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cessoure is constreyned to buylde it agayne plentye of all thinges beinge among them, a newe, to his great charge. Yea manye they doo sometymes bringe forthe an intymes also the howse that stoode one man numerable companye of people to amend the in muche moneye, another is of so nyce hyghe wayes, yf anye be broken. Many • and soo delycate a mynde, that he settethe times also, when they have no suche woorke nothinge by it. And it beynge neglected, to be occupied aboute, an open proclamation and therefore shortelye fallynge into ruyne, is made, that they shall bestowe fewer houres he buyldethe uppe another in an other in worke. For the magistrates doe not exerplace with no lesse coste and chardge. But cise theire citizens againste theire willes in amonge the Utopians, where all thinges be unneadefull laboures. For whie in the insett in a good ordre, and the common wealthe stitution of that weale publique, this ende is in a good staye, it very seldom chaunceth, onelye and chiefely pretended and mynded, that they cheuse a newe plotte to buyld an that what time maye possibly be spared house upon. And they doo not only finde from the necessarye occupacions and affayres spedy and quicke remedies for present of the commen wealth, all that the citizeins faultes: but also prevente them that be shoulde withdrawe from the bodely service like to fall. And by this meanes their to the free libertye of the minde, and garhouses continewe and laste very longe with nisshinge of the same. For herein they suplitle labour and smal reparations: in so pose the felicitye of this liffe to consiste. much that this kind of woorkmen somtimes have almost nothinge to doo. But that they
5. "And the Pursuit of Happiness” be commaunded to hewe timbre at home, They dispute of the good qualityes of the and to square and trimme up stones, to the sowle, of the body, and of fortune. And intente that if anye woorke chaunce, it may whether the name of goodnes maye be apthe spedelier rise. Now, syr, in theire ap- plied to all these, or onlye to the endoweparell, marke (I praye you) howe few mentes and giftes of the soule. They reason woorkmen they neade. Fyrste of al, whyles of vertue and pleasure. But the chiefe and they be at woorke, they be covered homely principall question is in what thinge, be it with leather or skinnes, that will last vii. one or moe, the felicitye of man consistethe. yeares. When they go furthe abrode they But in this poynte they seme almooste to caste upon them a cloke, whych hydeth the muche geven and enclyned to the opinion of other homelye apparel. These clookes them, which defende pleasure, wherein they through out the whole Iland be all of one determine either all or the chiefyste parte coloure, and that is the natural coloure of of mans felicitye to reste. And (whyche is the wul. They therefore do not only spend more to bee marveled at) the defense of this much lesse wullen clothe then is spente in soo deyntye and delicate an opinion, they other contreis, but also the same standeth fetche even from their grave, sharpe, bytter, them in muche lesse coste. But lynen clothe and rygorous religion. For they never disis made with lesse laboure, and is therefore pute of felicity or blessednes, but they joine hadde more in use. But in lynen cloth onlye unto the reasons of Philosophye certeyne whytenesse, in wullen only clenlynes is re- principles taken oute of religion: wythoute garded. As for the smalnesse or finenesse the whyche to the investigation of trewe of the threde, that is no thinge passed for. | felicitye they thynke reason of it selfe weake And this is the cause wherfore in other and unperfecte. Those principles be these places iiii. or v. clothe gownes of dyvers and such lyke. That the soule is immortal, coloures, and as manye silke cootes be not and by the bountiful goodnes of God enoughe for one man. Yea and yf he be of ordeined to felicitie. That to our vertues the delicate and nyse sorte x. be to fewe: and good deades rewardes be appointed after whereas there one garmente wyl serve a man this life, and to our evel deades punishmooste commenlye ij. yeares. For whie mentes. Though these be perteyning to reshoulde he desyre moo? Seinge yf he had ligion, yet they thincke it mete that they them, he should not be the better hapte or shoulde be beleved and graunted by profes covered from colde, neither in his apparel of reason. But yf these principles were conanye whitte the comlyer. Wherefore, seingedempned and dysanulled, then without anye they be all exercysed in profitable occupa- delaye they pronounce no man to be so tions, and that fewe artificers in the same folish, whiche woulde not do all his diligence craftes be sufficiente, this is the cause that and endevoure to obteyne pleasure be ryght
or wronge, onlye avoydynge this incon- and hurteful, or else if thou not only mayste, venience, that the lesse pleasure should not but also of dewty art bound to procure it to be a let or hinderaunce to the bigger: or others, why not chiefely to the selfe? To that he laboured not for that pleasure, whome thou art bound to shew as much whiche would bringe after it displeasure, favoure and gentelnes as to other. For greefe, and sorrow. For they judge it ex- when nature biddeth the to be good and treame madnes to folowe sharpe and pein- gentle to other she commaundeth the not to ful vertue, and not only to bannishe the be cruell and ungentle to the selfe. Therepleasure of life, but also willingly to suffer fore even very nature (saye they) pregriefe, without anye hope of proffit thereof scribeth to us a joyful lyfe, that is to say, ensuinge. For what proffit can there be, if pleasure as the ende of all oure operations. a man, when he hath passed over all his And they define vertue to be lyfe ordered lyfe unpleasauntly, that is to say, miserablye, accordynge to the prescripte of nature. But shall have no rewarde after his death? But in that that nature dothe allure and provoke nowe, syr, they thinke not felicitie to reste men one to healpe another to lyve merily in all pleasure, but only in that pleasure (which suerly she doth not without a good that is good and honeste, and that bereto as cause: for no man is so farre above the to perfet blessednes our nature is allured lotte of mans state or condicion, that nature and drawen even of vertue, whereto onlye dothe carke and care for hym onlye, whiche they that be of the contrary opinion do at- equallye favourethe all, that be compretribute felicitie. For they define vertue to hended under the communion of one shape be life ordered according to nature, and that forme and fassion) verely she commaundeth we be hereunto ordeined of god. And that the to use diligent circumspection, that thou he dothe followe the course of nature, which do not so seke for thine owne commodities, in desiering and refusinge thinges is ruled that thou procure others incommodities. by reason. Furthermore that reason doth Wherefore theire opinion is, that not only chiefely and principallye kendle in men the covenauntes and bargaynes made amonge love and veneration of the devine majestie. private men ought to be well and faythe
Of whose goodnes it is that we be, and that fullye fulfilled, observed, and kepte, but • we be in possibilitie to attayne felicite. And also commen lawes, whiche either a good
that secondarely it bothe stirrethe and pro- prince hath justly publyshed, or els the voketh us to leade our lyfe oute of care in people neither oppressed with tyrannye, joy and mirth, and also moveth us to helpe neither deceaved by fraude and gyell, hath and further all other in respecte of the by theire common consent constituted and societe of nature to obteine and enjoye the ratifyed, concerninge the particion of the same. For there was never man so earnest commodities of lyfe, that is to say, the and paineful a follower of vertue and hater matter of pleasure. These lawes not offended, of pleasure, that wold so injoyne you it is wysdome that thou looke to thine own laboures, watchinges, and fastinges, but he wealthe. And to doe the same for the comwould also exhort you to ease, lighten, and mon wealth is no lesse then thy duetie, if relieve, to your powre, the lack and misery thou bearestany reverent love, or any naturall of others, praysing the same as a dede of zeale and affection to thy native countreye. humanitie and pitie. Then if it be a poynte But to go about to let an other man of his of humanitie for man to bring health and pleasure, whiles thou procurest thine owne, comforte to man, and speciallye (which is that is open wrong. Contrary wyse to a vertue moste peculiarlye belonging to withdrawe somethinge from the selfe to geve man) to mitigate and assuage the greife of to other, that is a pointe of humanitie and others, and by takyng from them the sor- gentilnes: whiche never taketh awaye so owe and hevynes of lyfe, to restore them to muche commoditie, as it bringethe agayne. joye, that is to saye, to pleasure: whie maye For it is recompensed with the retourne of it not then be sayd, that nature doth pro- benefytes, and the conscience of the good voke everye man to doo the same to him- dede with the remembraunce of the thankeselfe? For a joyfull lyfe, that is to say, a full love and benevolence of them to whom pleasaunt lyfe is either evel: and if it be thou hast done it, doth bringe more pleasure so, then thou shouldest not onlye helpe no to thy mynde, then that whiche thou hast man therto, but rather, as much as in the withholden from thy selfe could have brought lieth, withdrawe all men frome it, as noysome to thy bodye. Finallye (which to a godly
disposed and a religious mind is easy to be take it displeasauntly and disdainfullye. persuaded) God recompenseth the gifte of a And agayne is it not lyke madnes to take a short and smal pleasure with great and ever- pryde in vayne and unprofitable honours? lastinge joye. Therfore the matter diligently For what naturall or trewe pleasure doest weyede and considered, thus they thinke, thou take of an other mans bare hede, or that all our actions, and in them the vertues bowed knees? Will this ease the paine of themselfes be referred at the last to pleas- thy knees, or remedie the phrensie of thy ure, as their ende and felicitie. Pleasure hede? In this ymage of counterfeite pleasthey call every motion and state of the bodie ure,ithey be of a marvelous madnesse, whiche or mynde wherin man hath naturally delec- for the opinion of nobilitie, rejoyse muche in tation. Appetite they joyne to nature, and their owne conceyte. Because it was their that not without a good cause. For like as fortune to come of suche auncetoures, whose not only the senses, but also right reason stocke of longe tyme hathe bene counted coveteth whatsoever is naturally pleasaunt, ryche (for nowe nobilitie is nothing elles) so that it may be gotten without wrong or speciallye riche in landes. And though their injurie, not letting or debarring a greater auncetours left them not one foote of lande, pleasure, nor causing painful labour, even yet they thinke themselves not the lesse so those thinges that men by vaine ymagina-noble therfore of one heare. In this tion do fayne against nature to be pleasaunt number also they counte them that take (as though it laye in their power to chaunge pleasure and delite (as I said) in gemmes the thinges, as they do the names of thinges) and precious stones, and thynke themal suche pleasures they beleve to be of so selves almoste goddes, if they chaunce to small helpe and furtheraunce to felicitie, gette an excellente one, speciallye of that that they counte them a great let and hinder- kynde, whiche in that tyme of their own aunce. Because that in whom they have countre men is had in hyghest estimation. ones taken place, all his mynde they pos
For one kynde of stone kepeth not his pryce sesse with a false opinion of pleasure. So styll in all countreis and at all times. Nor that there is no place left for true and nat- they bye them not, but taken out of the urall delectations. For there be many golde and bare: no nor so neither, untyll thinges, which of their owne nature conteyne they have made the seller to sweare, that he no pleasauntnes: yea the moste parte of will warraunte and assure it to be a true them muche griefe and sorrowe. And yet stone, and no counterfeit gemme. Suche throughe the perverse and milieyous flicker- care they take lest a counterfeite stone inge inticementes of lewde and unhoneste should deceave their eyes in steade of a desyres, be taken not only for speciall and ryghte stone. But why shouldest thou not sovereigne pleasures, but also be counted take even as muche pleasure in beholdynge amonge the chiefe causes of life. In this a counterfeite stone, whiche thine eye cannot counterfeat kinde of pleasure they put them discerne from a righte stone? They shoulde that I spake of before. Whiche the better bothe be of lyke value to thee, even as to gownes they have on, the better men they the blynde man. What shall I saye of them, thinke them selfes. In the which thing they that kepe superfluous riches, to take delecdoo twyse erre.
For they be no lesse de- tation only in the beholdinge, and not in the ceaved in that they thinke theire gowne the use or occupiynge thereof? Do they take better, than they be, in that they thinke trew pleasure, or elles be thei deceaved with themselfes the better. For if you consider false pleasure? Or of them that be in a the profitable use of the garmente, whye contrarie vice, hidinge the gold whiche they should wulle of a fyner sponne threde, be shall never occupye, nor peradventure never thougt better, than the wul of a course se more? And whiles they take care leaste sponne threde? Yet they, as though the one they shall leese it, do leese it in dede. For did passe the other by nature, and not by what is it elles, when they hyde it in the their mistakyng, avaunce themselfes, and ground, takyng it bothe frome their owne thinke the price of their owne persones there- use, and perchaunce frome all other mennes by greatly encreased. And therefore the also? And yet thou, when thou haste hydde honour, which in a course gowne they durste thy treasure, as one out of all care, hoppest not have loked for, they require, as it were for joye. The whiche treasure, yf it shoulde of dewtie, for theyr fyner gownes sake. And chaunce to bee stolen, and thou ignoraunt of if they be passed by without reverence, they the thefte shouldest dye tenne years after: all that tenne yeares space that thou lyvedest any signe or token of equitie and justice. after thy money was stoolen, what matter For what justice is this, that a ryche goldewas it to thee, whether it hadde bene taken smythe, or an usurer, or to bee shorte anye awaye or elles safe as thou lefteste it? of them, which either doo nothing at all, or Trewlye both wayes like profytte came to els that whyche they doo is such, that it is thee.
not very necessary to the common wealth,
should have a pleasaunte and a welthie 6. The Welfare of All the People
lyvinge, either by Idlenes, or by unnecesNowe I have declared and described unto sarye busines: when in the meane tyme you, as truelye as I coulde the fourme and poore labourers, carters, yronsmythes, carordre of that commen wealth, which verely penters, and plowmen, by so greate and conin my judgment is not only the beste, but tinual toyle, as drawing and bearinge also that which alone of good right maye beastes be skant hable to susteine, and againe claime and take upon it the name of a com- so necessary toyle, that without it no commen wealth or publique weale. For in other mon wealth were hable to continewe and enplaces they speake stil of the commen dure one yere, should yet get so harde and wealth. But every man procureth his owne poore a lyving, and lyve so wretched and private gaine. Here where nothinge is pri- miserable a lyfe, that the state and condivate, the commen affaires bee earnestlye tion of the labouringe beastes maye seme loked upon. And truely on both partes they muche better and welthier? For they be have good cause so to do as they do. For in not put to soo continuall laboure, nor theire other countreys who knoweth not that he lyvinge is not muche worse, yea to them shall sterve for honger, onles he make some muche pleasaunter, takynge no thoughte in severall provision for himselfe, though the the meane season for the tyme to come. commen wealthe floryshe never so muche in But these seilye poore wretches be presently ryches? And therefore he is compelled even tormented with barreyne and unfrutefull of verye necessitie to have regarde to him labour. And the remembraunce of theire selfe, rather then to the people, that is to poore indigent and beggerlye olde age saye, to other. Contrarywyse there where kylleth them up. For theire dayly wages is all thinges be commen to every man, it is not so lytle, that it will not suffice for the same to be doubted that any man shal lacke anye daye, muche lesse it yeldeth any overplus, thinge necessary for his private uses : that may daylye be layde up for the relyefe that the commen store houses and bernes be of olde age. Is not this an unjust and an sufficientlye stored. For there nothinge is unkynde publyque weale, whyche gyveth distributed after a nyggyshe sorte, neither great fees and rewardes to gentlemen, as there is anye poore man or begger. And they call them, and to goldsmythes, and to thoughe no man have anye thinge, yet everye suche other, whiche be either ydle persones, man is ryche. For what can be more riche, or els onlye flatterers, and devysers of vayne then to lyve joyfully and merely, without al pleasures: And of the contrary parte griefe and pensifenes: not caring for his maketh no gentle provision for poore plowowne lyving, nor vexed or troubled with men, coliars, laborers, carters, yronsmythes, his wifes importunate complayntes, nor and carpenters: without whome no commen dreadynge povertie to his sonne, nor sor- wealthe can continewe? But after it hath rowyng for his doughters dowrey? Yea they abused the labours of theire lusty and take no care at all for the lyvyng and flowring age, at the laste when they be opwealthe of themselfes and al theirs, of theire pressed with olde age and syckenes, being wyfes, theire chyldren, theire nephewes, nedye, poore, and indigent of all thinges, theire childrens chyldren, and all the suc- then forgettyng their so manye paynefull cession that ever shall followe in theire watchings, not remembring their so manye posteritie. And yet besydes this there is no and so greate benefites, recompenseth and lesse provision for them that were ones acquyteth them moste unkyndly with myseralabourers, and be nowe weake and impotent, ble death. And yet besides this the riche then for them that do nowe laboure and take men not only by private fraud but also by payne. Here nowe woulde I see, yf anye commen lawes do every day pluck and man dare bee so bolde as to compare with snatche awaye from the poore some parte of this equytie, the justice of other nations. their daily living. So whereas it semed Among whom, I forsake God, if I can fynde before unjuste to recompense with un
kindnes their paynes that have bene bene- our lyving, which a goddes name was very ficiall to the publique weale, nowe they have excellently devised and invented, that by her to this their wrong and unjuste dealinge the way thereto should be opened. I am (which is yet a muche worse pointe) geven sewer the ryche men perceave this, nor they the name of justice, yea and that force be not ignoraunte how much better it were of a lawe. Therfore when I consider and too lacke noo necessarye thing, then to way in my mind all these commen wealthes, abunde with overmuche superfluite: to be which now a dayes any where do flourish, ryd oute of innumerable cares and troubles, so god helpe me, I can perceave nothing but then to be besieged and encombred with a certein conspiracy of riche men procur- great ryches. And I dowte not that either inge theire owne commodities under the the respecte of every mans private comname and title of the commen wealth. They moditie, or els the authority of oure savioure invent and devise all meanes and craftes, Christe (which for his great wisdom could first how to kepe safely, without feare of not but know what were best, and for his lesing, that they have unjustly gathered inestimable goodnes could not but counsel to together, and next how to hire and abuse that which he knew to be best) wold have the worke and laboure of the poore for as brought all the worlde longe agoo into the litle money as may be. These devises, when lawes of this weale publique, if it wer not the riche men have decreed to be kept and that one only beast, the princesse and mother observed under coloure of the comminaltie, of all mischiefe, Pride, doth withstande and that is to saye, also of the pore people, then let it. She measurethe not wealth and prosthey be made lawes. But these most wicked perity by her owne commodities, but by the and vicious men, when they have by their miserie and incomodities of other, she would unsatiable covetousnes devided among them not by her good will be made a goddesse, yf selves al those thinges, whiche woulde have there were no wretches left, over whom she sufficed all men, yet how farre be they from might, like a scorneful ladie rule and the welth and felicitie of the Utopian com- triumph, over whose miseries her felicities men wealth? Out of the which, in that all mighte shyne, whose povertie she myghte the desire of money with the use thereof is vexe, tormente, and encrease by gorgiouslye utterly secluded and banished, howe greate settynge furthe her richesse. Thys hella heape of cares is cut away! How great hounde creapeth into mens hartes: and an occasion of wickednes and mischiefe is plucketh them backe from entering the right plucked up by the rotes! For who knoweth pathe of life, and is so depely roted in mens not, that fraud, theft, ravine, brauling, brestes, that she can not be plucked out. quarelling, brabling, striffe, chiding, conten- This fourme and fashion of a weale pubtion, murder, treason, poisoning, which by lique, which I would gladly wish unto al daily punishmentes are rather revenged then nations, I am glad yet that it hath chaunced refrained, do dye when money dieth? And to the Utopians, which have folowed those also that feare, griefe, care, laboures and institutions of life, whereby they have laid watchinges do perish even the very same such foundations of their common wealth, moment that money perisheth? Yea poverty as shal continew and last not only wealthely, it selfe, which only semed to lacke money, if but also, as far as mans wit may judge and money were gone, it also would decrease and conjecture, shall endure for ever. For, vanishe away. And that you may perceave seyng the chiefe causes of ambition and this more plainly, consider with your selfes sedition, with other vices be plucked up by some barein and unfruteful yeare, wherin the rootes, and abandoned at home, there can manye thousandes of people have starved be no jeopardie of domisticall dissention, for honger: I dare be bolde to say, that in whiche alone hathe caste under foote and the end of that penury so much corne or brought to noughte the well fortefied and grain might have bene found in the rich stronglie defenced wealthe and riches of mens bernes, if they had bene searched, as many cities. But forasmuch as perfect conbeing divided among them whome famine corde remaineth, and wholsome lawes be and pestilence then consumed, no man at al executed at home, the envie of al forein should have felt that plague and penuri. princes be not hable to shake or move the So easely might men gette their living, if empire, though they have many tymes long that same worthye princesse lady money did ago gone about to do it, beyng evermore not alone stop up the waye betwene us and driven backe.