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W, in its vowel sounds, corresponds with u; as in new, pronounced nu.

Y has the same vowel sound as i; as in type, hymn, myrrh.

OI and OY, as proper diphthongs, have a uniform sound; as in oil, boy.

OU and OW, when proper diphthongs, have a uniform sound; as in round, plov.

Besides the above principal sounds, a has, in a few words, the sound of e; as in says, said, again.

E, in a few words, has the sound of a; as in they.

U has, in a very few words, the sound of e; as in bury; or that of į; as in busy.

The long sounds of the vowels are marked by the figure

1

1; as in

fåte, mė, pine, nò, tube, type.

me, The short sounds of the vowels are marked by the figure 2; as in

fåt, mét, pin, not, tůb, hymn. To the other sounds various names are applied; but none are properly descriptive of their nature.

NOTE.—In this work, long a before r is marked as a in fate. It should be observed, however, that r, in this position, modifies the sound of a. The first part of the sound is a little more open than in fate. The last part is a slight sound of short u.

U long following r is marked like u in tube. In pronunciation it is more open in sound than in other situations, approaching, though not identical with, the sound of 00 in rood.

OF THE CONSONANTS. The CONSONANTS are those letters which can not be perfectly sounded without the aid of a vowel.

The consonants are b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, 2, 2, and sometimes i, u, W, and

y The consonants are divided into nutes and semi-vowels.

The MUTES are those consonants that admit of no sound without the aid of a vowel. They are

b, d, k, p, q, t, and c and g hard. The SEMI-VOWELS are those consonants that can be sounded imperfectly by themselves. They are

f, h, j, l, m, n, r, s, v, x, 7, and c and g soft. Four of the semi-vowels are called liquids; viz.,

1, m, ni, They are called liquids, because they unite so readily with other sounds, or flow into them.

and r.

OF CONSONANT SOUNDS. I, u, w, and y are sometimes consonants.

W has its consonant sound when it precedes a vowel in the same syllable, and neither that vowel nor the w is silent; as in winter, leeward,

thwack.

swan,

NOTE.- W is considered by some as being always a vowel, and as sometimes equivalent to 00; but, by most authors, it is classed, in some of its sounds, among the consonants.

Y has its consonant sound under the same circumstances as w; viz., when it precedes a vowel in the same syllable, and neither letter is silent; as in

yonder,

lawyer.

I, as a consonant, has one sound, which is the same as y consonant.

This sound is heard when i precedes another vowel in the same syllable, and neither of them is silent; as in

alien, onion, pronounced aleyen, unyon. U, as a consonant, has two sounds; viz., that of w consonant, and that of

yu The first sound of u consonant is heard, when it precedes a vowel in the same syllable, and neither of the letters is silent; as in

quick, dissuade, pronounced kwick, disswade. The other sound is heard, when u long commences a syllable; as in

use, union, pronounced yuse, yuneyon. B has but one sound; as in bad. After m, and before t, it is silent; as in thumb, debt.

C has two principal sounds; one like k, called its hard sound, and one like s, called its soft sound.

The hard sound of c is heard before a, o, u, l, r, and t;as in case, cot, cube, clear, cry, distinct.

The soft sound of c is heard before e, i, and y; as in cell, cider, cymbal, tacit, facile.

At the end of a word, c is hard; as in lac, music: it is silent before k; as in back, track.

In a very few instances, c has the sound of z; as in suffice, pronounced suffize.

D has one principal sound, as in day.

Sometimes, at the end of a word and preceded by a silent vowel, d has the sound of t; as in mixed, fixed, pronounced mixt, fixt.

D is silent in Wednesday, and in words like fadge and edge.

F has one sound, as in fat; except in of, when it has the sound of v. It is never silent.

G has two sounds; one hard, the other soft.

It is hard before a, o, u, l, and r, and at the end of a word; as in gate, go, gull, glad, grate, fag, bag.

It is soft before e, i, and y; as in gem, giant, gypsum, tragic, digit.

To this last rule there are many exceptions. In this book the soft sound of g is denoted by a particular mark.

G is silent before m and n; as in gnaw, phlegm.

H is merely a strong breathing; as in hate, held. After , and g it is silent; as in rhetoric, ghost.

J has one sound; as in jump. In hallelujah it sounds like y consonant.

K has one sound; as in kill. It is silent before n; as in knife, knit.

L has one sound; as in lull, line. It is frequently silent.

M has one sound; as in me, men, murmur.
N has one sound; as in not, run.

It is silent after ? or m, in the same syllable; as in kiln, limn.

P has but one sound; as in pin, lip, shipping.

It is silent before n, s, and t, in the same syllable; as in psalm, pneumonics, prompt.

Q has but one sound, that of k; as in quill, quire.
R has two sounds; one rough, the other smooth.
It is rough before a vowel; as in roll, ring.
It is smooth after a vowel; as in arm, hard.

S has two principal sounds; one, as in sink, miss; the other, like z, as in rose, rise.

In a few instances, s has the sound of sh; as in surc, sugar; or of zh; as in brasier.

T has but one sound; as in tin, net, setting.

V has but one sound; as in vine, live, silver.
X has three sounds; one, at the beginning of a word,
where it has the sound of z; as in Xerxes, pronounced
Zer.ces.

It has the sound of ks; as in wax, flax.
It has also the sound of gz; as in exalt.
Z has one principal sound; as in zest.

In a few in. stances, it has the sound of zh; as in azure.

OF DOUBLE LETTERS.

OH has three sounds; that of tsh, in church; that of sh, in machine ; and that of k, in chorus.

In the latter case, the h may be considered as silent, and the c hard.

GH has three sounds; that of g hard, in ghost; that of f, in cough; and that of k, in hough (hok).

NG has two sounds; an open sound, as in sing, bring; and a close sound, as in finger, pronounced fing ger. In words like range, the n and

have each their proper

9 sound.

NK has a sound somewhat different from the letters of which the combination is formed; as in bank, thank.

PH has the sound of f, as in phantom ; except in Stephen, where it has the sound of v.

SH has but one sound; as in ship, shore.

TH has two sounds; one aspirated, as in thin, think; the other soft, as in this, thou.

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