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and sage.

that they do shamefully and flatteringly though stricken in age, yet bare he his bodye geve assent to the fond and folishe say- upright. In his face did shine such an inges of certeyn great men. Whose favours, amiable reverence, as was pleasaunte to bebicause they be in high authoritie with their holde, Gentill in communication, yet earnest, prince, by assentation and flatterie they

He had great delite manye times labour to obteyne. And verily it is nat- with roughe speache to his sewters, to prove, urally geven to all men to esteme their but withoute harme, what prompte witte owne inventions best. So both the Raven and what bolde spirite were in every man. and the Ape thincke their owne yonge ones In the which, as in a vertue much agreinge fairest. Then if a man in such a company, with his nature, so that therewith were not where some disdayne and have despite at joyned impudency, he toke greate delectaother mens inventions, and some counte their tyon. And the same person, as apte and owne best, if among suche menne (I say) mete to have an administratyon in the weale a man should bringe furth any thinge, that publique, he dyd lovingly embrace. In his he hath redde done in tymes paste, or that speche he was fyne, eloquent, and pytthye. he hath sene done in other places; there the In the lawe he had profunde knowledge, in hearers fare as though the whole existima- witte he was incomparable, and in memory tion of their wisdome were in jeoperdye to wonderful excellente. These qualityes, which be overthrowen, and that ever after thei in hym were by nature singular, he by shoulde be counted for verye diserdes, un- learnynge and use had made perfecte. The les they could in other mens inventions kynge put muche truste in his counsel, the pycke out matter to reprehend, and find weale publyque also in a maner leaned unto fault at. If all other poore helpes fayle, hym, when I was there. For even in the then this is their extreame refuge. These chiefe of his youth he was taken from thinges (say they) pleased our forefathers schole into the courte, and there passed all and auncestours: wolde God we coulde be his tyme in much trouble and busines, beyng so wise as thei were: and as though thei had continually tumbled and tossed in the waves wittely concluded the matter, and with this of dyvers mysfortunes and adversities. And answere stopped every mans mouth, thei so by many and greate daungers he lerned sitte downe againe. Ås who should sai, it the experience of the worlde, whiche so were a very daungerous matter, if a man beinge learned can not easely be forgotten. in any pointe should be founde wiser then It chaunced on a certayne daye, when I sate his forefathers were. And yet bee we con- at his table, there was also a certayne laye tent to suffre the best and wittiest of their man cunnynge in the lawes of youre Realme. decrees to lye unexecuted: but if in any Who, I can not tell wherof takynge occasion, thing a better ordre might have ben taken, began diligently and earnestly to prayse that then by them was, there we take fast holde, strayte and rygorous justice, which at that findyng therin many faultes. Manye tymes tyme was there executed upon fellones, who, have I chaunced upon such proude, leude, as he sayde, were for the moste parte xx. overthwarte and waywarde judgementes, yea, hanged together upon one gallowes. And, and once in England: I prai you Syr (quod seyng so fewe escaped punyshement, he I) have you ben in our countrey? Yea for- sayde he coulde not chuse, but greatly wonsoth (quod he) and there I taried for the der and marvel, howe and by what evil lucke space of iiii. or v. monethes together, not it shold so come to passe, that theves neverlonge after the insurrection, that the Wes- theles were in every place so ryffe and so terne English men made agaynst their kyng, rancke. Naye, Syr, quod I (for I durst which by their owne miserable and pitiful boldely speake my minde before the Cardislaughter was suppressed and ended. In nal) marvel nothinge here at: for this the meane season I was muche bounde and

punyshment of theves passeth the limites of beholdynge to the righte reverende father, Justice, and is also very hurtefull to the John Morton, Archebishop and Cardinal of weale publique. For it is to extreame and Canterbury, and at that time also lorde cruel a punishment for thefte, and yet not Chauncelloure of Englande: a man, Mayster sufficient to refrayne and withhold men from Peter, (for Mayster More knoweth already thefte. For simple thefte is not so great that I wyll saye) not more honourable for an offense, that it owght to be punished with his authoritie, then for his prudence and death. Neither ther is any punishment so vertue. He was of a meane stature, and horrible, that it can kepe them from 1 dolts

stealynge, which have no other craft, wherby

man

to get their living. Therfore in this poynte, sickely faces, and patched cotes, will not not you onlye, but also the most part of the take them into service. And husbandmen world, be like evyll scholemaisters, which be dare not set them a worke: Knowynge wel readyer to beate, then to teache, their ynoughe that he is nothing mete to doe scholers. For great and horrible punish- trewe and faythful service to a poore man mentes be appointed for theves, whereas wyth a spade and a mattoke for small wages much rather provision should have ben made, and hard fare, whyche beynge deyntely and that there were some meanes, whereby they tenderly pampered up in ydilnes and pleasmyght get their livyng, so that no ure, was wont with a sworde and a buckler shoulde be dryven to this extreme necessitie, by hys syde to jette through the strete with firste to steale, and then to dye. Yes (quod a bragginge loke, and to thynke hym selfe he) this matter is wel ynough provided for to good to be anye mans mate. Naye by already. There be handy craftes, there is saynt Mary sir (quod the lawier) not so. husbandrye to gette their livynge by, if they For this kinde of men muste we make would not willingly be nought. Nay, quod moste of. For in them as men of stowter I, you shall not skape so: for first of all, I stomackes, bolder spirites, and manlyer wyll speake nothynge of them, that come courages then handycraftes men and plowehome oute of the warres, maymed and lame, men be, doth consiste the whole powre, as not longe ago, oute of Blackeheath fielde, strength and puissaunce of oure army, when and a litell before that, out of the warres in we muste fight in battayle. Forsothe, sir, as Fraunce: suche, I saye, as put their lives well you myghte saye (quod I) that for in jeoperdye for the weale publiques or the warres sake you muste cheryshe theves. For kynges sake, and by reason of weakenesse surely you shall never lacke theves, whyles and lamenesse be not hable to occupye their you have them. No, nor theves be not the olde craftes, and be to aged to lerne new: most false and faynt harted soldiers, nor of them I wyll speake nothing, forasmuch as souldiours be not the cowardleste theves: so warres have their ordinarie recourse. But wel thees ii. craftes agree together. But this let us considre those thinges that chaunce faulte, though it be much used amonge you, daily before our eyes. First there is a great yet is it not peculiar to you only, but comnumbre of gentlemen, which can not be con- men also almoste to all nations. Yet Fraunce tent to live idle themselves, lyke dorres, of besides this is troubled and infected with a that whiche other have laboured for: their much sorer plage. The whole royalme is tenauntes I meane, whom they polle and fylled and besieged with hiered souldiours in shave to the quicke, by reisyng their rentes peace tyme (yf that bee peace) whyche be (for this onlye poynte of frugalitie do they brought in under the same colour and preuse, men els through their lavasse and tense, that hath persuaded you to kepe these prodigall spendynge, hable to brynge theym- | ydell servynge men. For thies wyse fooles selfes to verye beggerye) these gentlemen, and verye archedoltes thought the wealthe of I say, do not only live in idlenesse them- the whole countrey herin to consist, if there selves, but also carrye about with them at were ever in a redinesse a stronge and their tailes a great flocke or traine of idle sure garrison, specially of old practised and loyterynge servyngmen, which never souldiours, for they put no trust at all in learned any craft wherby to gette their men unexercised. And therfore they must livynges. These men

as their be forced to seke for warre, to the ende thei mayster is dead, or be sicke themselfes, be may ever have practised souldiours and cunincontinent thrust out of dores. For gentle- nyng mansleiers, lest that (as it is pretely men hadde rather keepe idle persones, then sayde of Salust) their handes and their sicke men, and many times the dead mans mindes through idlenes or lacke of exercise, heyre is not hable to mainteine so great a should waxe dul. But howe pernitious and house, and kepe so many serving men as his pestilente a thyng it is to maintayne suche father dyd. Then in the meane season they beastes, the Frenche men, by their owne that be thus destitute of service, either harmes have learned, and the examples of starve for honger, or manfullye playe the the Romaynes, Carthaginiens, Syriens, and theves. For what would you have them to of manye other countreyes doo manifestly do ? When they have wandred abrode so declare. For not onlye the Empire, but also longe, untyl they have worne thredebare the fieldes and Cities of all these, by divers their apparell, and also appaired their helth, occasions have been overrunned and dethen gentlemen because of their pale and stroyed of their owne armies before hande

as

sone

had in a redinesse. Now how unnecessary weale publique: leave no grounde for tillage, a thinge this is, hereby it maye appeare: thei inclose al into pastures: thei throw that the Frenche souldiours, which from doune houses: they plucke downe townes, their youth have ben practised and inured in and leave nothing standynge, but only the feates of armes, do not cracke nor advaunce churche to be made a shepe-howse. And as themselfes to have very often gotte the up- thoughe you loste no small quantity of per hand and maistry of your new made grounde by forests, chases, laundes, and and unpractised souldiours. But in this parkes, those good holy men turne all dwellpoynte I wyll not use many woordes, leste inge places and all glebeland into desolation perchaunce I maye seeme to flatter you. and wildernes. Therfore that one covetous No, nor those same handy crafte men of and unsatiable cormaraunte and very plage yours in cities, nor yet the rude and up- of his natyve contrey maye compasse aboute landish plowmen of the countreye, are not and inclose many thousand akers of grounde supposed to be greatly affrayde of your together within one pale or hedge, the husgentlemens idle servyngmen, unlesse it be bandmen be thrust owte of their owne, or suche as be not of body or stature corre- els either by coveyne and fraude, or by viospondent to their strength and courage, or lent oppression they be put besydes it, or els whose bolde stomakes be discouraged by wronges and injuries thei be so weried, throughe povertie. Thus you may see, that that they be compelled to sell all: by one it is not to be feared lest they shoulde be meanes therfore or by other, either by hooke effeminated, if thei were brought up in good or crooke they muste needes departe awaye, craftes and laboursome woorkes, whereby poore, selye, wretched soules, men, women, to gette their livynges, whose stoute and husbands, wives, fatherlesse children, widsturdye bodyes (for gentlemen vouchsafe to owes, wofull mothers, with their yonge babes, corrupte and spill none but picked and and their whole houshold smal in substance, chosen men) now either by reason of rest and muche in numbre, as husbandrye reand idlenesse be brought to weakenesse: or quireth manye handes. Awaye thei trudge, els by to easy and womanly exercises be I say, out of their knowen and accustomed made feble and unlable to endure hardnesse. houses, fyndynge no place to reste in. All Truly howe so ever the case standeth, thys their housholdestuffe, whiche is verye litle me thinketh is nothing avayleable to the woorthe, thoughe it myght well abide the weale publique, for warre sake, which you sale: yet beeynge sodainely thruste oute, never have, but when you wyl your selfes, to they be constrayned to sell it for a thing of kepe and mainteyn an unnumerable flocke of nought. And when they have wandered that sort of men, that be so troublesome and abrode tyll that be spent, what can they noyous in peace, wherof you ought to have then els doo but steale, and then justly a thowsand times more regarde, then of pardy be hanged, or els go about a begwarre. But yet this is not only the neces- gyng. And yet then also they be caste in sary cause of stealing. There is an other, prison as vagaboundes, because they go whych, as I suppose, is proper and peculiar aboute and worke not: whom no man wyl to you Englishmen alone. What is that, set a worke, though thei never so willyngly quod the Cardinal? Forsoth my lorde (quod profre themselves therto. For one Shep1) your shepe that were wont to be so meke hearde or Heardman is ynoughe to eate up and tame, and so smal eaters, now, as I that grounde with cattei, to the occupiyng heare saye, be become so great devowerers wherof aboute husbandrye manye handes and so wylde, that they eate up, and swal- were requisite. And this is also the cause low downe the very men them selfes. They why victualles be now in many places dearer. consume, destroye, and devoure whole fieldes, Yea, besides this the price of wolle is so howses, and cities. For looke in what partes rysen, that poore folkes, which were wont to of the realme doth growe the fynest, and worke it, and make cloth therof, be nowe therfore dearest woll, there noblemen, and hable to bye none at all. And by thys gentlemen: yea and certeyn Abbottes, holy meanes verye manye be forced to forsake men no doubt, not contenting them selfes worke, and to geve them selves to idelnesse. with the yearely revenues and profytes, that For after that so much grounde was inwere wont to grow to theyr forefathers and closed for pasture, an infinite multitude of predecessours of their landes, nor beynge shepe dyed of the rotte, suche vengeaunce content that they live in rest and pleasure God toke of their inordinate and unsaciable nothinge profiting, yea much noyinge the covetousness, sendinge amonge the shepe that pestiferous morrein, whiche much more oute these pernicyous abhominations, make justely shoulde have fallen on the shepe- a lawe, that they, whiche plucked downe masters owne heades. And though the num- fermes, and townes of husbandrie, shal ber of shepe increase never so faste, yet reedifie them, or els yelde and uprender the the price falleth not one myte, because there possession therof to suche as wil go to the be so fewe sellers. For they be almooste all cost of buylding them anewe. Suffer not comen into a fewe riche mennes handes, these riche men to bie up al, to ingrosse, and whome no neade forceth to sell before they forstalle, and with their monopolie to kepe lust, and they luste not before they maye sell the market alone as please them. Let not so as deare as they luste. Now the same cause many be. brought up in idelnes, let husbringeth in like dearth of the other kindes of bandry and tillage be restored, let clothecattell, yea and that so much the more, workinge be renewed, that ther may be honbicause that after fermes plucked downe, est labours for this idell sort to passe their and husbandry decaied, there is no man that tyme in profitablye, whiche hitherto either passethe for the breadynge of younge stoore. povertie hath caused to be theves, or elles For these riche men brynge not up the yonge nowe be either vagabondes, or idel serving ones of greate cattel as they do lambes. But

men, and shortelye wilbe theves. Doubtles first they bie them abrode verie chepe, and onles

you finde a remedy for these enormiafterward when they be fatted in their

ties, you shall in vaine advaunce your selves pastures, they sell them agayne excedynge

of executing justice upon fellons. For this deare. And therefore (as I suppose) the justice is more beautiful in apperaunce, and whole incommoditie hereof is not yet felte. more flourishynge to the shewe, then either For yet they make dearth onely in those juste or profitable. For by suffring your places, where they sell. But when they shall youthe wantonlie and viciously to be brought fetche them away from thence wheare they

up, and to be infected, even frome theyr be bredde faster then they can be broughte

tender age, by litle and litle with vice: then up: then shall there also be felte greate a goddes name to be punished, when they dearth, stoore beginning there to faile, where

commit the same faultes after being come the ware is boughte. Thus the unreasonable

to mans state, which from their youthe they covetousnes of a few hath turned that thing

were ever like to do: In this pointe, I praye to the utter undoing of your ylande, in the

you, what other thing do you, then make whiche thynge the chiefe felicitie of your

theves and then punish them? realme did consist. For this greate dearth of victualles causeth men to kepe as litle

3. A Discourse Upon International Relahouses, and as smale hospitalitie as they tions, Happiness, and Reformers possible maye, and to put away their servauntes: whether, I pray you,

But yet, all this notwithstandinge, I can beggynge: or elles (whyche these gentell by no meanes chaunge my mind, but that I bloudes and stoute stomackes wyll sooner set

must nedes beleve, that you, if you be distheir myndes unto) a stealing? Nowe to posed, and can fynde in youre hearte to amende the matter, to this wretched beg

followe some princes courte, shall with your gerye and miserable povertie is joyned good counselles greatlye helpe and further greate wantonnes, importunate superfluitie,

the commen wealthe. Wherfore there is and excessive riote. For not only gentlé nothynge more apperteining to youre dewty, mennes servauntes, but also handicraft men: that is to saye, to the dewtie of a good man. yea and almooste the ploughmen of the For where as your Plato judgeth that weale countrey, with al other sortes of people, use publiques shall by this meanes atteyne permuche straunge and proude newefanglenes fecte felicitie, eyther if philosophers be in their apparell, and to muche prodigall kynges, or elles if kynges geve themselves to riotte and sumptuous fare at their table. the studie of philosophie, how farre I praye Nowe bawdes, queines, whoores, harlottes, you, shall commen wealthes then be frome strumpettes, brothelhouses, stewes, and yet thys felicitie, yf philosophers wyll voucheanother stewes, wyne tavernes, ale houses, saufe to enstruct kinges with their good and tipling houses, with so manye noughtie, counsell? They be not so unkinde (quod lewde, and unlawfull games, as dyce, cardes, he) but they woulde gladlye do it, yea, tables, tennis, boules, coytes, do not all these manye have done it alreadye in bookes that sende the haunters of them streyghte a they have put furthe, if kynges and princes stealynge, when theyr money is gone? Caste would be willynge and readye to folowe

but a

good counsell. But Plato doubtlesse dyd all in this to make peace with the Englishwell foresee, oneless kynges themselves men, and with mooste suer and stronge woulde applye their mindes to the studye of bandes to bynde that weake and feable Philosophie, that elles they woulde never frendeshippe, so that they muste be called thoroughlye allowe the counsell of Philoso- frendes, and hadde in suspicion as enemyes. «phers, beynge themselves before even from And that therfore the Skottes muste be their tender age infected, and corrupt with hadde in a readines, as it were in a perverse, and evill opinions. Whiche thynge standynge, readie at all occasions, in aunters Plato hymselfe proved trewe in kinge the Englishmen shoulde sturre never so Dionyse. If I shoulde propose to any kyng lytle, incontinent to set upon them. And wholsome decrees, doynge my endevoure to moreover previlie and secretlye (for openlie plucke out of hys mynde the pernicious it maye not be done by the truce that is originall causes of vice and noughtines, taken) privelie therefore I saye to make thinke you not that I shoulde furthewith muche of some Piere of Englande, that is either be driven awaye, or elles made a bannished hys countrey, whiche muste cleime laughyng stocke? Well suppose I were with title to the crowne of the realme, and affirme the Frenche kynge, and there syttinge in his hym selfe juste inherytoure thereof, that by counsell, whiles in that mooste secrete con- this subtill meanes they maye holde to them sultation, the kynge him selfe there beynge the kinge, in whome elles they have but presente in hys owne personne, they beate small truste and affiaunce. Here I saye, their braynes, and serche the verye bottomes where so great and heyghe matters be in of their wittes to discusse by what crafte consultation, where so manye noble and and meanes the kynge maye styl kepe Myl- wyse menne counsell theyr kynge onelie to layne, and drawe to him againe fugitive warre, here yf I, selie man, shoulde rise up Naples, and then howe to conquere the and will them to tourne over the leafe, and Venetians, and howe to bringe under his learne a newe lesson, sayinge that my counjurisdiction all Italie, then howe to win the sell is not to medle with Italy, but to tarye dominion of Flaunders, Brabant, and of all styll at home, and that the kyngedome of Burgundie: with divers other landes, whose Fraunce alone is almooste greater, then that kingdomes he hath longe ago in mind and it maye well be governed of one man: so purpose invaded. Here whiles one counsel- that the kynge shoulde not nede to studye leth to conclude a legue of peace with the howe to gette more; and then shoulde proVenetians, so longe to endure, as shall be pose unto them the decrees of the people that thought mete and expedient for their pur- be called the Achoriens, whiche be situate pose, and to make them also of their coun- over agaynste the Ilande of Utopia on the sell, yea, and besides that to geve them part south-easte side. These Achoriens ones made of the pray, whiche afterwarde, when they warre in their kinges quarrell for to gette have brought theyr purpose about after him another kingdome, whiche he laide their owne myndes, they maye require and claime unto, and avaunced hymselfe ryghte clayme againe. Another thinketh best to inheritoure to the crowne thereof, by the hiere the Germaynes. Another woulde have tytle of an olde aliaunce. At the last when the favoure of the Swychers wonne with they had gotten it, and sawe that they hadde money. Anothers advyse is to appease the even as muche vexation and trouble in puissaunte power of the Emperoures kepynge it, as they had in gettynge it, and majestie wyth golde, as with a moste pleas- that either their newe conquered subjectes aunte, and acceptable sacrifice. Whiles by sundrye occasions were makynge daylye another gyveth counsell to make peace wyth insurrections to rebell against them, or els the kynge of Arragone, and to restoore unto that other countreis were continuallie with him hys owne kyngedome of Navarra, as a divers inrodes and forragynges invadynge full assuraunce of peace. Another commeth them: so that they were ever fighting either in with his five egges, and adviseth to hooke for them, or agaynste them, and never coulde in the kynge of Castell with some hope of breake up theyr campes: Seyng them selves affinitie or allyaunce, and to bringe to their in the meane season pylled and impoverparte certeine Pieers of his courte for greate ished: their money caried out of the realme: pensions. Whiles they all staye at the their own men killed to maintaine the glorye chiefeste doubte of all, what to do in the of an other nation: when they had no warre, meane time with Englande, and yet agree peace nothynge better then warre, by reason

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