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that their people in war had so inured themselves to corrupte and wicked maners: that they had taken a delite and pleasure in robbinge and stealing: that through manslaughter they had gathered boldnes to mischiefe: that their lawes were had in con tempte, and nothing set by or regarded : that their king beynge troubled with the charge and governaunce of two kingdomes, could not nor was not hable perfectlie to discharge his office towardes them both: seing againe that all these evelles and troubles were endles: at the laste layde their heades together, and like faithfull and lovinge subjectes gave to their kynge free choise and libertie to kepe styll the one of these two kingdomes whether he would: alleginge that he was not hable to kepe both, and that they were mo then might well be governed of halfe a king: forasmuche as no man woulde be content to take him for his mulettour, that kepeth an other mans moyles besydes his. So this good prince was constreyned to be content with his olde kyngedome and to geve over the newe to one of his frendes. Who shortelye after was violentlie driven out. Furthermore if I shoulde declare unto them, that all this busie preparaunce to warre, wherby so many nations for his sake should be broughte into a troublesome hurleiburley, when all his coffers were emptied, his treasures wasted, and his people destroied, should at the length through some mischance be in vaine and to none effect: and that therfore it were best for him to content him selfe with his owne kingedome of Fraunce, as his forfathers and predecessours did before him: to make much of it, to enrich it, and to make it as flourisshing as he could, to endevoure him selfe to love his subjectes, and againe to be beloved of them, willingly to live with them, peaceably to governe them, and with other kyngdomes not to medle, seinge that whiche he hath all reddy is even ynoughe for him, yea and more than he can well turne hym to: this myne advyse, maister More, how thinke you it would be harde and taken? So God helpe me, not very thankefully, quod I. Wel, let us procede then, quod he. Suppose that some kyng and his counsel were together whettinge their wittes and devisinge, what subtell crafte they myght invente to enryche the kinge with great treasures of money. First one counselleth to rayse and enhaunce the valuation of money when the kinge must paye anye: and agayne to calle downe the value of

coyne to lesse then it is worthe, when he muste receive or gather any. For thus great sommes shal be payd wyth a lytyl money, and where lytle is due muche shal be receaved. Another counselleth to fayne warre, that when under this coloure and pretence the kyng hath gathered greate aboundaunce of money, he maye, when it shall please him, make peace with greate solempnitie and holye ceremonies, to blinde the eyes of the poore communaltie, as taking pitie and compassion forsothe upon mans bloude, lyke a loving and a mercifull prince. Another putteth the kynge in remembraunce of certeine olde and moughteeaten lawes, that of longe tyme have not bene put in execution, whych because no man can remembre that they were made, everie man hath transgressed. The fynes of these lawes he counselleth the kynge to require: for there is no waye so proffitable, nor more honorable, as the whyche hathe a shewe and coloure of justice. Another advyseth him to forbidde manye thinges under greate penalties and fines, specially suche thinges as is for the peoples profit not be used, and afterwarde to dispence for money with them, whyche by this prohibition substeyne losse and dammage. For by this meanes the favour of the people is wonne, and profite riseth two wayes. First by takinge forfaytes of them whome covetousnes of gaynes hath brought in daunger of this statute, and also by sellinge privileges and licences, whyche the better that the prince is, forsothe the deerer he selleth them: as one that is lothe to graunte to any private persone anye thinge that is against the proffite of his people. And therefore maye sel none but at an exceding dere pryce. Another giveth the kynge counsel to endaunger unto his grace the judges of the Realme, that he maye have them ever on his side, and that they maye in everye matter despute and reason for the kynges right. Yea and further to call them into his palace and to require them there to argue and discusse his matters in his owne presence. So there shal be no matter of his so openlye wronge and unjuste, wherein one or other of them, either because he wyl have sumthinge to allege and objecte or that he is ashamed to saye that whiche is sayde alreadye, or els to pike a thanke with his prince, wil not fynde some hole open to set a snare in, wherewith to take the contrarie parte in a trippe. Thus whiles the judges cannot agree amonges them selfes,

reasoninge and arguing of that which is and mayntenaunce of peace to consiste in playne enough, and bringinge the manifest the povertie of the people, the thing it selfe trewthe in dowte: in the meane season the sheweth that they be farre out of the waye. Kinge maye take a fyt occasion to under- For where shal a man finde more wrangling, stand the lawe as shal moste make for his quarrelling, brawling, and chiding, then advauntage, whereunto all other for shame, among beggers? Who be more desierous of or for feare wil agree. Then the Judges newe mutations and alterations, then they may be bolde to pronounce on the kynges that be not content with the present state of side. For he that geveth sentence for the their lyfe? Or finallye who be bolder king, cannot be without a good excuse. For stomaked to bringe all in a hurlieburlye it shal be sufficient for him to have equitie (therby trustinge to get some windfal) then on his part, or the bare wordes of the lawe, they that have nowe nothinge to leese? And or a wrythen and wrested understandinge of yf any Kyng were so smally regarded, and the same, or els (whiche with good and just so lightly estemed, yea so behated of his Judges is of greater force then all lawes be) subjectes, that other wayes he could not the Kynges indisputable prerogative. To kepe them in awe, but onlye by open conclude, al the counsellours agre and con- wronges, by pollinge and shavinge, and by sent together with the ryche Crassus, that no bringinge them to beggerie, sewerly it were abundance of gold can be sufficient for a better for him to forsake his kingedome, prince, which muste kepe and maynteyne then to holde it by this meanes: whereby an armie: furthermore that a kynge, though the name of a king be kepte, yet the thoughe he would, can do nothinge unjustlye. majestie is lost. For it is againste the digFor all that all men have, yea also the men nitie of a kynge to have rule over beggers, them selfes be all his. And that every man but rather over ryche and welthie men. Of hath so much of his owne, as the kynges this mynde was the hardie and couragius gentilnes hath not taken from hym. And Fabrice, when he sayde, that he had rather that it shal be moste for the kinges ad- be a ruler of riche men, then be ryche himvantage, that his subjectes have very lytle selfe. And verelye one man to live in pleasor nothinge in their possession, as whose ure and wealth, whyles all other wepe and savegarde doth herein consiste, that his smarte for it, that is the parte, not of a people doe not waxe wanton and wealthie kynge, but of a jayler. To be shorte as he through riches and libertie, because where is a folyshe phisition, that cannot cure his these thinges be, there men be not wonte patientes disease, onles he caste him in an patiently to obeye harde, unjuste, and un- other syckenes, so he that cannot amend the lawefull commaundementes; whereas on the lives of his subjectes, but be taking from other part neade and povertie doth holde them the wealthe and commoditie of lyfe, he downe and kepe under stowte courages, and muste nedes graunte that, he knoweth not maketh them patient perforce, takynge from the feate how to governe men. But let him them bolde and rebellynge stomakes. Here rather amende his owne lyfe, renounce unagayne if I shoulde ryse up, and boldelye honest pleasures, and forsake pride. For affirme that all these counselles be to the these be the chiefe vices that cause hym to kinge dishonoure and reproche, whose runne in the contempte or hatred of his honoure and safetye is more and rather sup- people. Let him lyve of hys owne, hurtinge ported and upholden by the wealth and

Let him doe cost not above his ryches of his people, then by hys owne power. Let him restreyne wyckednes. Let treasures: and if I should declare that the him prevente vices, and take awaye the occomminaltie chueseth their king for their casions of offenses by well orderynge hys owne sake, and not for his sake: to the subjectes, and not by sufferynge wickednes intent, that through his laboure and studie to increase afterward to be punyshed. Let they might al live wealthily sauffe from hym not be to hastie in callynge agayne wronges and injuries: and that therfore the

lawes, whyche a custome hathe abrogated : kynge ought to take more care for the specially suche as have bene longe forgotten, wealthe of his people, then for his owne and never lacked nor neaded. And let hym wealthe, even as the office and dewtie of a never under the cloke and pretence of transshepehearde is in that he is a shepherde, to gression take suche fynes and forfaytes, as feede his shepe rather then himselfe. For as no Judge wyll suffre a private persone to towchinge this, that they thinke the defence take, as unjuste and ful of gile. Here if I

no man.

should brynge forth before them the lawe wolde say, her owne stage, and thereafter of the Macariens, whiche be not farre disorderynge and behavinge hereselfe in the taunt from Utopia: whose Kynge the daye playe that she hathe in hande, playethe her of hys coronation is bounde by a solempne parte accordingelye with comlyenes, utterothe, that he shall never at anye time have inge nothinge oute of dewe ordre and in hys treasure above a thousande pounde of fassyon. And this is the philosophye that golde or sylver: They saye a verye good you muste use. Or els whyles a commodye kynge, whiche toke more care for the wealthe of Plautus is playinge, and the vyle bondeand commoditye of his countrey, then for men skoffynge and tryffelinge amonge them thenriching of him selfe, made this lawe to selfes, yf you shoulde sodenlye come upon be a stop and barre to kinges from heaping the stage in a Philosophers apparrell, and and hording up so muche money as might reherse oute of Octavia the place wherein impoveryshe their people. For he forsawe Seneca disputeth with Nero: had it not bene that this som of treasure woulde suffice to better for you to have played the domme supporte the kynge in battaile against his persone, then by rehersynge that, whych owne people, if they shoulde chaunce to served neither for the tyme nor place, to rebell: and also to maintein his warres have made suche a tragycall comedye or againste the invasions of his forreyn ene- gallymalfreye? For by bryngynge in other mies. Againe he perceived the same stocke stuffe that nothinge apperteynethe to the of money to be to litle and unsufficient to

presente matter, you muste nedes marre and encourage and enhable him wrongfullye to pervert the play that is in hand, thoughe the take away other mens goodes: whyche was stuffe that you bringe be muche better. What the chiefe cause whie the lawe was made. part soever you have taken upon you, playe An other cause was this. He thought that that aswel as you can and make the best of by this provision his people shoulde not it: And doe not therefore disturbe and lacke money, wherewith to mayneteyne their brynge oute of ordre the whole matter, dayly occupieng and chaffayre. And seynge bycause that an other, whyche is meryer and the kynge could not chewse laye out and better cummethe to your remembraunce. So bestowe al that came in above the prescript the case standeth in a common wealthe, and some of his stocke, he thought he woulde so it is in the consultations of Kynges and seke no occasions to doe his subjectes in- prynces. Yf evel opinions and noughty perjurie. Suche a kynge shal be feared of evel suasions can not be utterly and quyte men, and loved of good men. These, and plucked out of their hartes, if you can not suche other informations, yf I shoulde use even as you wolde remedy vices, which use among men wholye inclined and geven to and custome hath confirmed: yet for this the contrarye part, how deaffe hearers thinke cause you must not leave and forsake the you shoulde I have? Deaffe hearers douteles common wealthe: you muste not forsake the (quod I). And in good faith no marveyle. shippe in a tempeste, because you can not And to be plaine with you, truelye I can not rule and kepe downe the wyndes. No nor allowe that suche communication shalbe used, you muste not laboure to dryve into their or suche counsell geven, as you be suere heades newe and straunge informations, shall never be regarded nor receaved. For whyche you knowe wel shalbe nothinge rehow can so straunge informations be profit-| garded wyth them that be of cleane contrary able, or how can they be beaten into their mindes. But you must with a crafty wile headdes, whose myndes be allredye pre- and a subtell trayne studye and endevoure vented: with cleane contrarye persuasions ? youre selfe, asmuche as in you lyethe, to This schole philosophie is not unpleasaunte handle the matter wyttelye and handesomeamonge frendes in familiare communication, lye for the purpose, and that whyche you but in the counselles of kinges, where greate can not turne to good, so to order it that it matters be debated and reasoned with greate be not verye badde. For it is not possible authoritye, these thinges have no place. That for al thinges to be well, onles all men were is it whiche I mente (quod he) when I sayde good. Whych I thinke wil not be yet thies philosophye hadde no place amonge kinges. good many yeares. In dede (quod I) this schole philosophie hath not: whiche thinketh all thinges mete

4. Labor in Utopia for every place. But there is an other phil- Husbandrie is a Science common to them osophye more civile, whycle knoweth, as ye all in generall, bothe men and women,

where

in they be all experte and cunning. In this condition of bondemen. Whiche nevertheles they be all instructed even from their youth: is almooste everye where the lyfe of workepartelie in their scholes with traditions and men and artificers, saving in Utopia. For preceptes, and partlie in the countrey nighe they dividynge the daye and the nyghte into the citie, brought up as it were in playinge, xxiiii. juste houres, appointe and assigne not onely beholding the use of it, but by onelye sixe of those houres to woorke; iii occasion of exercising their bodies practis- before noone, upon the whiche they go ing it also. Besides husbandrie, whiche (as streighte to diner: and after diner, when I saide) is common to them all, everye one they have rested two houres, then they of them learneth one or other several and worke iii. houres and upon that they go to particular science, as his owne proper crafte. supper. Aboute eyghte of the cloke in the That is most commonly either clothworking eveninge (countinge one of the clocke at in wol or flaxe, or masonrie, or the smithes the firste houre after noone) they go to craft, or the carpenters science. For there bedde: eyght houres they geve to slepe. All is none other occupation that any number the voide time, that is betwene the houres to speake of doth use there. For their gar- of worke, slepe, and meate, that they be mentes, which throughoute all the Ilande be suffered to bestowe, every man as he liketh of one fashion (savynge that there is a dif- best him selfe. Not to thintent that they ference betwene the mans garmente and the shold mispend this time in riote or slouthwomans, betwene the maried and the un- fulnes: but beynge then licensed from the maried) and this one continueth for ever- laboure of their owne occupations, to bestow more unchaunged, semely and comelie to the the time well and thriftelve upon some other eye, no lette to the movynge and weldynge science, as shall please them. For it is a of the bodye, also fytte both for wynter and solempne custome there, to have lectures summer: as for these garmentes (I saye) daylye early in the morning, where to be every familie maketh their owne. But of presente they onely be constrained that be the other foresaide craftes everye man learn- namelye chosen and appoynted to learninge. eth one. And not onely the men, but also Howbeit a greate multitude of every sort the women. But the women, as the weaker of people, both men and women go to heare sort, be put to the easier craftes: as to lectures, some one and some an other, as worke wolle and flaxe. The more laborsome everye mans nature is inclined. Yet, this sciences be committed to the men. For the notwithstanding, if any man had rather mooste part every man is broughte up in his bestowe this time upon his owne occupation, fathers crafte. For moste commonlye they (as it chaunceth in manye, whose mindes be naturallie therto bente and inclined. But rise not in the contemplation of any science yf a mans minde stande to anye other, he liberall) he is not letted, nor prohibited, but is by adoption put into a familye of that is also praysed and commended, as profitable Occupation, which he doth most fantasy. to the common wealthe. After supper they Whome not onely his father, but also the bestow one houre in playe: in summer in magistrates do diligently loke to, that he be their gardens: in winter in their commen put to a discrete and an honest householder. halles: where they dine and suppe. There Yea, and if anye person, when he hath they exercise themselves in musike, or els in learned one crafte, be desierous to learne honest and wholsome communication. Dicealso another, he is likewyse suffred and per- plave, and suche other folishe and pernicious mitted.

games they know not. But they use ij. When he hathe learned bothe, he occupieth games not much unlike the chesse. The one whether he wyll: onelesse the citie have is the battell of numbers, wherein one nummore neade of the one then of the other. bre stealethe awaye another. The other is The chiefe and almooste the onelye offyce wherin vices fyghte with vertues, as it were of the Syphograuntes is, to see and take in battel array, or a set fyld. In the which hede, that no manne sit idle: but that everye game is verye properlye shewed, bothe the one applye hys owne craft with earnest striffe and discorde that vices have amonge diligence. And yet for all that, not to be themselfes, and agayne theire unitye and wearied from earlie in the morninge, to late concorde againste vertues: And also what in the evenninge, with continuall worke, like vices be repugnaunt to what vertues: with labouringe and toylinge beastes. For this what powre and strength they assaile them is worse then the miserable and wretched openlye: by what wieles and subtelty they assaulte them secretelye: with what helpe mens laboure, then ij. of the workemen and aide the vertues resiste, and overcome themselfes doo: yf all these (I saye) were the puissaunce of the vices: by what craft sette to profytable occupatyons, you easethey frustrate their purposes: and finally lye perceave howe lytle tyme would be by what sleight or meanes the one get- enoughe, yea and to muche to stoore us with teth the victory. But here least you be all thinges that maye be requisite either for deceaved, one thinge you muste looke more necessitie, or for commoditye, yea or for narrowly upon. For seinge they bestowe pleasure, so that the same pleasure be trewe but vi. houres in woorke, perchaunce you and natural. And this in Utopia the thinge maye thinke that the lacke of some neces- it selfe makethe manifeste and playne. For sarye thinges hereof maye ensewe. But there in all the citye, with the whole conthis is nothinge so. For that smal time is treye, or shiere adjoyning to it scarselye not only enough but also to muche for the 500. persons of al the whole numbre of men stoore and abundance of all thinges, that and women, that be neither to olde, nor to be requisite, either for the necessitie, or weake to worke, be licensed and distcharged commoditie of life. The which thinge you from laboure. Amonge them be the Siphoalso shall perceave, if you weye and con- grauntes (whoe thoughe they be by the sider with your selfes how great a parte lawes exempte and privileged from labour) of the people in other contreis lyveth ydle. yet they exempte not themselfes: to the First almost all women, whyche be the intent that they may the rather by their halfe of the whole numbre: or els if the example provoke other to worke. The same women be somewhere occupied, there most vacation from labour do they also enjoye, commonlye in their steade the men be ydle. to whome the people persuaded by the Besydes this how greate, and howe ydle commendation of the priestes, and secrete a companye is there of preystes, and re- election of the Siphograuntes, have geven a lygious men, as they cal them? put thereto perpetual licence from laboure to learninge. al ryche men, speciallye all landed men, But if any one of them prove not accordwhich comonlye be called gentilmen, and inge to the expectation and hoope of him noble men.

Take into this numbre also conceaved, he is forthwith plucked backe theire servauntes: I meane all that flocke to the company of artificers. And conof stoute bragging russhe bucklers. Joyne trarye wise, often it chaunceth that a handito them also sturdy and valiaunte beggers, craftes man doth so earnestly bestowe his clokinge their idle lyfe under the coloure of vacaunte and spare houres in learninge, and some disease or sickenes. And trulye you throughe diligence so profyteth therin, that shal find them much fewer then you thought, he is taken from his handy occupation, and by whose labour all these thinges are promoted to the company of the learned. wrought, that in mens affaires are Oute of this ordre of the learned be chosen daylye used and frequented. Nowe con- ambassadours, priestes, Tranibores, and syder with youre selfe, of these fewe that finallye the prince him selfe. Whome they doe woorke, how fewe be occupied in neces- in theire olde tonge cal Barzanes, and by sarye woorkes. For where money beareth a newer name, Adamus. The residewe of all the swinge, there many vaayne and su- the people being neither ydle, nor yet ocperfluous occupations must nedes be used, cupied about unprofitable exercises, it may to serve only for ryotous superfluite, and be easely judged in how fewe houres how unhonest pleasure. For the same multitude muche good woorke by them may be doone that now is occupied in woork, if they were and dispatched, towardes those thinges that devided into so fewe occupations as the I have spoken of. This commodity they necessarye use of nature requyreth; in so have also above other, that in the most greate plentye of thinges as then of neces- part of necessarye occupations they neade sity woulde ensue, doubtles the prices not so much work, as other nations doe. wolde be to lytle for the artifycers to mayn- For first of all the buildinge or repayringe teyne theire livinges. But yf all these, that of houses asketh everye where so manye be nowe busied about unprofitable occu- mens continual labour, bicause that the unpations, with all the whole flocke of them thrifty heire suffereth the houses that his that lyve ydellye and slouthfullye, whyche father buylded in contyneuaunce of tyme consume and waste everye one of them to fall in decay. So that which he myghte more of these thinges that come by other have upholden wyth lytle coste, hys suc

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