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senistarum.”. He had a great quarrel with father Vavasfor, who wrote against his “ Reflections on Aristotle's Poetics;" yet pretended to be ignorant, as there was no name to them, that Rapin was the author. Rapin had said, in those Reflections, that“ it is so unusual a thing “ for an author to write good epigrams, that any person “ may be satisfied with making a few in his whole life.” Now, says Menage, who relates this anecdote, “ as Va- Anti-Bail“ vassor had wrote two large books of epigrams, he was let, ch. 84. “ not pleased with Rapin for this saying; and this

prompted him to write against that father : I had this,' adds Menage,

66 from himself.” RAPIN DE THOYRAS (PAUL de), an eminent

From his historiographer and Frenchman, was born at Castres in life prefixed Languedoc in 1661. His family was originally from to Tindal's Savoy, and is supposed to have removed into France, upon of his embracing the Protestant religion. Philibert de Rapin, History of his great grandfather, fell a martyr to his zeal for Pro-Euglanda testantism; which exposed him so much to the indignation of the Roman catholics, and particularly to that of the parliament of Toulouse, that his head was ftruck off in 1568 by a sentence of theirs, at the very time that he came by the king's order to have the treaty of peace registered there. Father Daniel indeed passes over this fact in filence; and his reason is supposed to have been, that he might make the more odious the disturbances raised by the Huguonots afterwards in the country about Toulouse : whereas what they did was in revenge of Philibert's death, as appeared from the soldiers writing with coals, on the ruins of the houses they had burned, Mezeray,

Vengeance for Rapin's death.” James de Rapin, lord &¢. of Thoyras, was our author's father. He applied himself to the study of the law, and was an advocate in the chamber of the edict of Nantes above fifty years. There chambers were courts of judicature erected in several towns of France, in behalf of the Huguonots; the judges whereof were half of the Reformed, and half of the Roman catholic, religion. Jane de Pelisson, his wife, was daughter to a counsellor of the chamber of Caftres, and fifter to George and Paul Peliffon : which lady, after having been confined a good while to a convent, was at last sent by the king's order to Geneva, where she died in 1705.

Our Rapin was their youngest fon. He was educated at first under a tutor in his father's house, afterwards fent VOL. XI,

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to Puylaurens, and thence to Saumur. In 1679, he returned to his father, with a design to apply himself clofély to the law : but, before he had made any great progress, he was obligeds with other young gentlemen, to commence advocate, upon report of an edict soon after publithed, in which it was ordered, that no man should have a doctor's degree without having studied five years in fome university. Tlie same year the chamber of the edict was suppressed, which obliged Rapin's family to remove to Toulouse : and the ftate of the Reformed growing every dav worse, with his father's leave he quitted the profefsion of advocate for that of arms. He had before given proofs of a military disposition : for he had fought a ddel or two, in which he had acquitted himself very gallantly. His father at first did not grant his requeft, but gave him such an answer, as served to prolong the time. However, he pleaded one cause, and one only ; and then applied himself heartily to inathematics and music, in both which he became a good proficient.

In 1685, his father died; and two months after, the edict of Nantes being revoked, Rapin with his mother and brothers retired to a country-house ; and, as the perfecution in a short time was carried to the greatest height, he and his youngest brother, in 1686, departed for England. He was not long in London, before he was visited by a French abbé of distinguished quality; a friend of Peliffon, who introduced him to Barrillon the French ambassador. Thefe gentlemen persuaded him to go to court, assuring him of a favourable reception from the king ; but he declined this honour, not knowing what the consequences might be in that very critical state of affairs. His fituation indeed was not at all agreeable to him: for he was perpetually preffed, upon the subject of religion, by the French Catholies then in London; and especially by the abbé, who, though he treated him with the utmost complaisance, always turned the discourse to controversy. Having no hopes of any settlement in England at that time, his stay there was but short: he went ovet to Holland, and lifted himself in a company of French volunteers, that was åt Utrecht under the comniand of Mr. Rapin, his cousin-german: Peliffon, the same

year, publifhed his as Reflections on the difference of Re:"ligions,” which he sent to his nephew Rapin, with a strict

charge to give him his opinion impartially of the work : and this was accordingly done, although nothing of this

kind was found among his papers. He did not quit his company, till he followed the prince of Orange into Eng; land; where, in 1689, he was made an enlign, and went to Ireland with that commiskon. He distinguished himself fo at the liege of Carrick-fergus, thåt he was the same year promoted to a lieutenancy. He was present at the battle of the Boyne ; and, at the siege of Limerick, was Thot through the shoulder with a musket-ball

. This wound, which was cured very slowly, proved very detrimental to his interest; for it prevented him froin attend ing general Douglas into Flanders, who was very desirous of having him, and could have done him considerable service : however, he had a company given him.

He continued in Ireland till the end of 1693; when he was ordered for England without any reason assigned : but a' letter informed him, that he was to be governor .to the earl of Portland's fon. Having never had any thought of this nature, he could not imagine to whom he owed the recommendation, but at last found it to be lord Galway. He immediately went to London, and entered upon this charge ; but quitteď all hopes of those preferments in the army, which several of his fellow-officers foon after attained. All the favour shewn him was, that he had leave to resign his commiffion' to his younger brother, who died in 1719, after having been made lieutenant-colonel in a regiment of English dragoons. Indeed the king gave him a pension of 1001. per annum " till fuch' time as he' Thould provide for him better,”; which timė never came : 10 he enjoyed this penlion during the king's life, after which it was taken from him, and a poslof.small value given himn in its stead

While the earl of Portland was ambaslador in France, Rapin was obliged to be sometimes in that kingdom, sometimes in England, and often in Holland :. but at length he settled at the Flague, where the young lord Porta land was learning his exercises. While he refided here in 1699, lie married: but this marriage neither abated his. care of his pupil, nor hindered hiiri

' from accompanying him in his travels. They began with a tour through Germany, where they made tome stay at Vienna :, henco went into Italy by the way of Tirol, where the mașeschal de Villeroy, at that tiine prisoners gave Rapin a letter for the cardinal d'Etrees, when at Venice. Their travels - being finithed, which put an end to his employment, he returned to his family at the Hague, where he continued forpe

years;

years; but, as he found it increase, he refolved to remove to some cheap country; and accordingly retired in 1707 to Wezel, in the duchy of Cleves in Germany, where he employed the remaining years of his life in writing the

History of England." Though his constitution was strong, yet seventeen years application (for so long he was in composing this history) entirely ruined it. About three years before his death, he found himself exhausted, and often felt great pains in his stomach : and at length a fever, with an oppression in his breast, carried him off, after a week's illness, in 1725. He left one son and fix daughters. He was naturally of a serious temper, although no enemy to mirth : he loved music, and was skilled, as we have said, in mathematics, especially in the art of fortification. He was master of the Italian, Spanish, and English languages : and had also a very competent knowledge of the Greek and Latin. He spent all his leisure-hours in reading, and conversing with such as led a regular life, and loved to reason and reflect on things.

He lived to publish the eighth volume of history which ends with the death of Charles I. The two remaining volumes, which bring the history down to the proclamation of William and Mary, came out in 1724. They were printed at the Hague in 4to. and have twice been translated into English; by the Rev. Nicholas Tindal, M. A. first in 8vo, then in folio; and by John Kelly of the Inner Temple, esq. in 2 vols. folio. Tindal has given a Continuation of Rapin's history to 1760, and added useful notes to the whole. When Rapin first fet about this work, he did not think of writing a complete history of England: but curiosity ar d much leisure led him on from one step to another, till he came to the reign of Henry II ; and then, when he was upon the point of stopping, an unexpected assistance came forth, which not only induced him to continue his history, but to do it in a more full and particular manner than at first he intended. This was Rymer's “ Collection of Public Acts," which began to be published at the expence of the ment about 1706. In 1708, six volumes in folio' were completed, which were afterwards increased to seventeen, and then to twenty. Lord Halifax, a great promoter of this noble work, fent the volumes, as they came out, to John Le Clerc; who generously lent them our author, as long as he had occasion for them. That he did actually use this collection, appears from the pains he took to abridge the whole feventeen volumes, except the first,

of the govern

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which was done by Le Clerc : in which abridgement we
have all the important acts pointed out, a well-connected
series of events to which they relate, and the use to be
made of them in clearing up the history of England.
This Abstract lies scattered up and down in the leveral
volumes of Le Clerc's “ Bibliotheque Choisee;" and has
thence been translated and published in English. Rapin.
also, to let us see what a thorough knowledge he had of.
our parties and factions in England, published in 1717 a
little treatise, intituled, “ A Differtation on the Whigs
5 anid the Tories ;" which is subjoined to his History,
and has likewise been translated and published in English.
: Voltaire has observed, that “ England is indebted to

Rapin for the best history of itself which has yet ap-
*peared ; and the only impartial one of a nation, wherein
“ few write without being actuated by the spirit of party.
It was easy to exceed all the historians before him ; since, Siécle de
besides the advantages in common with them, which he did Louis XIV.
not fail to make the strictest use of, he was supplied with a
new and rich fund of materials from Rymer's “ Fædera."
Nevertheless, his fpirit of moderation has made him ob-
noxious to the intolerant party : and the men of wit and
vivacity are apt to complain of him, for being sometimes
rather tedious and dull.

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tom. ii.

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RAWLEGH (Sir WALTER), or, as he himself spelt his name, RALEGH, an illustrious Englishman, was, defcended from an ancient family in Devonshire, and was the son of Walter Ralegh, esq. of Fardel, near Plymouth, Oldys's Life by a third wife. Mr. Ralegh, upon his last marriage, had of SiwW.R. retired to a farm called Hayes, in the parish of Budley ; Oxon.and there Sir Walter was born in 1552. After a proper Birch's Life education at school, he was sent to Oriel-college in Ox-of Sir W. ford about 1568, where he soon distinguished himself by to his Mira great force of natural parts, and an uncommon progresscellaneous in academical learning ; but, ambition prompting him to Works; pursue the road to fame in an active life, he inade a short, n 2 vols: stay only at Oxford. Queen Elizabeth sending forces to 8vo. assist the persecuted Protestants of France in 1569, Sir Walter went among them a gentleman volunteer ; and was engaged for fome years doubtless. in military affairs, of which however we do not know the particulars. In 1576, we find him in London, and exercising his poetical talents; for we have of his a commendatory poem pre: fixed among others to a satire, called * The Steel Glass,

D 3

published

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