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The names of her Maiesties shippes, were shot eight forth right out of her chase, bethese as followeth: the Defiaunce, which sides those of her Sterne portes. was Admirall, the Revenge Viceadmirall, After the Revenge was intangled with this the Bonaventure, commanded by Captaine Philip, foure other boorded her; two on her Crosse, the Lion by George Fenner, the larboord, and two on her starboord. The Foresight by M. Thomas Vavisour, and the fight thus beginning at three of the clocke Crane by Duffeild. The Foresight and the in the after noone, continued verie terrible Crane being but small ships; onely the other all that evening. But the great San Philip were of the middle size; the rest, besid[e]s having receyved the lower tire of the Rethe Barke Ralegh, commanded by Captaine venge, discharged with crossebarshot, shifted Thin, were victualers, and of small force or hir selfe with all diligence from her sides,

The Spanish fleete having shrouded utterly misliking hir first entertainment. their approch by reason of the Iland; were Some say that the shippe foundred, but wee now so soone at hand, as our ships had cannot report it for truth, unlesse we were scarce time to waye their anchors, but some assured. The Spanish ships were filled with of them were driven to let slippe their companies of souldiers, in some two hunCables, and set sayle. Sir Richard Grinvile dred besides the Marriners; in some five, in was the last waied, to recover the men that others eight hundred. In ours there were were upon the Iland, which otherwise had none at all, beside the Marriners, but the beene lost. The L. Thomas with the rest servants of the commanders and some fewe verie hardly recovered the winde, which Sir voluntarie Gentlemen only. After many enRichard Grinvile not being able to do, was terchanged voleies of great ordinance and perswaded by the maister and others to cut small shot, the Spaniards deliberated to his maine saile, and cast about, and to trust enter the Revenge, and made divers atto the sailing of his shippe: for the squadron tempts, hoping to force her by the multiof Sivil were on his weather bow. But Sir tudes of their armed souldiers and MusRichard utterly refused to turne from the ketiers, but were still repulsed againe and enimie, alledging that he would rather chose againe, and at all times beaten backe, into to dye, then to dishonour him selfe, his coun- their owne shippes, or into the seas. In the trie, and her Maiesties shippe, perswading beginning of the fight, the George Noble of his companie that he would passe through London, having received some shot thorow the two Squadrons, in despight of them : and her by the armados, fell under the Lee of enforce those of Sivill to give him way. the Revenge, and asked Syr Richard what Which he performed upon diverse of the he would command him, being one of the formost, who as the Marriners terme it, victulers and of small force: Syr Richard sprang their luffe, and fell under the lee of bid him save himselfe, and leave him to his the Revenge. But the other course had beene fortune. After the fight had thus without the better, and might right well have beene intermission, continued while the day lasted answered in so great an impossibilitie of and some houres of the night, many of our prevailing. Notwithstanding out of the men were slaine and hurt, and one of the greatnesse of his minde, he could not bee great Gallions of the Armada, and the perswaded. In the meane while as hee at- Admirall of the Hulkes both sunke, and in tended those which were nearest him, the many other of the Spanish ships great great San Philip being in the winde of him, slaughter was made. Some write that sir and comming towards him, becalmed his Richard was verie dangerously hurt almost sailes in such sort, as the shippe could in the beginning of the fight, and laie speechneither way nor feele the helme: so huge less for a time ere he recovered. But two and high carged was the Spanish ship, being of the Revenges owne companie, brought of a thousand and five hundredth tuns. Who home in a ship of Lime from the des, afterlaid the Revenge aboord. When he was examined by some of the Lordes, and others : thus bereft of his sailes, the ships that wer affirmed that he was never so wounded as under his lee luffing up, also laid him that hee forsooke the upper decke, til an aborde: of wliich the next was the Admirall houre before midnight; and then being shot of the Biscaines, a verie mightie and puysant into the bodie with a Musket as hee was a shippe commanded by Brittan Dona. The dressing, was againe shot into the head, said Philip carried three tire of ordinance on and withall his Chirugion wounded to death. a side, and eleven peeces in everie tire. She This agreeth also with an examination taken by Syr Frances Godolphin, of 4 other Mar- and entries. And that himself and the riners of the same shippe being returned, shippe must needes be possessed by the which examination, the said Syr Frances enemie, who were not all cast in a ring sent unto maister William Killigrue, of her round about him; The Revenge not able to Majesties privie Chamber.

move one way or other, but as she was But to return to the right, the Spanish moved with the waves and billow of the ships which attempted to board the Revenge, sea: commanded the maister Gunner, whom as they were wounded and beaten of, so he knew to be a most resolute man, to split alwaies others came in their places, she hav- and sinke the shippe; that thereby nothing ing never lesse than two mightie Gallions by might remaine of glorie or victorie to the her sides and aboard her. So that ere the Spaniards: seeing in so manie houres fight, morning, from three of the clocke the day and with so great a Navie they were not able before, there had fifteene severall Armados to take her, having had fifteene houres time, assailed her; and all so ill approved their fifteene thousand men, and fiftie and three entertainment, as they were by the breake saile of men of warre to performe it withall. of day, far more willing to harken to a com- And perswaded the companie, or as manie position, then hastily to make any more as he could induce, to yeelde themselves unto assaults or entries. But as the day en- God, and to the mercie of none els; but as creased, so our men decreased: and as the they had like valiant resolute men, repulsed light grew more and more, by so much more so manie enimies, they should not now grew our discomforts. For none appeared shorten the honour of their nation, by proin sight but enemies, saving one small ship longing their owne lives for a few houres, or called the Pilgrim, commanded by Iacob a few daies. The maister Gunner readilie Whiddon, who hovered all night to see the condescended and divers others; but the successe: but in the mornyng bearing with Captaine and the Maister were of an other the Revenge, was hunted like a hare amongst opinion, and besought Sir Richard to have many ravenous houndes, but escaped. care of them: alleaging that the Spaniard

All the powder of the Revenge to the last would be as readie to entertaine a composibarrell was now spent, all her pikes broken, tion, as they were willing to offer the same: fortie of her best men slaine, and the most and that there being diverse sufficient and part of the rest hurt. In the beginning of valiant men yet living, and whose woundes the fight she had but one hundred free from were not mortall, they might doe their counsicknes, and fourescore and ten sicke, laid in trie and prince acceptable service hereafter. hold upon the Ballast. A small troupe to And (that where Sir Richard had alleaged man such a ship, and a weake Garrison to that the Spaniards should never glorie to resist so mighty an Army. By those hun- have taken one shippe, of her Maiesties, seedred all was sustained, the voleis, bourdings, ing that they had so long and so notably deand entrings of fifteene shippes of warre, fended them selves) they answered, that the besides those which beat her at large. On shippe had sixe foote water in hold, three the contrarie, the Spanish were alwaies sup- shot under water which were so weakly plied with souldiers brought from every stopped, as with the first working of the squadron: all maner of Armes and pouder sea, she must needes sinke, and was besides at will. Unto ours there remained no com- so crusht and brused, as she could never be fort at all, no hope, no supply either of removed out of the place. ships, men, or weapons; the mastes all And as the matter was thus in dispute, beaten over board, all her tackle cut asunder, and Sir Richard refusing to hearken to any her upper worke altogither rased, and in of those reasons: the maister of the Revenge effect evened shee was with the water, but (while the Captaine wan unto him the the verie foundation or bottom of a ship, greater party) was convoyde aborde the nothing being left over head either for Generall Don Alfonso Bassan. Who finding flight or defence. Syr Richard finding him- none over hastie to enter the Revenge againe, selfe in this distresse, and unable anie longer i doubting least S. Richard would have blowne to make resistance, having endured in this them up and himselfe, and serceiving by the fifteene houres fight, the assault of fifteene report of the maister of the Revenge his several Armadoes, ali by tornnes aboorde daungerous disposition: yeelded that all him, and by estimation eight hundred shot their lives should be saved, the companie of great artillerie, besides manie assaults sent for England, and the better sorte to

he

pay such reasonable ransome as their estate and drowned in this fight, well neere two would beare, and in the meane season to be thousand of the enemies, and two especiall free from Gally or imprisonment. To this commanders Don Luis de Sant Iohn, and he so much the rather condescended as well Don George de Prunaria de Mallaga, as the as I have saide, for feare of further loss and Spanish Captain confesseth, besides divers mischiefe to them selves, as also for the de- others of especial account, whereof as yet sire hee had to recover Sir Richard Grinvile; report is not made. whom for his notable valure he seemed The Admirall of the Hulkes and the greatly to honour and admire.

Ascention of Sivill, were both suncke by When this answere was returned, and that the side of the Revenge; one other recovered safetie of life was promised, the common the rode of Saint Michels, and sunke also sort being now at the end of their perill, the there; a fourth ranne her selfe with the most drew backe from Sir Richard and the shore to save her men. Syr Richard died maister Gunner, being no hard matter to as it is said, the second or third day aboard diswade men from death to life. The maister the Generall, and was by them greatly beGunner finding him selfe and Sir Richard wailed. What became of his bodie, whether thus prevented and maistered by the greater it were buried in the sea or on the lande wee number, would have slaine himselfe with a know not: the comfort that remaineth to sword, had he not beene by force withheld his friendes is, that he hath ended his life and locked into his Cabben. Then the Gen- honourably in respect of the reputation erall sent manie boates abord the Revenge, wonne to his nation and country, and of the and diverse of our men fearing Sir Richards same to his posteritie, and that being dead, disposition, stole away aboord the Generall he hath not outlived his owne honour. and other shippes. Sir Richard thus over- For the rest of her Majesties ships that matched, was sent unto by Alfonso Bassan entred not so far into the fight as the to remove out of the Revenge, the shippe Revenge, the reasons and causes were these. being marvellous unsaverie, filled with bloud There were of them but six in all, whereof and bodies of deade, and wounded men like two but small ships; the Revenge ingaged a slaughter house. Sir Richard answered past recoverie: The Iland of Flores was on that he might do with his bodie what he list, the one side, 53 saile of the Spanish, divided for he esteemed it not, and as he was carried into squadrons on the other, all as full filled out of the shippe he swounded, and reviv- with soldiers as they could containe. Almost ing againe desired the companie to pray for the one halfe of our men sicke and not able him. The Generall used Sir Richard with all to serve: the ships growne foule, unroomhumanitie, and left nothing unattempted aged, and scarcely able to beare anie saile that tended to his recoverie, highly com- for want of ballast, having beene sixe mending his valour and worthines, and moneths at the sea before. If al the rest greatly bewailed the daunger wherein he had entred, all had ben lost. For the verie was, beeing unto them a rare spectacle, and hugenes of the Spanish fleet, if no other a resolution sildome approved, to see one violence had been offred, would have crusht ship turne toward so many enemies, to en- them between them into shivers. Of which dure the charge and boording of so many the dishonour and losse to the Queene had huge Armados, and to resist and repell the been far greater than the spoile or harme assaults and entries of so many souldiers. that the enemy could any way have received. All which and more, is confirmed by a Span- Notwithstanding it is verie true, that the ish Captaine of the same Armada, and a Lord Thomas would have entred betweene present actor in the fight, who being sev- the squadrons, but the rest wold not conered from the rest in a storm, was by the descend; and the maister of his owne ship Lyon of London a small ship taken, and is offred to leape into the sea, rather than to now prisoner in London.

conduct that her Maiesties ship and the rest The generall commander of the Armada, to be a praie to the enemy, where there was was Don Alphonso Bassan, brother to the no hope nor possibilitie either of defence or Marquesse of Santa Cruce. The Admirall victorie. Which also in my opinion had il of the Biscaine squadron, was Britan Dona. sorted or answered the discretion and trust Of the squadron of Sivil, Marques of Arum- of a Generall, to commit himselfe and his burch. The Hulkes and Flyboates were com- charge to an assured destruction, without maunded by Luis Cutino. There were slaine hope or any likelihood of prevailing: therby to diminish the strength of her Maiesties taken by Master Wats his ships of London, Navy, and to enrich the pride and glorie of between the Havaua and Cape S. Antonio. the enemie. The Foresight of the Queenes The 4 of this month of November, we recommanded by M. Th. Vavisor, performed ceived letters from the Tercera, affirming a verie great fight, and stayd two houres as yat there are 3000 bodies of men remaining neere the Revenge as the wether wold per- in that Iland, saved out of the perished mit him, not forsaking the fight, till hee was ships: and that by the Spaniards own conlike to be encompassed by the squadrons, fession, there are 10000 cast away in this and with great difficultie cleared himselfe. storm, besides those that are perished beThe rest gave divers voleies of shot, and tweene the Ilands and the maine. Thus it entred as far as the place permitted and hath pleased God to fight for us, and to their own nece

ecessities, to keep the weather defend the iustice of our cause, against the gage of the enemy, untill they were parted ambicious and bloudy pretenses of the Spanby night. A fewe daies after the fight was iard, who seeking to devour all nations, are ended, and the English prisoners dispersed themselves devoured, A manifest testimonie into the Spanish and Indy ships, there arose how iniust and how displeasing their atso great a storme from the West and North- tempts are in the sight of God, who hath west, that all the flèet was dispersed, as well pleased to witnes by the successe of their the Indian fleet which were then come unto affaires, his mislike of their bloudy and them as the rest of the Armada that at- iniurious designes, purposed and practised tended their arrivall, of which 14 saile against all Christian Princes, over whom togither with the Revenge, and in her 200 they seeke unlawful and ungodly rule and Spaniards, were cast away upon the Isle of Empery. S. Michaels. So it pleased them to honor To conclude, it hath ever to this day the buriall of that renowned ship the Re- pleased God, to prosper and defend her venge, not suffring her to perish alone, for. Maiestie, to breake the purposes of malicious the great honour she achieved in her life enimies, of foresworne traitours, and of time. On the rest of the Ilandes there were unjust practises and invasions. She hath cast away in this storme, 15 or 16 more of ever beene honoured of the worthiest Kinges, the ships of war; and of a hundred and odde served by faithfull subjects, and shall by saile of the Indie fleet, expected this yeere the favor of God, resist, repell, and conin Spaine, what in this tempest, and what found all what soever attempts against her before in the bay of Mexico, and about the sacred Person or kingdome. In the meane Bermudas there were 70 and odde consumed time, let the Spaniard and traitour vaunt of and lost, with those taken by our ships of their successe; and we her true and obedient London, besides one verie rych Indian vassalles guided by the shining light of her shippe, which set her selfe on fire, beeing vertues, shall alwaies love her, serve her, boorded by the Pilgrim, and five other and obey her to the end of our lives.

III. TRAINING FOR EMPIRE

SIR THOMAS ELYOT

THE EDUCATION OF MEN WHO ARE TO RULE | As I sayd, pride is the first cause of this

inconuenience. For of those persons be

some, which, without shame, dare affirme, [From The Boke of the Governour, 1534]

that to a great gentilman it is a notable

reproche to be well lerned and to be called a Nowe wyll I somwhat declare of the chiefe great clerke: whiche name they accounte to causes why, in our tyme, noble men be nat be of so base estymation, that they neuer as excellent in lernying as they were in olde haue it in their mouthes but when they speke tyme amonge the Romanes and grekes. any thynge in derision, whiche perchaunce Surely, as I haue diligently marked in dayly they wolde nat do if they had ones layser experience, the principall causes be these. to rede our owne cronicle of Englande, The pride, avarice, and negligence of par- where they shall fynde that kynge Henry the entes, and the lacke or fewenesse of suffy- / first, sonne of willyam conquerour, and one cient maysters or teachers.

of the moste noble princes that euer reigned

euer

in this realme, was openly called llenry that is therin, the commaundement of the beau clerke, whiche is in englysshe, fayre prince, and the uniuersall consent of the clerke, and is yet at this day so named. And people, expressed in statutes and lawes, do wheder that name be to his honour or to his prohibite, I meane, playeng at dyce, and reproche, let them iuge that do rede and other games named unlefull. These percompare his lyfe with his two bretherne, sones, I say, I wolde shulde remembre, or william called Rouse, and Robert le courtoise, elles nowe lerne, if they neuer els herde it, they both nat hauyng semblable lernyng that the noble Philip kyng of Macedonia, with the sayd Henry, the one for his dis- who subdued al Greece, aboue all the good solute lyuyng and tyranny beynge hated of fortunes that euer he hadde, most reioysed all his nobles and people, finally was that his sonne Alexander was borne in sodaynely slayne by the shotte of an arowe, the tyme that Aristotle the philosopher as he was huntynge in a forest, whiche to flourisshed, by whose instruction he mought make larger and to gyue his deere more attaine to most excellent lernynge. lybertie, he dyd cause the houses of lii Also the same Alexander often tymes sayd sarisshes to be pulled downe, the people that he was equally as moche bounden to to be expelled, and all beyng desolate to be Aristotle as to his father kyng Philip, for tourned in to desert, and made onely pasture of his father he receyued lyfe, but of for beestes sauage; whiche he wolde neuer Aristotle he receyued the waye to lyue haue done if he had as moche delyted in nobly. good lerning as dyd his brother.

Who dispraysed Epaminondas, the moost The other brother, Robert le Courtoise, valiant capitayne of Thebanes, for that he beyng duke of Normandie, and the eldest was excellently lerned and a great philososonne of wylliam Conquerour, all be it that pher? Who

discommended Julius he was a man of moche prowesse, and right Cesar for that he was a noble oratour, and, expert in martial affayres, wherfore he was nexte to Tulli, in the eloquence of the latin electe before Godfray of Boloigne to haue tonge excelled al other? Who euer reproued ben kyng of Hierusalem; yet natwith- the emperour Hadriane for that he was so standynge whan he inuaded this realme with exquisitely lerned, nat onely in greke and sondrie puissaunt armies, also dyuers noble latine, but also in all sciences liberall, that men aydinge hym, yet his noble brother openly at Athenes, in the uniuersall assemHenry beau clerke, more by wysdome than bly of the greatteste clerkes of the worlde, power, also by lernynge, addyng polycie to he by a longe tyme disputed with philosovertue and courage, often tymes vayn- phers and Rhetoriciens, whiche were estemed quisshed hym, and dyd put him to flyght. mooste excellent, and by the iugement of And after sondry victories finally toke him them that were present had the palme or and kepte hym in prison, hauyng none other rewarde of victorie? And yet, by the meanes to kepe his realme in tranquillitie. gouernance of that noble emperour, nat only

It was for no rebuke, but for an excellent the publik weale flourisshed but also diuers honour, that the emperour Antonine was rebellions were suppressed, and the maiesty surnamed philosopher, for by his moste of the empire hugely increased. Was it any noble example of lyuing, and industrie in- reproche to the noble Germanicus (who by comparable, he during all the tyme of his the assignement of Augustus shulde haue reigne kept the publike weale of the succeeded Tiberius in the empire, if traitorRomanes in suche a perfecte astate, that by ous enuy had nat in his flourysshynge youth his actes he confirmed the sayeng of Plato, bireft hym his lyfe) that he was equall to That blessed is that publike weale wherin the moost noble poetes of his time, and, to either philosophers do reigne, or els kinges the increase of his honour and moost worthy be in philosophie studiouse.

commendation, his image was set up at These persones that so moche contemne Rome, in the habite that poetes at those lernyng, that they wolde that gentilmen's dayes used ? Fynally howe moche excellent children shulde haue no parte or very litle lernynge commendeth, and nat dispraiseth, therof, but rather shulde spende their youth nobilitie, it shal playnly appere unto them alway (I saye not onely in huntynge and that do rede the lyfes of Alexander called haukyng, whiche moderately used, as solaces Seuerus, Tacitus, Probus Aurelius, Conought to be, I intende nat to disprayse) but stantine, Theodosius, and Charles the gret, in those ydle pastymes, whiche, for the vice surnamed Charlemaine, all being emperours,

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