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No Judas did to Christ: but he, in twelve, Found truth in all but one; I, in twelve

thousand, none. God save the king! Will no man say amen? Am I both priest and clerk? well then, amen. God save the king! although I be not he; And yet, amen, if heaven do think him

me. To do what service am I sent for hither? York. To do that office of thine own

good will Which tired majesty did make thee offer, The resignation of thy state and crown To Henry Bolingbroke. K. Rich. Give me the crown. Here,

cousin, seize the crown; Here, cousin; On this side my hand, and on that side yours, Now is this golden crown like a deep well That owes two buckets, filling one another, The emptier ever dancing in the air, The other down, unseen, and full of water: That bucket down and full of tears am I, Drinking my griefs, whilst you mount up

on high. Boling. I thought you had been willing

to resign. K. Rich. My crown I am; but still my

griefs are mine: You may my glories and my state depose, But not my griefs; still am I king of those. Boling. Part of your cares you give me

with your crown. K. Rich. Your cares set up do not pluck

my cares down. My care is loss of care, by old care done; Your care is gain of care, by new

My manors, rents, revenues, I forego;
My acts, decrees, and statutes I deny:
God pardon all oaths that are broke to

me! God keep all vows unbroke that swear to

thee! Make me, that nothing have, with nothing

grieved, And thou with all pleased, that hast all

achieved! Long mayst thou live in Richard's seat to

sit, Ard soon lie Richard in an earthy pit! God save King Harry, unking'd Richard

says, And send him many years of sunshine

days! What more remains ?

North. No more, but that you read These accusations and these grievous crimes Committed by your person and your fol

lowers Against the state and profit of this land; That, by confessing them, the souls of men May deem that you are worthily deposed. K. Rich. Must I do so? and must I ravel

out My weaved-up folly ? Gentle Northumber

land, If thy offences were upon record, Would it not shame thee in so fair a troop To read a lecture of them? If thou wouldst, There shouldst thou find one heinous ar

ticle, Containing the deposing of a king And cracking the strong warrant of an

oath, Mark'd with a blot, damn'd in the book of

heaven: Nay, all of you that stand and look upon, Whilst that my wretchedness doth bait my

self, Though some of you with Pilate wash your

hands Showing an outward pity; yet you Pilates Have here deliver'd me to my sour cross, And water cannot wash away your sin. North. My Lord, despatch; read o'er

these articles, K. Rich. Mine eyes are full of tears, I

cannot see: And yet salt water blinds them not so much But they can see a sort of traitors here. Nay, if. I turn my eyes upon myself, I find myself a traitor with the rest For I have given here my soul's consent To undeck the pompous body of a king;

care

won:

The cares I give I have, though given away; They tend the crown, yet still with me they

stay. Boling. Are you contented to resign the

crown? K. Rich. Ay, no; no, ay; for I must

nothing be; Therefore no no,

for I resign to thee. Now mark me, how I will undo myself: I give this heavy weight from off my head And this unwieldy scepter from my hand, The pride of kingly sway from out my

heart; With mine own tears I wash away my balm, With mine own hands I give away my crown, With minie own tongue deny my sacred state. With mine own breath release all duty's

rites:

All pomp and majesty I do forswear;

Made glory base and sovereignty a slave,
Proud majesty a subject, state a peasant.

North. My lord, -
K. Rich. No lord of thine, thou haught

insulting man, Nor no man's lord; I have no name, no

title, No, not that name was given me at the

font, But 'tis usurped: alack the heavy day, That I have worn so many winters out, And know not now what name to call my

self! O that I were a mockery king of snow, Standing before the sun of Bolingbroke, To melt myself away in water-drops ! Good king, great king, and yet not greatly

good, And if my word be sterling yet in England, Let it command a mirror hither straight, That it may show me what a face I have, Since it is bankrupt of his majesty. Boling. Go some of you and fetch a

looking-glass. [Exit an attendant. North. Read o'er this paper while the

glass doth come. K. Rich. Fiend, thou torment'st me ere I

come to hell! Boling. Urge it no more, my Lord North

umberland. North. The commons will not then be

satisfied. K. Rich. They shall be satisfied: I'll

read enough, When I do see the very book indeed Where all my sins are writ, and that's my

self.

For there it is, crack'd in a hundred shiv.

ers. Mark, silent king, the moral of this sport, How soon my sorrow hath destroy'd my

face. Boling. The shadow of your sorrow hath

destroy'd The shadow of your face. K. Rich.

Say that again. The shadow of my sorrow! ha! let's see: 'Tis very true, my grief lies all within; And these external manners of laments Are merely shadows to the unseen grief That swells with silence in the tortured

soul; There lies the substance: and I thank thee,

king, For thy great bounty, that not only givest Me cause to wail, but teachest me the way How to lament the cause. I'll beg one

boon, And then be gone and trouble you no more. Shall I obtain it?

Boling. Name it, fair cousin.
K. Rich. “Fair cousin”? I am greater

than a king: For when I was a king, my flatterers Were then but subjects; being now a sub

ject,
I have a king here to my flatterer.
Being so great, I have no need to beg.

Boling. Yet ask.
K. Rich. And shall I have?
Boling. You shall.
K. Rich. Then give me leave to go.
Boling. Whither?
K. Rich. Whither you will, so I were

from your sights.
Boling. Go, some of you convey him to

the Tower. K. Rich. O, good! convey? conveyers

are you all, That rise thus nimbly by a true king's

fall.
[Exeunt King Richard, some Lords,

and a Guard. Boling. On Wednesday next we solemnly

set down Our coronation: lords, prepare yourselves.

Re-enter Attendant, with a glass. Give me the glass, and therein will I read. No deeper wrinkles yet? hath sorrow struck So many blows upon this face of mine, And made no deeper wounds? O flattering

glass, Like to my followers in prosperity, Thou dost beguile me! Was this face the

face That every day under his household roof Did keep ten thousand men? was this the

face That, like the sun, did make beholders wink? Was this the face that faced so many fol

lies, And was at last out-faced by Bolingbroke? A brittle glory shineth in this face: As brittle as the glory is the face;

[Dashes the glass against the ground.

3. The Commonwealth of the Bees [From Henry V, Act I, scene ii. Exeter and Canterbury discourse of govern

ment to the King] Ereter. While that the armed hand dotb

fight abroad,

The advised head defends itself at home; For government, though high and low and

lower, Put into parts, doth keep in one consent, Congreeing in a full and natural close, Like music. Canterbury. Therefore doth heaven di

vide The state of man in divers functions, Setting endeavor in continual motion; To which is fixed, as an aim or butt, Obedience: for so work the honey-bees, Creatures that by a rule in nature teach The act of order to a peopled kingdom. They have a king and officers of sorts; Where some, like magistrates, correct at

home, Others, like merchants, venture trade

abroad, Others, like soldiers, armed in their stings, Make boot upon the summer's velvet

buds, Which pillage they with merry march bring

home To the tent-royal of their emperor; Who, busied in his majesty, surveys The singing masons building roofs of

gold, The civil citizens kneading up the honey, The poor mechanic porters crowding in Their heavy burdens at his narrow gate, The sad-eyed justice, with his surly hum, Delivering o'er to executors pale The lazy yawning drone. I this infer, That many things, having full refer

4. OF "DEGREE"
[From Troilus and Cressida, Act I,

scene iii.]
The Grecian camp. Before

Agamemnon's tent.
Sennet. Enter AGAMEMNON, NESTOR,

ULYSSES, MENELAUS, and others.
A gam. Princes,
What grief hath set the jaundice on your

cheeks? The ample proposition that hope makes In all designs begun on earth below Fails in the promised largeness: checks and

disasters Grow in the veins of actions highest rear'd, As knots, by the conflux of meeting sap, Infect the sound pine and divert his grain Tortive and errant from his course of

growth. Nor, princes, is it matter new to us That we come short of our suppose so far That after seven years' siege yet Troy walls

stand; Sith every action that hath gone before, Whereof we have record, trial did draw Bias and thwart, not answering the aim, And that unbodied figure of the thought That gave't surmised shape. Why then,

you princes, Do you

with cheeks abash'd behold our works, And call them shames? which are indeed

nought else But the protracted trials of great Jove To find persistive constancy in men: The fineness of which metal is not found In fortune's love; for then the bold and

coward, The wise and fool, the artist and unread, The hard and soft, seem all affined and

kin: But, in the wind and tempest of her frown, Distinction, with a broad and powerful fan, Puffing at all, winnows the light away; And what hath mass or matter, by itself Lies rich in virtue and unmingled. Nest. With due observance of thy god

like seat, Great Agamemnon, Nestor shall apply Thy latest words. In the reproof of chance Lies the true proof of men: the sea being

smooth How many shallow bauble boats dare sail Upon her patient breast, making their way With those of nobler bulk!

ence

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To one consent, may work contrariously:
As many arrows, loosed several ways,
Come to one mark; as many ways meet in

one town; As many fresh streams meet in one salt

sea; As many lines close in the dial's center; So may a thousand actions, once afoot, End in one purpose, and be all well borne Without defeat. Therefore to France, my

liege. Divide your happy England into four; Whereof take you one quarter into France, And you withal shall make all Gallia

shake. If we, with thrice such powers left at

home, Cannot defend our own doors from the

dog, Let us be worried, and our nation lose The name of hardiness and policy.

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he ruffian Boreas once enrage cle Thetis, and anon behold

rong-ribb’d bark through liquid

mountains cut, Bounding between the two moist elements, Like Perseus' horse: where then the saucy

boat Whose weak untimber'd sides but even now Co-rivall’d greatness ? Either to harbor fled, Or made a toast for Neptune. Even so Doth valor's show and valor's worth divide In storms of fortune; for in her ray and

brightness The herd hath more annoyance by the breeze Than by the tiger; but when the splitting

wind Makes flexible the knees of knotted oaks, And flies fled under shade, why, then the

thing of courage As roused with rage with rage doth sym

pathize, And with an accent tuned in selfsame key Retorts to chiding fortune. Ulyss.

Agamemnon, Thou great commander, nerve and bone of

Greece, Heart of our numbers, soul and only spirit, In whom the tempers and the minds of

all Should be shut up, hear what Ulysses

speaks. Besides the applause and approbation The which, [To Agamemnon) most mighty

for thy place and sway, [To Nestor] And thou most reverend for

thy stretch'd-out life I give to both your speeches, which were

such As Agamemnon and the hand of Greece Should hold up high in brass, and such

again As venerable Nestor, hatch'd in silver, Should with a bond of air, strong as the

axletree On which heaven rides, knit all the Greek

And the great Hector's sword had lack'd a

master, But for these instances. The specialty of rule hath been neglected: And, look, how many Grecian tents do stand Hollow upon this plain, so many hollow

factions. When that the general is not like the hive To whom the foragers shall all repair, What honey is expected?) Degree being

vizarded, The unworthiest shows as fairly in the mask. The heavens themselves, the planets, and

this center Observe degree, priority, and place, Insisture, course, proportion, season, form, Office, and custom, in all line of order; And therefore is the glorious planet Sol In noble eminence enthroned and sphered Amidst the other; whose medicinable eye Corrects the ill aspects of planets evil, And posts, like the commandment of a king, Sans check to good and bad: but when the

planets In evil mixture to disorder wander, What plagues and what portents! what mu

tiny! What raging of the sea! shaking of earth! Commotion in the winds! frights, changes,

horrors, Divert and crack, rend and deracinate The unity and married calm of states Quite from their fixture! O, when degree

is shaked, Which is the ladder to all high designs, Then enterprise is sick! How could com

munities, Degrees in schools and brotherhoods in

cities, Peaceful commerce from dividable shores, The primogenitive and due of birth, Prerogative of

age, crowns, scepters, laurels, But by degree, stand in authentic place? Take but degree away, untune that string, And, hark, what discord follows! each thing

meets In mere oppugnancy: the bounded waters Should lift their bosoms higher than the

shores And make a sop of all this solid globe: Strength should be lord of imbecility, And the rude son should strike his father

dead: Force should be right; or rather, right and

wrong, Between whose endless jar justice resides,

ish ears

To his experienced tongue, yet let it please

both, Thou great, and wise, to hear Ulysses speak. Agam. Speak, prince of Ithaca; and be't

of less expect That matter needless, of importless burden, Divide thy lips, than we are confident, When rank Thersites opes his mastic jaws, We shall hear music, wit, and oracle. Ulyss. Troy, yet upon his basis, had been

down,

Should lose their names, and so should jus

tice too. Then every thing includes itself in power, Power into will, will into appetite; And appetite, an universal wolf, So doubly seconded with will and power, Must make perforce an universal prey, And last eat up himself. Great Agamem

non, This chaos, when degree is suffocate, Follows the choking. And this neglection of degree it is That by a pace goes backward, with a pur

pose It hath to climb. The general's disdain'd By him one step below, he by the next, That next by him beneath; so every step, Exampled by the first pace that is sick Of his superior, grows to an envious fever Of pale and bloodless emulation: And 'tis this fever that keeps Troy on foot, Vot her own sinews. To end a tale of

length, Troy in our weakness stands, not in her

strength.

OF GOVERNMENT

RICHARD HOOKER

state, because thereby we either hold or seek preferment; but also to bear such exceptions as minds so averted beforehand usually take against that which they are loth should be poured into them.

Albeit therefore much of that we are to speak in this present cause may seem to a number perhaps tedious, perhaps obscure, dark, and intricate; (for many talk of the truth, which never sounded the depth from whence it springeth; and therefore when they are led thereunto they are soon weary, as men drawn from those beaten paths wherewith they have been inured ;) yet this may not so far prevail as to cut off that which the matter itself requireth, howsoever the nice humor of some be therewith pleased or no. They unto whom we shall seem tedious are in no wise injured by us, because it is in their own hands to spare that labor which they are not willing to endure. And if any complain of obscurity, they must consider, that in these matters it cometh no otherwise to pass than in sundry the works both of art and also of nature, where that which hath greatest force in the very things we see is notwithstanding itself oftentimes not seen. The stateliness of houses, the goodliness of trees, when we behold them delighteth the eye; but that foundation which beareth up the one, that root which ministereth unto the nourishment and life, is in the bosom of the earth concealed; and if there be at any time occasion to search into it, such labor is then more necessary than pleasant, both to them which undertake it and for the lookers-on. In like manner, the use and benefit of good laws all that live under them may enjoy with delight and comfort, albeit the grounds and first original causes from whence they have sprung be unknown, as to the greatest part of men they are. But when they who withdraw their obedience pretend that the laws which they should obey are corrupt and vicious; for better examination of their quality, it behoveth the very foundation and root, the highest well-spring and fountain of them to be discovered. Which because we are not oftentimes accustomed to do, when we do it the pains we take are more needful a great deal than acceptable, and the matters which we handle seem by reason of newness (till the mind grow better acquainted with them) dark, intricate, and unfamiliar. For as much help whereof as may be in this

[From Ecclesiastical Polity, Book I, 1592] 1. Maintaining Things That Are

Established He that goeth about to persuade a multitude, that they are not so well governed as they ought to be, shall never want attentive and favorable hearers; because they know the manifold defects whereunto every kind of regiment is subject, but the secret lets and difliculties, which in public proceedings are innumerable and inevitable, they have not ordinarily the judgment to consider. And because such as openly reprove supposed disorders of state are taken for principal friends to the common benefit of all, and for men that carry singular freedom of mind; under this fair and plausible color whatsoever they utter passeth for good and current. That which wanteth in the weight of their speech, is supplied by the aptness of men's minds to accept and believe it. Whereas on the other side, if we maintain things that are established, we have not only to strive with a number of heavy prejudices deeply rooted in the hearts of men, who think that herein we serve the time, and speak in favor of the present

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