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guillotine, and it still exists. The epithet of the Maiden,' by which it is now so well known, was conferred upon it by the populace, in metaphori. cal allusion to the circumstance of Morton having been the first that submitted to its embraces. *.:

During the whole of that long summer after. noon, Morton's body lay on the public scaffold, covered only by a beggar's blue gown, no man, out of all the thousands who had formerly waited on his nod, now daring to give it burial. It was at length conveyed by porters to the place where cri. miñals were usually interred. His head was next day fixed on the tolbooth. +

. This is stated distinctly in "TIPONOIA, or Remark, able Instances of Divine Providence,' a curious manuscript of the reign of Charles II., in the Advocates' Li, brary.

† Spottiswoode's Church History, 314

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From the very first, James was the protege of Elizabeth, who wished in him to rear a Scottish monarch, that should add the support of his kingdom to the Protestant bulwark which she was building up against the Catholics, and an heir to her own kingdom, whose religious principles should give no countenance or cause of hope to that par-, ty. Throughout all his early years, she had contrived to further these objects, by having him and his kingdom under the control of Regents, who were subservient to her interests. Now, how ever, when he had attained to nearly a mature age, and was himself in possession of the government, she found her task a somewhat more difficult one, inasmuch as he showed symptoms of a wish to bethink and act for himself; and even seemed inclined to lend a favourable ear to the solicitations with which he was plied by the Catholics and other friends of his mother, who proposed to him a scheme for associating her in the government with himself. There was indeed great reason for Elizabeth to fear that his first emotions, on attaining to the rank of manhood, should dispose him to regard his mother, and consequently her religion and her party, with a degree of favour inconsistent with the interests of the Reformation. And he really seems to have given her some occasion to believe this fear well-grounded. All the discipline of Buchanan, and all the rigours of the Calvinistic theory in which he was educated, had failed to make him what was wanted. Like many other youths who are too carefully educated, he seemed disposed to baulk entirely the wishes of his friends. His surrendering his affections to Lennox, who was a Catholic, and appeared as an emissary of the French king, was an almost decisive proof of his disposition to shake off his good cousin and sister of England.' Finally, she could no longer doubt that he was nearly lost to her, when he sacrificed Morton to the demands of Lennox; Morton, her most confidential friend, and who had even consented, it is said, to a seheme which she proposed for carrying James to England, and place ing him as a prisoner in ber hands.

It must therefore be perceived, that, after Mor. ton's execution, James's attachment to the Protese tant interest was extremely problematical or r sher, abandoned as he was to the guidance of Lens nox, that he gave Elizabeth, and the Protestants in general, reason to suppose he was entirely throwa into the hands of the Catholics.

This was a state of things not to be long en dared in a country where the majority were re. formed, and the influence of an alien Protestant sovereign was paramount to the native govern. ment. Elizabeth and the Scotch Protestant lords

very soon rallied against the danger which threate ened them; and within the course of a year after Morton's death, they had matured a conspiracy for bringing James back again into their control. The transaction is known in Scottish history by she epithet of the Raid (or enterprise) of Ruthven, from the warlike aspect which it assumed in con formity with the spirit of the time, and from the place where it was carried into effect.

James, who early showed a passion for field sports, was, in August 1582, conducted for the first time into Athole, to enjoy the pleasures of a Highland hanting-match.' On that occasion, for some reason unexplained, neither Lennor nor Arran accompanied him. The first stayed behind in the castle of Dalkeith, which he had acquired with other parts of Morton's property. The se cond remained at Kinneil, a castle in West Low thian, of which he had become possessed in a sin milar way,

in consequence of the attainder of the Hamiltons. As the King was returning from the Highlands, he was led aside to spend a night in Ruthven Castle, a seat of the Earl of Gowrie, near Perth. Here, during the evening, he was surprised to observe that a great number of armed men arrived at the house, in parties, without any very apparent errand. Not chusing to expresi any fear, although he felt a great deal, he waited patiently till next day, when, as he was about to pass from his chamber, the Master of Glammis thrust his foot against the opening door, and informed him that he must stay where he was. James, seriously alarmed, tried every method to move this stern janitor, threatened, entreated, and finally burst into tears. “ No matter for his tears,." said the Master ; “it's better bairns should greet than bearded men. The heads of the conspiracy then approached_to wit, the Earls of Gowrie, Athole, Mar, Rothes, and Glencairn, with some of inferior title, and presented a written remona strance to the young King, praying him to remove his two favourites from his councils, and adopt a: ministry.. more agreeable to his people." James saw the necessity of treating the paper with respect, but was not able altogether to conceal the indignation which he felt at the restraint imposed upon


person. It was soon publicly known that the King was detained at Ruthven; and the two favourites lost no time in attempting to procure his release. Lennox sent à messenger to inquire into his condis tion; but, .on James declaring to this person that he was a prisoner, the conspirators put him also into confinemente Arran, on learning what had taken place, immediately rode to Ruthven, and with a boldness which almost redeems the bad qualities attributed to him, presented himself sin. gle before the enraged men who had met for his destruction. When they heard him loudly demanding to be introduced to the King, they would have instantly sacrificed him to their resentment; but he was saved by the intercession of the Countess of Gowrie, to whom he happened to be distantly related. He was only commanded to keep himself secluded from public affairs in a remote part of the kingdom, under the penalty of treason. Lennox was, at the same time, commanded to sequester himself in his castle of Dunbarton.

Various attempts were made by this last nobleman to rouse the spirit of the nation in behalf of

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