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rected and, if we should allow his mind might change, yet the course of his life afterwards left no room for any such performance. The merit of this work is too well known, to need any enlarging upon here : and therefore let the judgement of a polite writer upon it ferve for, what it really is, the judgement of mankind in general. ? Sir Walter Ralegh's • History of the World' is “ a work of fo vaft a compass, such endless variety, that

no genius but one adventurous as his own durft have “ undertaken that great design. I do not apprehend,

Differtation says he, “any great difficulty in collecting and common on the Clata ** placing an universal history from the whole body offics, p. 216. "historians; that is nothing but mechanic labour : but 1730. “ to digest the several authors in his mind, to take in all

their majesty, strength and beauty, to raise the spirit of " meaner historians, and to equal all the excellences of “ the best, is Sir Walter's peculiar praise. His style is “ the most perfect, the happiest, and most beautiful, of " the age he wrote in, majestic, clear, and manly; and " he appears every where to superior, rather than un! equal, to his subject, that the Spirit of Rome and Athens "feems to be breathed into his work.--To conclude, his " admirable performance in fucli a prodigious under-$t taking theweth, that, had he attempted the history of of his own country or his own times, he would have "equalled even Livy and Thucydides : and the annals of “ queen Elizabeth by his pen' had been the brightest "glory of her reign, and would have tranfinitted his " history as the standard of our language even to the

present age.??

Some have fancied, that the merit of this work procured his releasement from the Tower; but there seeins little foundation for that opinion, fince king James is known to have expressed fome diflike to it. But whatever procured it, as no doubt it was his money that did, the mine-adventure to Guiana was made use of to the king; and we find him actually abroad March 25, 1616. In August, he received a commission from the king to go and explore the golden mines at Guiana ; þut did not fet off from Plymouth till July 1617. In the mean time his design, being betrayed to the Spaniards, tas defeated ; and, his eldest son Walter being killed by the Spaniards at St. Thome, the town was burnt by capjain Keymis, who, being reproached by Sir Walter for his conduct in this affair, killed hiin.elf. Upon this, the


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Spanish ambassador Gundamor making heavy complaints to the king, a proclamation was published immediately against Ralegh and his proceedings, and threatening punithment in an exemplary manner. Ralegh landed at Ply-' mouth in July 1618; and, though he heard the court was exasperated by the Spanish ambassador, firmly refolved to go to London. He was arrested on his journey thither ; and finding, as he approached, that no apology could save him, repented of not having made his escape while he had it in his power. He attempted it, after he was confined in the Tower, but was seized in a boat upon the Thames. It was found, however, that his life conld not be touched for any thing which had been done at Guiana : therefore a privy seal was sent to the judges, forthwith to order execution, in consequence of his former attainder. This manner of proceeding was thought extra-judicial at first; but at length he was brought, Oct. 28, to the King's bench bar at Westminster, and there asked, if he could fay any thing, why execution should not be awarded! To this he said, that “ he hoped the judgement he received

to die fo long since, could not now be strained to take

away his life; since, by his majesty's commission for • his late voyage, it was implied to be restored, in giving “. him power as marshal upon the life and death of “ others :” and of this he had been assured by Sir Francis Bacon, then lord keeper, when he expressed some solici-* tude for a pardon in form, before he fet fail for Guiana. This notwithstanding, sentence of death was passed upon him; and he was beheaded the next day in Old Palaceyard, when he suffered his fate with great magnanimity. His body was interred in St. Margaret's Westminster; but lus head was preserved by his family many years. The putting this great and uncommon man to death thus injuriously, to please the Spaniards, gave the highest offence then; and has been mentioned with general indigration ever fince. Burnet, speaking of certain errors in James I's reign, proceeds thus : " Besides these public

actings, king James suffered much, in the opinion of all Hitt, of his own time,

people, by his strange way of using one of the greatest P.16, 1724. “ men of that age, Sir Walter Ralegh ; against whom

“ the proceedings at first were censured, but the last part " of them was thought both barbarous and illegal.” And a little farther : " the first condemnation of him was very s black; but the executing him after so many years, and " after an employment that had been given him, was counted a barbarous facrificing him to the Spaniards.

Sir Walter was tall, to the height of six feet, well shaped, and not too slender ; his hair of a dark colour, and full, and the features and form of his face such as they appear before the last edition of his history in 1736. His taste in dress, both civil and military, was magnificent. Of the latter fort, his armour was so rare, that we are told part of it was for its curiosity preserved in the Tower: and his civil wardrobe was richer, his cloaths being adorned with jewels of great value. The truth is, the richness of his apparel was made matter of reproach to him; but, though he was undoubtedly pleased with the distinction, he was far from making it the end of his ambition : for how much he excelled in arms abroad, counsel at home, and letters in general, history and his own writings have made sufficiently notorious.

The best edition of his “ History of the World" is that published by Oldys, in 2 vols. folio. A collection of his smaller pieces were collected and printed together, in 2 vols. 8vo, in 1748.

elition of

Lond. 1735.

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RAWLEY (Dr. WILLIAM), the learned chaplain of the celebrated Sir Francis Bacon, and editor of his Works, was born at Norwich about the year 1588. Collections He was of Benet-college in Cambridge ; took a bachelor relating to of arts degree in 1604, a master's in 1608, a bachelor of Lord Veredivinity's in 1615, and a doctor's in 1621. About Lady- fixed to day 1609, he was chosen fellow of his college, took holy Blackorders in 1611, and was instituted to the rectory of Landbourne's beach near Cambridge in Jan. 1616. Landbeach is a living his Works, in the gift of Benet-college ; nevertheless, as my account 4 vois. folio, says, he was presented to it “ per hon. virum Franciscum "Baconum Mil. Reg. Maj. Advocatum Generalem, 278.

ejufdem Rectoriæ, pro hac unica vice, ratione concef“ fionis Magistri et Sociorum Coll. C. C. (uti affereba“ tur) patroni.” He held this living till his death, which happened June 18, 1667; nor does it appear that ho had any other preferment, which may seem somewhat marvellous, when it is considered, that he was not only domestic chaplain to Lord Verulam, who had the highest opinion of his abilities, as well as the most affectionate regard for his person, but chaplain also to the kings Charles I. and If.

On a flat inarble near the communion-table, in the church of Landbeach, there is the following inscription oven him : " Hic jacet Gulielmus Rawley, S. T. Doctor,

66 vir

" vir Gratiis et Müsis ex æquo charus, fereniff. regibus " Car. I. & II. a sacris, D. Fran. Verulamio facellanus"

primus atque ultimus, cujus opera fumma' cum fide edita

ei debent literæ. Uxorém habuit Barbaram, ad latus “ mariti pofitam, Jo. Wixted aldermanni nuper Cantabr. “ filiam : ex că filium fufcepit unicum Gulielmumn, in cu.

jus cineribus falis haud parum latet. Ecclefiam hanc

per annos quinquaginta prudens administravit. Tandemr “ placide, ut vixit, in Domino obdormivit, A. D. 1667,

Jun. 18; ætat. 79."

RAY, or WRAY (John), an eminent English natural philosopher, was the son of a blacksmith at Black

Notley, near Braintree, in Effex; and was born there in Ray's Life 1628. He was bred a scholar at Braintree school; and by Derham, sent thence, in 1644, to Catherine Hall in Cambridge. prefixed to 'Here he continued about two years, and then removed, « mains of for tome reason or other, to Trinity-college: with which, * the learn- says Derham, he was afterwards much pleased, because in *Ted John Catherine Hall they chiefiy addicted themselves to dif1760, 8vo. putations, while in Trinity the politer arts and sciences

were principally minded and cultivated. He took the degrees in arts, and was chosen fellow of his college ; and the learned Duport, famous for his skill in Greek, who had been his tutor, used to say, that the chief of all his pupils, and to whom he esteemed none of the rest comparable, were Mr. Ray and Dr. Barrow, who were of the fame standing. In 1651, he was chofen the Greek lecturer of the college ; in 1653, the mathematical lecturer ; in 1655, huinaniiy reader : which three appointments Thew the reputation he had acquired in that early period of his life, for his ikill in languages, polite literature, and the sciences.

During his continuance in the university, he acquitted himself honourably as a tutor and preacher : for preaching and common placing, both in the college and in the university-church, were then usually performed by perfors not ordained. He was not affected with the fanaticisin of the times, but distinguished himself by preaching found and sensible divinity, while the generality filled their fermons with enthufiafm and nonfenfe. His favourite ftudy, and what indeed made the chicf business of his life, was. the universal history of nature, and the works of God: and in this he acquired great and exact skill. He published, in 1660, a " Catalogue of the Cambridge Plants,"


in order to promote the study of botany, which was then much neglected ; and the good reception this work met with encouraged him to proceed further in these ftudies and observations. He no longer contented himself with what he met with about Cambridge, but extended his pursuits throughout the greatest part of England and Wales, and part of Scotland. In these journies of simpling, though he sometimes went alone, yet he had commonly the company of other curious gentlemen, particularly Mr. Willoughby, his pupil Mr. afterwards Sir Philip Skipton, and Mr. Peter Courthope. At the restoration of the king, he resolved upon entering into holy orders ; and was ordained by Sanderson, bishop of Lincoln, Dec. 23, 1660. He continued fellow of Trinity-college, till the beginning of the Bartholomew act; which, requiring a subscription against the folemn league and covenant, occafioned him to resign his fellowship, he refusing to sign that declaration.

Having now left his fellowship, and visited inost parts of his own country, he was minded to fee what nature afforded in foreign parts; and accordingly, in April 1663; himself, with Mr. Willoughby, Mr. Skippon, and Mr. Nathanael Bacon, went over from Dover to Calais, and thence through divers parts of Europe : which however it is sufficient just to mention, as Mr. Ray himself, in 1673, published the “ Observations'' they made in that tour. "Towards the end of their journey, Mr. Wiltoughby and Mr. Ray parted company; the former palling through Spain, the latter from Montpelier through France, into England, where he arrived in March, 1665-6. He pursued his philofophical studies with his usual attention, and became so diftinguished, that he was importuned to come into the Royal Society, and was admitted fellow thereof in 1667. Being then solicited by dean, afterwards bishop, Wilkins, to translate his “ Real Cha“ racter” into Latin, he consented; and the original manuscript of that work, ready for the press, is still extant in the library of the Royal Society.

In the spring of 1669, Mr. Ray and Mr. Willoughby entered upon those experiments about the tapping of trees, and the afcent and descent of their sap; which are published in the Philofophical Tranfactions, and may be met with together in Lowthorp's “ Abridgement.” About this Vol. II. p. time, Mr. Ray began to draw up his Observations for 682. public ufe ; and one of the first things he set upon was,

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