknowledges himself obliged to him for many particulars. Redi was a lover of learned men, and ready to serve them in any way he could. He was a member of several academies in Italy; of la Crusca at Florence, of the Gelati at Bologna, and of the Arcadiens at Rome. He was subject to the falling sickness in his latter years ; yet neither abandoned books, nor his business. He wrote upon vipers, and uponi

the generation of infects, and he composed a good deal of poetry, fome of which he published himself, and some was published after his death by order of the greai duke, his master. All his writings are in Italian ; and his language is so fine and pure, that the authors of the dictionary of la Crusca lave often cited it as a standard of perfection. He died in 1697. Mott of his works are translated into French and into Latin.

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REGIOMONTANUS, an illustrious astronomer,

whose real name was Joannes Mullerus, was born at Tegiomor. Konigsberg in Franconia, 1436. He was taught his grain. Gastendo. mar at home, and at twelve


sent to Leipsic; where he took a violent turn to astronomy, and wisely applied himself to arithmetic and geometry, as neceffary to comprehend it rightly. But there was then nobody at Leirsic, who could lead him into the depths of this {cience; and therefore, at fifteen, he removed to Vienna, to study under the famous Purbachius, who was the profeflor there, and read lectures with the higheit reputation, Greater friendihip and affection could not sublist, than between Regiomontanus and Purbachius; and therefore it is n10 wonder, that the former 1hould make all conceivable progress under the latter. About that time cardinal BeíTarion came to Vienni, to negotiate some affairs for the pope ; who, being a loyer of astronomy, had begun to make a Latin version of Prolemy's “ Almageft;" but, not having time to go on will it, desired Purbachius to continue the work, and for that purpose to return with him into Italy, in order to make himself matter of the Greek tongue, which at present he knew nothing of. Purbachius consented to the cardinal's proposals, provided Regiomontanus might accompany him, and share the tafk ; and all things were agreed on, when Purbachius died in 1461. The scholar of courte succeeded the mal-ter to the destined office, as well as in his professorship,


and attended the cardinal the same year to Rome; where the first thing he did was to learn the Greck language, though in the mean time he did not neglect to make aftronomical observations, and to compofe various works in that science. The cardinal going to Greece foon after, Regiomontanus went to Ferrera, where he continued tlie study of the Greek language under Theodore Gaza ; who explained to him the text of Ptolemy, with the commentaries of Theon : till at length he became so perfect in it, that he could compose verses, and read like a critic, in it. In 1463, he went to Padua, where he became a member of the university; and, at the request of the ftudents, explained Alfraganus, an Arabian philosopher. In 1464, he removed to Venice, to attend his patron Bessarion; and, the same year, returned with him to Rome, where he waged war with Georgius Trapezuntius, whom he had terribly offended, by animadverting on some paffages in his translation of Theon's Comincntary. Not long after, being weary of rambling about, and having procured a great number of manuscripts, which was one main object of his travels, he returned to Vienna, and performed for some time the officos of his professorship, Afterwards he went to Buda, at the invitation of Matthias Corvinus the king of Hungary, who was a lover of letters and sciences, and founded a rich and noble library there ; but, on account of the wars, came and lett!cd at Nuremberg in 1471. He ipent his time here, in constructing instruments, in making observations, and pubishing books, fome his own, fome other people's : lic para lished here the five books of Manilius's “ Aitronomicon." In 1474, pope Sixtus IV. conceived a defign of reforiaing the calendar; and sent for Regiomontanus to Rome, as the properest and ablett person to accomplish his purpose. Regiomontanus was very unwilling to interrupt the studies he was engaged in at Nuremberg; but is ceiving great promises from the pope, who also for this present named him archbishop of Ratisbon, he conteatri at length to go. He arrived at Rome in 1475, and died there the year after ; not without a fufpicion of being poisoned by the fons of Trapezuntius, who carried on the enmity begun by their father : but Paul Jovius relates, that he died of the plaguic.

He did great service to attronomy, as well as his master Purbachius. The latter was born at Peurbach, a town hpon tlıe çonfines of Austria and Bavaria, in 1423; 2014


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