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ance of the subject, and of the ability with which it is treated. We read this first part, when it came from the press, with great care, and with almost unmingled pleasure. Although it is " designed chiefly for the use of colleges and students at law,” it would be a most useful manual for every citizen in our country. It is one of the great faults of our system, that it gives the rights of citizens to all, without taking due care that the duties of citizens are understood by any. There was comparatively little danger in such a course, in the beginning of our existence as an independent nation, when the true principles of liberty were understood and valued by the people, who had fought to obtain it; but now that men have become worshippers of its false image, it is highly desirable that they should be made acquainted with the consequences of their idolatry. This is one of the books which will well serve that purpose, and taking a hint from Mr. Cooper, we may say, it would be far better for the people, on our great national anniversary, to listen to a chapter from it, than to the idle declamations which are then poured forth upon our former glory and our prospective greatness. We are beginning to be rich in commentaries upon the great questions of politics and government, and we cannot but hope that their influence will now be seen upon the people in a wiser practical exercise of their political rights. Doctor Lieber's second part promises “ a discussion of those many relations in which a citizen finds himself called upon to act, and for which, however important, the positive law does not or cannot furnish a sufficient rule of action, and we wait only for its appearance, to enter with him into an elaborate consideration of the topics the whole work naturally suggests. We now add no more, except to say that this volume is beautifully printed, as indeed are all books sent forth by the same publishers.
19. The Authenticity of the New Testament. Translated from the
French of J. E. CELLERIER, Jun., Professor of Criticism and Sacred Antiquities in the Academy of Geneva. With Notes and References, by a Sunday School Teacher. Boston : 1838. Weeks, Jordan, and Co. 12mo. pp. 254.
to be a well executed translation of a popular exhibition of the evidence on the subject to which it relates. We have been unable to give more than a cursory glance at the contents of the volume, and can therefore say no more, than that in addition to the earlier sources, it seems to combine the fruits of the more recent labors of Hug in the critical, and of Olshausen in the historical branch of the investigation ; the method and order are judicious, and the style clear and animated.
20. Refutation of the Misstatements and Calumnies contained in Mr.
Lockhart's Life of Sir Walter Scott, Bart., respecting the Messrs. Ballantyne. By the Trustees and Son of the late Mr. James BALLANTYNE.
Boston : 1838. James Monroe and Company. 12mo.
This pamphlet contains a full and perfect vindication of the Ballantynes from every charge brought against them in Mr. Lockhart's life of Scott, and completely removes every impression to their discredit made upon our minds by Mr. Lockhart. Moreover, it conclusively shows, that Sir Walter Scott, himself, never entertained any opinions unfavorable to the rectitude or honor of his partners; but, on the contrary, that he cherished towards them, to the last, undiminished sentiments of respect and confidence. It is put beyond a doubt, that Sir Walter Scott, if living, would never have sanctioned or permitted such a representation of his relations with the Ballantynes, as Mr. Lockhart has given.
So far from the misfortunes of Scott being chargeable to the Ballantynes, it is established beyond question, that the bankruptcy of the house of Ballantyne and Company, was solely owing to the immense accommodations allowed to Sir Walter Scott, upon the credit of the house, for his own private uses, beyond all that was due to him from the fair profits of the business. It was doubtless an error on the part of the Ballantynes, to allow this immense floating accommodation, with all its ruinous load of discounts, stamp duties, etc., to Scott; but this was a want of
business management, which Scott never complained of; nor is it the error complained of by Mr. Lockhart. Apart from this single error, it is clearly proved that the proper business of the house was well and profitably conducted; that while Sir Walter was drawing these advantages from the house, besides receiving almost every sort of valuable aid, especially from James Ballantyne, in carrying on his literary works, the Ballantynes themselves received nothing from the business beyond the means of a moderate and reasonable livelihood ; that but for these accommodations extended to Scott, the house would never have been involved in difficulties; and that after the connexion with Scott ceased, the affairs of the house, under the management of James Ballantyne, became thriving and lucrative.
By an abstract of the accounts given by the trustees, it appears that the liabilities which devolved upon Sir Walter Scott, from his connexion with the Ballantynes, amounted to nearly half a million of dollars. But these were truly and properly his own personal liabilities — the money had been raised on the credit of the house for his own private use - had been absorbed at Abbotsford, and when the day of disaster came, Abbotsford was found to be beyond the reach of his creditors. This transfer, indeed, involves nothing to the dishonor of Scott; but it is perfectly clear, that in assuming these liabilities to the utmost of his means, Sir Walter acted not more as became the honor of a gentleman than as required by the simple honesty of a merchant.
21. Picciola, or Captivity Captive. By M. D. SAINTINE. Phi
ladelphia : 1838. Carey, Lea & Blanchard. 12mo. pp. 204.
This is a little gem of its kind a beautiful conceit, beautifully unfolded and applied. It is a tale of a rare character, for the language in which it was originally written, and a perfect contrast to the fictions which have characterized the Paris
press years past. It is unexceptionable in language, sentiment, and moral. It describes the progress from infidelity to belief, of a mind bewildered in the mazes of metaphysical speculation, and blinded by the pride of reason and of learning, and thus lost to the power of comprehending the simple and sublime truths of revealed religion. The Count de Chasney is its impersonation, — who had at command all the pleasures which wealth, rank, and talents can bestow, but finds them all unsatisfactory, becomes sated with his overflowing cup, commits a political crime, is convicted, and condemned to imprisonment in a fortress of Piedmont. In his con finement, no solace of any kind is allowed him, not even that of books or writing materials, but
"The more to mark his gloomy void,
And bid him feel his misery,” he contrives to scratch upon his walls a few sentences of freezing atheism. Still the heart must love something, and having nothing else to love, he gives his affections to a little flower, which chanced to spring up in the court of the castle. To this he applied the endearing diminutive name of Picciola ; and it soon occupies all his thoughts, receives all his care, and at last becomes the means of rękindling a spark of faith within his breast, and of stirring his soul anew with love to the author of creation. As its stock expanded, the stones between which it grew press too closely upon, and endanger its life; the compassionate daughter of a fellow-prisoner, by great personal exertion and sacrifice, procures an order from the government for their removal. In his liberator, he recognises the ideal being which had been presented to him in the dreams inspired by the influence of his darling Picciola. This part of the story has the most rational dénouement imaginable. Thus was a simple flower the means of winning back to life, and faith, and love, a withered and benighted spirit, and of transforming the skeptic and misanthrope into a happy husband and Christian believer.
The style and plot of this truly charming story require no criticism; we will only express the wish, that those who rely on works of fiction for their intellectual food, may always find those as pure in language and beautiful in moral as Picciola.
22. A Pastoral Letter to the Clergy and other members of the Pro
testant Episcopal Church in the United States of America, from the Bishops of the said Church, assembled in General Convention, in the city of Philadelphia, September 5, 1838. New York: 1838. Swords, Stanford, and Company. Svo. pp. 23.
In recording the title of this sensible and judicious apostolic letter we have only to commend it in general terms to the thoughtful perusal of our readers, and to call particular attention to the following remarks, which we are glad to see coming from a quarter entitled to the highest respect :
“While speaking on the subject of christian unity, permit us to observe that your bishops have noticed, with painful concern, that our religious journals, which ought to be to our churches as messengers of peace on earth and good will towards men, diffusing among our people the knowledge of Christ and the love of God, are too much filled with unprofitable controversy; and what is worse, that they not unfrequently manifest a spirit of strife and contention, inconsistent with brotherly kindness and christian love. It is an evil which in the judgment of some, more than balances all the good which those journals effect. It is injurious to the cause of religion, and to our Church especially, causing us to appear before the world, as what we certainly are not, a divided Church. In no other way is the bond of charity oftener broken, and unity disturbed, than by judging illiberally of the tenets and practices of others. This is now the way in which the spirit of persecution chiefly operates. It is happily, in a great degree, disarmed of its tortures and flames; but in slanders, and hatred, and malice, and all uncharitableness, it still exists. From which let us pray in our hearts, as with our lips we do, that the Lord will delirer us.'
23. The Atonement : a Charge to the Clergy of the Protestant
Episcopal Church in Pennsylvania, etc. By the Right Reverend HENRY U. ONDERDONK, D. D., Bishop, etc. Philadelphia : 1338. 8vo. pp. 38.
CONTRARY to our original intention, we have concluded not to meddle with the various newspaper criticisms which have been called forth in different quarters by this charge. We prefer to take up the subject in a somewhat more general shape ; and without meaning to bind ourselves too closely by any promise, we are ready to express the hope that we shall hereafter be able to exhibit our views on this important subject in a more complete and defifinite form than we could do in connexion with the disquisitions adverted to. We are the more inclined to this, as the conclusions to which we have come are in some respects different from those generally adopted on any hand, and would require a fuller and more careful exhibition than we should be able to give in this number.
In the mean time, we are free to avow that, as against those representations which exhibit the atoning work of Christ as “addressed to the Justice of God,” we think Bishop Onderdonk perfectly correct. That view of the atonement which insists upon regarding the passion of Christ strictly and literally in the light of a
payment” or a “legal penalty" exacted by "Divine Justice," we cannot but consider as contradictory to (not simply above) every dictate of reason — subversive of other plain and indisputable facts of revelation - and by logical necessity involving consequences no less at variance with the scheme of revealed religion than with the necessary convictions of reason.
At the same time, we cannot attach any importance to the distinction upon which Bishop Onderdonk insists so strongly- of addressing the atonement to the Holiness of God. We cannot conceive that the atonement can rightly be said to be “ addressed” to one attribute of God more than to another, nor to all of them together.
In regard to this subject, we believe there is one question to which we are incompetent to return an answer; and yet it is precisely the question which the various theories are framed to solve
— the question concerning the nature of the atonement. On this point, we believe Revelation has not instructed us. It has taught us plainly that the atonement had its origin in the Divine Benevolence — that its OBJECT was to provide for the deliverance of all mankind from the evil of its fallen state — that the agency employed in accomplishing this object was determined by Divine Rec
NO. VII.-VOL. IV.