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till noblemen and gentlemen gat licence to break ministers' heads." There was much sense in the sayings for it is plain, that these men took free doms with all orders of their fellow-creatures, and occasioned much disturbance, purely because they felt secure from personal violence.

An arrangement was at length made for staying the public appetite for vengeance against Huntlya Having received a promise from the King, that his person should be quite safe, he entered into ward at Blackness Castle, for the avowed purpose of standing his trial. He took care, however, that he should have such a number of faithful Gordons to cheer bis confinement, as put the prison almost into his own keeping. When the popular clamours had a little subsided, he came out upon a bail of twenty thousand pounds ; and he eventually endured no trial. The Lady Downe was so indignant at his impunity, that she took ill and died, leaving her malediction to King James. Huntly survived the transaction five-and-forty years, and Gordonof Buckie for even a still longer period; but it is gratifying to know that the latter, who was the real murderer, afterwards expressed the greate est contrition for his crime. The chief result of the whole transaction was, that the Presbyterian ministers-enabked by a proper use of the public irritation to push James very hard now procured 4. parliamentary sanction for the establishment of their plan of church-government, which had never before been formally recognised by the legislatore. They were therefore erected into a court independent of all earthly law, and only to be governed by the will of the invisible God, as it might please

themselves to interpret it. A more melancholy proof could not be given of the extreme humility to which James, and all his maxims of govern. ment, were brought at the present unhappy crisis of his life.

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CHAPTER VII.

TURBULENCE OF BOTH WELL AND THE CLERGY CONTINU EDPLOTS OF THE CATHOLIC LORDS-BOTHWELL RESTORED AND FORFEI TED—BATTLE OF BALRINNES-DEATH OF CHANCELLOR

MAITLAND.

1591_1595.

The earlier part of the year 1592 was chiefly employed by James in endeavours to seize the Earl of Bothwell ; but on the 26th of June, that nobleman made a second attempt, in his turn, to seize the King. While James was quietly residing at. Falkland, a palace of which he was extremely fond, on account of the extensive hunting grounds which surrounded it, Bothwell, having raised a consi. derable force upon the Borders, suddenly advanced during the night, and had very nearly surprised the King. Fortunately, however, Sir James Melvill gained intelligence of his motions, and was able to dispatch a servant in time to warn James of his approach. At first, the courtiers prevailed upon the King to laugh at the intelligence, many of them being in reality engaged by Bothwell to open the doors, and assist him in seizing the royal person. The messenger then retired in anger; but, falling in with Bothwell's company as he went home, he thought it his duty to return, and make a second attempt to warn bis Majesty. Falling into the ranks, as one of their company, he got back to Falkland, and Jocked the outer gate of the palace, a few minutes before the conspirators were ready to make the attack. He then used his voice loudly and vehemently, to prevail on the King to enter the tower, or fortified part of the palace, and to rouse bis attendants to bis defence. Meanwhile, James, hearing the wellknown cry of · Bothwell ! Bothwell!' which at that moment arose without, obeyed the man's directions with the utmost baste, taking care to gather all bis armed friends around him, and to store his fortalice with such victuals as might enable him to hold out a siege for some hours, till he might be rescued by his subjects. Bothwell now subjected the tower to a regular beleaguerment : his men fired at every aperture where they thought a bullet might take effect; and the courtiers, in their turn, directed their shot from the same aperturės against the assailants. At last, Bothwell having become convinoed that he had lost his opportunity, he retired in despair, and permitted his men to procure some repose on the ascent of the Lomond Hill, opposite the Palace ; but towards seven in the morning, dreading lest the country people might assemble, and enable the King to turn the assault upon himself, be caused his men to rifle the royal stables, the park, and the town, of all the horses they could find, and, baring thus done all he could to prevent a pursuit, he made the best of his way to the south of the Forth, designing to take his company back to their fastnesses on the Borders. So speedily was the alarm of this raid spread over the country, that before night James was at the head of a body of three thousand men, partly from the Fife towns, and partly even from Perthshire and Angus. Bat the want of horses, and Bothwell's precipitate retreat, prevented him from putting these good friends to any use. Eighteen men were next day seized on Calder Muir, where they had fallen asleep from mere fatigue ; they were brought to Edina burgh, and, as they were all persons of infamons character, the whole were hanged at once without ceremony. . The rest of this year was spent in vain attempts. to seize the troublesome person, who had thus, for the second time, put him into fear of his life. From town to town, and from valley to valley, James continued for several weeks to follow his volatile enemy, exposing himself to general ridicule, and much danger, without ever once getting near bim, At this period, moreover, the conduct of the clergy formed no small addition to his troubles. As might have been expected, the benefit which he had bestowed upon these men, in placing them, above all law, produced no amelioration in their severe and intractable character. Esteeming them. selves equal, if not superior to himself, they now proceeded to act as a sort of government, without the least regard to his authority, or that of any other jurisdiction in the land. It was fortunate for him, that their first attempts were of a ridiculous and unpopular character. Conceiving that the commerce, which was then carried on to a considerable extent between Scotland and Spain, was apt to endanger the Protestant principles of their own merchants, they suddenly gave out an edict, forbidding these persons ever again to traffic with the country in question. They also forbade, in a particular manner, that any tallow or wax should ever

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