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ter as I hard it spoken: that in deede was John Clement my boye, who as you know a thynge lighte and easye to be done. How- was there presente with us, whome I sufbeit to the dispatchynge of thys so lytle fer to be awaye frome no talke, wherein busynesse, my other cares and troubles did maye be any profyte or goodnes (for oute leave almost lesse then no leasure. Whiles of this yonge bladed and new shotte up I doo dayelie bestowe my time aboute lawe corne, whiche hatheualreadye begon to spring matters: some to pleade, some to heare, up both in Latin and Greke learnyng, I some as an arbitratoure with myne awarde loke for plentifull increase at length of to determine, some as an umpier or a Judge, goodly rype grayne) he I saye hathe with my sentence finallye to discusse. Whiles broughte me into a greate doubte. For I go one waye to see and visite my frende: whereas Hythlodaye (onelesse my memorye another waye about myne owne privat af- fayle me) sayde that the bridge of Amaufaires. Whiles I spende almost al the day rote, whyche goethe over the river of Anyder abrode emonges other, and the residue at is fyve hundreth paseis, that is to saye, home among mine owne: I leave to my halfe a myle in lengthe: my John sayeth self, I meane to my booke no time. For that two hundred of those paseis muste be when I am come home, I muste commen with plucked away, for that the ryver conteyneth my wife, chatte with my children, and talke there not above three hundreth paseis in wyth my servauntes. All the whiche thinges breadthe, I praye you hartelye call the matI recken and accompte amonge businesse, ter to youre remembraunce. For yf you forasmuche as they muste of necessitie be agree wyth hym, I also wyll saye as you done: and done muste they nedes be, one- saye, and confesse myselfe deceaved. But lesse a man wyll be straunger in his owne if you cannot remember the thing, then house. And in any wyse a man muste so surelye I wyll write as I have done and as fashyon and order hys conditions, and so myne owne remembraunce serveth me. For appoint and dispose him selfe, that he be as I wyll take good hede, that there be in merie, jocunde, and pleasaunt amonge them, my booke nothing false, so yf there be anye whom eyther nature hathe provided, or thynge doubtefull, I wyll rather tell a lye, chaunce hath made, or he hym selfe hath then make a lie: because I had rather be chosen to be the felowes, and companyons, good, then wilie. Howbeit thys matter maye of hys life: so that with to muche gentle easelye be remedied, yf you wyll take the behavioure and familiaritie, he do not marre paynes to aske the question of Raphael him them, and by to muche sufferaunce of his selfe by woorde of mouthe, if he be nowe servauntes, make them his maysters. with you, or elles by youre letters. Whiche Emonge these thynges now rehearsed, steal- you muste nedes do for another doubte also, eth awaye the daye, the moneth, the yeare. that hathe chaunced, throughe whose faulte When do I write then? And all this while I cannot tel: whether through mine, or have I spoken no worde of slepe, neyther yours, or Raphaels. For neyther we reyet of meate, which emong a great number membred to enquire of him, nor he to tel us doth wast no lesse tyme then doeth slepe, in what part of the newe world Utopia is wherein almoste halfe the life tyme of man situate. The whiche thinge, I had rather crepeth awaye. I therefore do wynne and have spent no small somme of money, then get onelye that tyme, whiche I steale from that it should thus have escaped us; as well slepe and meate. Whiche tyme because it for that I am ashamed to be ignoraunt in is very litle, and yet somwhat it is, ther- what sea that ylande standeth, wherof I fore have I ones at the laste, thoughe it be write so long a treatise, as also because longe first, finished Utopia, and have sent there be with us certen men, and especiallie it to you, frende Peter, to reade and peruse: one vertuous and godly man, and a proto the intente that yf anye thynge have fessour of divinitie, who is excedynge deescaped me, you might put me in remem- sierous to go unto Utopia: not for a vayne braunce of it. For thoughe in this behalfe and curious desyre to see newes, but to the I do not greatlye mistruste my selfe (whiche intente he maye further and increase oure woulde God I were somwhat in wit and religion, whiche is there alreadye luckelye learninge, as I am not all of the worste and begonne. And that he maye the better acdullest memorye) yet have I not so great complyshe and perfourme this hys good truste and confidence in it, that I thinke intente, he is mynded to procure that he nothinge coulde fall out of my mynde. For maye be sente thether by the hieghe

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Byshoppe: yea, and that he himselfe may be made Bishoppe of Utopia, beynge nothynge scrupulous herein, that he muste obteyne this Byshopricke with suete. For he counteth that a godly suete, which procedeth not of the desire of honoure or lucre, but onelie of a godlie zeale. Wherfore I moste earnestly desire you, frende Peter, to talke with Hythlodaye, yf you can, face to face, or els to wryte youre letters to hym, and so to woorke in thys matter, that in this my booke there maye neyther anye thinge be founde, whyche is untrue, neyther any thinge be lacking, whiche is true. And I thynke verelye it shal be well done, that you shewe unto him the book ii selfe. For yf I have myssed or fayled in anye poynte, or if anye faulte have escaped me, no man can so well correcte and amende it, as he can: and yet that can he not do, oneles he peruse and reade over my booke written. Moreover by this meanes shall you perceave, whether he be well wyllynge and content, that I shoulde undertake to put this woorke in writyng. For if he be mynded to publyshe and put forth his laboures, and travayles himselfe, perchaunce he woulde be lothe, and so woulde I also, that in publishynge the Utopiane weale publyque, I shoulde prevent him, and take frome him the flower and grace of the noveltie of this his historie. Howbeit, to saye the verye trueth, I am not yet fullye determined with my selfe, whether I will put forth my booke or no. For the natures of men be so divers, the phantasies of some so waywarde, their myndes so unkynde, their judgementes so corrupte, that they which leade a merie and a jocounde lyfe, folowynge theyr owne sensuall pleasures and carnall lustes, maybe seme to be in a muche better state or case, then they that vexe and unquiete themselves with cares and studie for the puttinge forthe and publishynge of some thynge, that maye be either profett or pleasure to others: whiche others nevertheles will disdainfully, scornefully, and unkindly accepte the same. The moost part of al be unlearned. And a greate number hathe learning in contempte. The rude and barbarous alloweth nothing, but that which is verie barabrous in dede. If it be one that hath a little smacke of learnynge, he rejecteth as homely geare and commen ware, whatsoever is not stuffed full of olde moughteaten termes, and that be worne out of use. Some there be that have

pleasure onelye in olde rustie antiquities. And some onelie in their owne doynges. One is so sowre, so crabbed, and so unpleasaunte, that he can awaye with no myrthe nor sporte. An other is so narrowe betwene the shulders, that he can beare no jests nor tauntes. Some seli poore soules be so afearde that at everye snappishe woorde their nose shall be bitten of, that they stande in no lesse drede of everye quicke and sharpe woorde, then he that is bitten of a madde dogge feareth water. Some be so mutable and waverynge, that every houre they be in a newe mynde, sayinge one thinge syttinge and an other thynge standynge. An other sorte sytteth upon their allebencheis, and there amonge their cuppes they geve judgement of the wittes of writers, and with greate authoritie they condempne even as pleaseth them, everye writer accordynge to his writing, in moste spitefull maner, mockynge, lowtinge, and flowtinge them; beyng them selves in the

season sauffe, and as sayeth the proverbe, oute of all daunger of gonneshotte. For why, they be so snugge and smothe, that they have not so much as one hearre of an honeste man, whereby one may take holde of them. There be moreover some so unkynde and ungentle, that thoughe they take great pleasure, and delectation in the worke, yet for all that, they can not fynde in their hertes to love the Author therof, nor to aforde him a good woorde: beynge much like uncourteous, unthankfull, and chourlish gestes, whiche when they have with good and daintie meates well fylled theire bellyes, departe home, gevyng no thankes to the feaste maker. Go your wayes now, and make a costlye feaste at youre owne charges for gestes so dayntie mouthed, so divers in taste, and besides that of so unkynde and unthankfull natures. But nevertheles (frende Peter) doo, I pray you, with Hithloday, as I willed you before. And as for this matter I shall be at my libertie, afterwardes to take newe advisement. Howbeit, seeyng I have taken great paynes and laboure in writyng the matter, if it may stande with his mynde and pleasure, I wyll as touchyng the edition of publishyng of the booke, followe the counsell and advise of my frendes, and speciallye yours. Thus fare you well right hertely beloved frende Peter, with your gentle wife: and love me as you have ever done, for I love you better then ever I dyd.

2. England Through Utopian Eyes no man thys day livyng, that can tell you of

so manye straunge and unknown peoples, I in the meanetime (for so my busines and Countreyes, as this man can. And I laye) wente streighte thence to Antwerpe. know wel that you be very desirous to Whiles I was there abidynge, often times heare of such newes.

Then I conjectured amonge other, but whiche to me was more not farre a misse (quod I) for even at the welcome then annye other, dyd visite me first syght I judged him to be a mariner. one Peter Giles, a Citisen of Antwerpe, a Naye (quod he) there ye were greatly deman there in his countrey of honest repu- ceyved: he hath sailed in deede, not as the tation, and also preferred to high promo

mariner Palinure, but as the experte and tions, worthy truly of the hyghest. For it is prudent prince Ulisses : yea, rather as the hard to say, whether the young man be in auncient and sage Philosopher Plato. For learnyng, or in honestye more excellent. this same Raphaell Hythlodaye (for this is For he is bothe of wonderfull vertuous con- his name) is very well lerned in the Latine ditions, and also singularly wel learned, and tongue: but profounde and excellent in the towardes all sortes of people excedyng gen- Greke language. Wherein he ever bestowed tyll: but towardes his frendes so kynde more studye then in the Latine, bycause he herted, so lovyng, so faithfull, so trustye, had geven himselfe wholy to the study of and of so earnest affection, that it were Philosophy. Wherof he knew that ther is verye harde in any place to fynde a man, nothyng extante in Latine, that is to anye that with him in all poyntes of frendshippe purpose, savynge a fewe of Senecaes, and maye be compared. No man can be more Ciceroes dooynges. His patrimonye that lowlye or courteous. No man useth lesse he was borne unto, he lefte to his brethren simulation or dissimulation, in no man is (for he is a Portugall borne) and for the more prudent simplicitie. Besides this, he desire that he had to see, and knowe the is in his talke and communication so merye farre Countreyes of the worlde, he joyned and pleasaunte, yea and that withoute himselfe in company with Amerike Vespuce, harme, that throughe his gentyll intertayne- and in the iii. last voyages of those ini. that ment, and his sweete and delectable com- be nowe in printe and abrode in every munication, in me was greatly abated and mannes handes, he continued styll in his diminished the fervente desyre, that I had company, savyng that in the last voyage he to see my native countrey, my wyfe and came not home agayne with him. For he my chyldren, whom then I dyd muche longe made suche meanes and shift, what by inand covete to see, because that at that tretaunce, and what by importune sute, that time I had been more then iiii. Monethes he gotte licence of mayster Americke from them. Upon a certayne daye when I (though it were sore against his wyll) to be hadde herde the divine service in our Ladies one of the xxiiii whiche in the ende of the Churche, which is the fayrest, the most last voyage were left in the countrey of gorgeous and curious Churche of buyldyng Gulike. He was therefore lefte behynde for in all the Citie, and also most frequented hys mynde sake, as one that tooke more of people, and the service beynge doone, thoughte and care for travailyng, then was readye to go home to my lodgynge, I dyenge: havyng customably in his mouth chaunced to espye this foresayde Peter these saiynges. He that hathe no grave, is talkynge with a certayne Straunger, a man

covered with the skye: and, the way to well stricken in age, with a blacke sonne- heaven out of all places is of like length burned face, a longe bearde, and a cloke and distaunce. Which fantasy of his (if cast homly about his shoulders, whome by God had not ben his better frende) he had his favoure and apparell furthwith I judged surely bought full deare. But after the to bee a mariner. But the sayde Peter departynge of Mayster Vespuce, when he seyng me, came unto me and saluted me. had travailed thorough and aboute many And as I was aboute to answere him: see Countreyes with v. of his companions Guyou this man, sayth he (and therewith he likianes, at the last by merveylous chaunce roynted to the man, that I sawe hym talk- he arrived in Taprobane, from whence he ynge with before) I was mynded, quod he, went to Caliquit, where he chaunced to to brynge him strayghte home to you. He fynde certayne of hys Countreye shippes, should have ben very welcome to me, sayd wherein he retourned agayne into his CounI, for your sake. Nay (quod he) for his treye, nothynge lesse then looked for. owne sake, if you knewe him: for there is All this when Peter hadde tolde me: I thanked him for his gentle kindnesses that also with Merchauntes of farre Countreyes, he had vouchsafed to brynge me to bothe by lande and water. There I had octhe speache of that man, whose com- casion (sayd he) to go to many countreyes munication he thoughte shoulde be to on every syde. For there was no shippe me pleasaunte and acceptable. And there- ready to any voyage or journey, but I and with I tourned me to Raphaell. And my fellowes were into it very gladly rewhen wee hadde haylsed eche other, and ceyved. The shippes that the founde first had spoken these commune woordes, that were made playn, flatte and broade in the bee customablye spoken at the first meting, botome, trough wise. The sayles were made and acquaintaunce of straungers, we went of great russhes, or of wickers, and in some thence to my house, and there in my gar- places of lether. Afterwarde thei founde daine upon a bench covered with greene shippes with ridged kyeles, and sayles of torves, we satte downe talkyng together. canvasse, yea, and shortly after, havying all There he tolde us, how that after the de- thynges lyke oures. The shipmen also very partyng of Vespuce, he and his fellowes experte and cunnynge, bothe in the sea and that taried behynde in Gulicke, began by

in the wether. But he said that he founde litle and litle, throughe fayre and gentle great favoure and frendship amonge them, speache, to wynne the love and favoure of for teachynge them the feate and the use of the people of that countreye, insomuche the lode stone. Whiche to them before that within shorte space, they dyd dwell that time was unknowne. And therfore they amonges them, not only harmless, but also were wonte to be verye timerous and fearoccupiyng with them verye familiarly. He full upon the sea. Nor to venter upon it, tolde us also, that they were in high repu- but only in the somer time. But nowe they tation and favour with a certayne great man have suche a confidence in that stone, that (whose name and Countreye is nowe quite they feare not stormy winter: in so dooynge out of my remembraunce) which of his farther from care then daunger. In so mere liberalitie dyd beare the costes and muche, that it is greatly to be doubted, lest charges of him and his fyve companions. that thyng, throughe their owne folish hardiAnd besides that gave theim a trustye guyde nesse, shall tourne them to evyll and harme, to conducte them in their journey (which by which at the first was supposed shoulde be water was in botes, and by land in wagons) to them good and commodious. But what and to brynge theim to other Princes with he tolde us that he sawe in everye countreye verye frendlye commendations. Thus after where he came, it 'were very longe to demanye dayes journeys, he sayd, they founde clare. Neither it is my purpose at this time townes and Cities and weale publiques, full to make rehersall therof. But peradventure of people, governed by good and holsome in an other place I wyll speake of it, chiefly lawes. For under the line equinoctiall, and suche thynges as shall be profitable too on bothe sydes of the same, as farre as the bee knowen, as in speciall be those decrees Sonne doth extende his course, lyeth (quod and ordinaunces, that he marked to be well he) great and wyde desertes and wilder- and wittely provided and enacted amonge nesses, parched, burned, and dryed up with suche peoples, as do live together in a civile continuall and intollerable heate. All policye and good ordre. For of suche thynges bee hideous, terrible, lothesome, thynges dyd wee buselye enquire and deand unpleasaunt to beholde: All thynges maunde of him, and he likewise very willout of fassyon and comelinesse, inhabited ingly tolde us of the same. But as for monwithe wylde Beastes and Serpentes, or at the sters, bycause they be no newes, of them leaste wyse, with people, that be no lesse we were nothyng inquisitive. For nothyng savage, wylde, and noysome then the verye is more easye to bee founde, then bee barkbeastes theim selves be. But a little farther ynge Scyllaes, ravenying Celenes, and Lesbeyonde that, all thynges beginne by litle trigones devourers of people, and suche lyke and lytle to waxe pleasaunte. The ayre great, and incredible monsters. But to softe, temperate, and gentle. The grounde fynde Citisens ruled by good and holsome covered with grene grasse. Lesse wildnesse lawes, that is an exceding rare, and harde in the beastes. At the last shall ye come thyng. But as he marked many fonde, and agayne to people, cities and townes wherein folisshe lawes in those newe founde landes, is continuall entercourse and occupiyng of so he rehersed divers actes, and constitumerchaundise and chaffare, not only among tions, whereby these oure Cities, Nations, themselves and with theire Borderers, but Countreis, and Kyngdomes may take ex

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ample to amende their faultes, enormities and errours. Wherof in another place (as I sayde) I wyll intreate. Now at this time I am determined to reherse onely that he tolde us of the maners, customes, lawes, and ordinaunces of the Utopians. But first I wyll repete oure former communication by thoccasion, and (as I might saye) the drifte wherof, he was brought into the mention of that weale publique.

For, when Raphael had very prudentlye touched divers thyngs that be amisse, some here and some there, yea, very many on bothe partes; and againe had spoken of suche wise lawes and prudente decrees, as be established and used, bothe here amonge and also there amonge theym, as

so perfecte, and experte in the lawes, and customes of every severall Countrey, as though into what place soever he came geastwise, there he had ledde al his life: then Peter muche mervailynge at the man: Surely maister Raphael (quod he) I wondre greatly, why you gette you not into some kinges courte. For I am sure there is no Prince livyng, that wold not be very glad of you, as a man not only hable highly to delite him with your profounde learnyng, and this your knowledge of countreis, and peoples, but also mete to instructe him with examples, and helpe him with counsell. And thus doyng, you shall bryng your selfe in a vėrye good case, and also be of habilitie to helpe all your frendes and kinsfolke. As concernyng my frendes and kynsfolke (quod he) I passe not greatly for them. For I thinke I have sufficiently doone my parte towardes them already. For these thynges, that other men doo not departe from, untyl they be olde and sycke, yea, whiche they be then verye lothe to leave, when they canne no longer keepe, those very same thynges dyd I beyng not only lustye, and in good helth, but also in the floure of my youth, divide among my frendes and kynsfolkes. Which I thynke with this my liberalitie ought to holde them contented, and not to require nor to loke that besydes this, I shoulde for their sakes geve myselfe in bondage unto kinges.

Nay, God forbyd that (quod Peter) it is notte my mynde that you shoulde be in bondage to kynges, but as a retainour to them at your pleasure. Whiche surely I thinke is the nighest waye that you can devise howe to bestowe your time frutefully, not onlye for the private commoditie of your frendes and for the generall profite

of all sortes of people, but also for thadvauncement of your self to a much welthier state and condition, then you be nowė in. To a welthier condition (quod Raphael) by that meanes, that my mynde standeth cleane agaynst? Now I lyve at libertie after myne owne mynde and pleasure, whiche I thynke verye fewe of these great states and pieres of realmes can saye. Yea, and there be ynow of them that sue for great mens frendeshippes: and therfore thinke it no great hurte, if they have not me, nor iii. or iii. suche other as I am. Well, I perceive playnly frende Raphael (quod I) that you be desirous neither of richesse, nor of power. And truly I have in no lesse reverence and estimation a man of your mynde, then anye of theim all that bee so high in power and authoritie. But you shall doo as it becometh you: yea, and accordyng to this wisdome, to this high and free courage of yours, if you can finde in your herte so to appoynt and dispose your selfe, that you mai applye your witte and diligence to the profite of the weale publique, thoughe it be somewhat to youre owne payne and hyndraunce. And this shall you never so wel doe, nor wyth so greate proffitte perfourme, as yf you be of some greate princes counsel, and put into his heade (as I doubte not but you wyl) honeste opinions, and vertuous persuasions. For from the prince, as from a perpetual wel sprynge, commethe amonge the people the floode of al that is good or evell. But in you is so perfitte lernynge, that withoute anye experience, and agayne so greate experience, that wythoute anye lernynge you maye well be any kinges counsellour. You be twyse deceaved maister More (quod he) fyrste in me, and agayne in the thinge it selfe. For neither is in me the habilitye that you force upon me, and yf it wer never so much, yet in disquieting myne owne quietnes I should nothing further the weale publique. For first of all, the moste parte of all princes have more delyte in warlike matters and feates of chivalrie (the knowlege wherof I neither have nor desire) than in the good feates of peace; and employe muche more study, how by right or by wrong to enlarge their dominions, than howe wel, and peaceablie to rule, and governe that they have alredie. Moreover, they that be counsellours to kinges, every one of them eyther is of him selfe so wise in dede, that he nedeth not, or elles he thinketh himself so wise, that he wil not allowe another mans counsel, saving

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