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OLIVER CROMWELL

at; this is the spirit of those who would nation from being an Aceldama, a field of trample on men's liberties in spiritual re- blood, if this doth not? It is, without spects. They will be making wounds, and doubt, this: give the glory to God; for rending and tearing, and making them without this, it would prove as great a wider than they were. Is not this the case ? plague as all that hath been spoken of. It Doth there want anything-I speak no of is this, without doubt, that keeps this nasects in an ill sense; but the nation is tion in peace and quietness.-And what is hugely made up of them,—and what is the the case of your army withal? A poor unwant that prevents these things from being paid army; the soldiers going barefoot at done to the uttermost, but that men have this time, in this city, this weather! And more anger than strength? They have not yet a peaceable people, these soldiers; seekpower to attain their ends. There wants ing to serve you with their lives; judging nothing else. And, I beseech you, judge their pains and hazards and all well bewhat such a company of men, of these stowed. In obeying their officers and servsects, are doing, while they are contesting ing you, to keep the peace of these nations! one with another! They are contesting in Yea, he must be a man with a heart as hard the midst of a generation of men; contest- as the weather who hath not a due sense ing in the midst of these all united. What of this! must be the issue of such a thing as this? So stands it; it is so. And do but judge

AN APPEAL FOR UNITY what proofs have been made of the spirits of these men. Summoning men to take up arms; and exhorting men, each sort of them,

[From a Speech Before Parliament, Januito fight for their notions; each sort thinking

ary 25, 1658] they are to try it out by the sword; and every sort thinking that they are truly And now having said this, I have disunder the banner of Christ, if they þut charged my duty to God and to you, in come in, and bind themselves in such a making this demonstration,--and I profess. project.

not as a rhetorician! My business was to Now do but judge what a hard condition prove the verity of the designs from this poor nation is in. This is the state and abroad; and the still unsatisfied spirits of condition we are in. Judge, I say, what a the Cavaliers at home,—who from the behard condition this poor nation is in, and ginning of our peace to this day have not the cause of God is in,--amidst such a been wanting to do what they could to party of men as the cavaliers are, and their kindle a fire at home in the midst of us, participants! Not only with respect to And I say, if be so, the truth, I pray God what these are like to do of themselves : affect your hearts with a due sense of it! but some of these, yea some of these, they And give you heart and one mind to carry care not who carry the goal: some of these on this work for which we are met together! have invited the Spaniard himself to carry If these things be so,-should you meet toon the cavalier cause.

morrow, and accord in all things tending And this is true. This and many other to your preservation and your rights and things that are not fit to be suggested unto liberties, really it will be feared there is you; because so we should betray the inter- too much time elapsed already for your deest of our intelligence. I say, this is your livering yourselves from those dangers that condition! What is your defense? What hang upon you. hindereth the irruption of all this upon

We have had now six years of peace, and you, to your utter destruction ? Truly, that have had an interruption of ten years war. you have an army in these parts,-in Scot- We have seen and heard and felt the evils land, in England, and Ireland. Take them of war; and now God hath given us a new away tomorrow, would not all these inter- taste of the benefits of peace. Have you ests run into one another ?-I know you not had such a peace in England, Ireland. are rational, prudent men.

Have you any

and Scotland, and there is not a man to lift fame or model of things that would satisfy up his finger to put you into distemper? the minds of men, if this be not the fame, Is not this a mighty blessing from the Lord this which you are now called together upon of Heaven? Shall we now be prodigal of and engaged in,-I mean, the two Houses of time? Should any man, shall we, listen to Parliament and myself? What hinders this delusions, to break and interrupt this peace! There is not any man that has been true to But I trust God will never leave it to this cause, as I believe you have been all, such a spirit. And while I live, and am who can look for anything but the greatest able, I shall be ready to stand and fall with rending and persecution that ever was in you, in this seemingly promising union this world! I wonder how it can enter into which God hath wrought among you, which the heart of man to undervalue these things; I hope neither the pride nor envy of them to slight peace and the gospel, the greatest shall be able to make void. I have taken mercy of God. We have peace and the my oath to govern according to the laws gospel! Let us have one heart and soul; that are now made; and trust I shall fully one mind to maintain the honest and just answer it. And know I sought not this rights of this nation ;-not to pretend to place. I speak it before God, Angels, and them, to the destruction of our peace, to the Men: I DID NOT. You sought me for it, destruction of the nation! Really, pretend you brought me to it, and I took my oath that we will, if you run into another flood to be faithful to the interest of these naof blood and war, the sinews of the nation tions, to be faithful to the government. All being wasted by the last, it must sink and those things were implied, in my eye, in perish utterly. I beseech you, and charge the oath to be faithful to this government you in the name and presence of God, and upon which we have now met. And I trust, as before Him, be sensible of these things by the grace of God, as I have taken my and lay them to heart! You have a day oath to serve this Commonwealth on such of fasting coming on. I beseech God touch an account, I shall,-I must!-see it done your hearts and open your ears to this according to articles of Government. That truth; and that you may be as deaf as every just interest may be preserved; that adders to stop your ears to all dissension ! a godly ministry may be upheld, and not and may look upon them who would sow affronted by seducing and seduced spirits; dissension, whoever they may be, as Paul that all men may be preserved in their just saith to the Church of Corinth, as I re- rights, whether civil or spiritual. Upon member: "Mark such as cause divisions this account did I take oath, and swear to and offenses, and would disturb you from this government! And so having declared that foundation of Peace you are upon, un- my heart and mind to you in this, I have der any pretense whatsoever!"

nothing more to say, but to pray, God AlI shall conclude with this. I was free, mighty bless you. the last time of our meeting to tell you I would discourse with a psalm; and I did

THE RESTORATION it. I am not ashamed of it at any time, especially when I meet with men of such consideration as you. There you have one verse which I forgot. “I will hear what

[From the Diary] God the Lord will speak: for He will speak March 16, 1660. To Westminster Hall, Peace unto his people and to His saints; where I heard how the Parliament had this but let them not turn again to folly.” Dis- day dissolved themselves, and did pass very sension, division, destruction, in a poor na- cheerfully through the Hall, and the Speaktion under a civil war,-having all the ef

er without his Mace. The whole Hall was fects of a civil war upon it! Indeed if joyful thereat, as well as themselves, and we return again to folly, let every man now they begin to talk loud of the king. consider, If it be not like turning to de- Tonight I am told, that yesterday, about struction? If God shall unite your hearts

five o'clock in the afternoon, one came with and bless you, and give you the blessing of a ladder to the Great Exchange, and wiped union and love one to another; and tread- with a brush the inscription that was on down everything that riseth up in your King Charles, and that there was a great hearts and tendeth to deceive your own bonfire made in the Exchange, and people souls with pretenses of this thing or that, called out, “God bless King Charles the as we have been saying, and not prefer the Second.” keeping of peace, that we may see the fruit of righteousness in them that love peace and May 2. Mr. Donne from London, with embrace peace,-it will be said of this poor letter that tells us the welcome news of the nation, Actum est de Anglia, It is all over Parliament's votes yesterday, which shall be with England!

remembered for the happiest May-day that

SAMUEL PEPYS

see.

hath been many a year to England. The he found what usage he was likely to have King's letter was read in the House, where- from a Commonwealth. in he submits himself and all things to them, as to an Act of Oblivion to all, unless May 23. In the morning come infinity they shall please to except any, as to the of people on board from the King to go confirming of the sales of the King's and along with him. My Lord, Mr. Crewe, and Church lands, if they see good. The House, others, go on shore to meet the King as he upon reading the letter, ordered 50,000 lbs. comes off from shore, where Sir R. Stayner, to be forthwith provided to send to His bringing his Majesty into the boat, I hear Majesty for his present supply; and a that his Majesty did with a great deal of committee chosen to return an answer of affection kiss my Lord upon his first meetthanks to his Majesty for his gracious let. ing. The King, with the two Dukes and ter; and that the letter be kept among the Queen of Bohemia, Princess Royal, and records of the Parliament; and in all this Prince of Orange, come on board, where I, not so much as one No. So that Luke Rob- in their coming in, kissed the King's

, inson himself stood up, and made a re- Queen's, and Princess's hand, having done cantation for what he had done, and prom- the other before. Infinite shooting off of ises to be a loyal subject to his Prince for the guns, and that in a disorder on purthe time to come. The City of London have pose, which was better than if it had been put out a Declaration, wherein they do dis- otherwise. All day, nothing but Lords and claim their owning any other Government persons of honor on board, that we were but that of a King, Lords, and Commons. exceeding full. Dined in a great deal of Thanks were given by the House to Sir state, the Royal company by themselves John Greenville, one of the bedchamber to in the coach, which was a blessed sight to the King, who brought the letter, and they After dinner, the King and Duke alcontinued bare all the time it was reading. tered the name of some of the ships, viz., Upon notice from the Lords to the Com- the Nazeby into Charles; the Richard, mons, of their desire that the Commons James; the Speaker, Mary; the Dunbar would join with them in their vote for (which was not in company with us), the King, Lords, and Commons; the Commons Henry; Winsly, Happy Return; Wakedid concur, and voted that all books what- field, Richmond; Lambert, the Henrietta; ever that are out against the Government Cheriton, the Speedwell; Bradford, the Sucof Kings, Lords, and Commons, should be That done, the Queen, Princess brought into the House and burned. Great Royal, and Prince of Orange, took leave joy all yesterday at London, and at night of the King, and the Duke of York went more bonfires than ever, and ringing of on board the London, and the Duke of bells, and drinking of the King's health Gloucester, the Swiftsure, which done, we upon their knees in the streets, which me- weighed anchor, and with a fresh gale and thinks is a little too much.

most happy weather we set sail for Eng

land. All the afternoon the King walked May 15. In the afternoon my Lord called here and there, up and down, (quite conme on purpose to show me his fine clothes trary to what I thought him to have been) which are now come hither, and indeed are very active and stirring. Upon the quarvery rich as gold and silver can make them, ter-deck he fell into discourse of his escape only his sword he and I do not like. In from Worcester, where it made me ready the afternoon my Lord and I walked to- to weep to hear the stories that he told of gether in the coach two hours, talking to- his difficulties that he had passed through, gether upon all sorts of discourse: as re- as his traveling four days and three nights ligion, wherein he is, I perceive, wholly on foot, every step up to his knee in dirt. skeptical, saying, that indeed the Protest- with nothing but a green coat and a pair of ants as to the Church of Rome are wholly country breeches on, and a pair of country fanatiques; he likes uniformity and form shoes that made him so sore all over his feet, of prayer: about State-business, among that he could scarce stir. Yet he was forced other things he told me that his conversion to run away from a miller and other comto the King's cause (for I was saying that pany, that took them for rogues. His sitI wondered from what time the King could ting at a table at one place, where the master look upon him to become his friend) com- of the house, that had not seen him in eight menced from his being in the Sound, when years, did know him, but kept it private;

cess.

when at the same table there was one, that the first blood shed in revenge for the King had been of his own regiment at Worcester, at unaring Cross. Setting up shelves in my could not know him, but made him drink the study. King's health, and said that the King was October 14 (Lord's day). To White Hall at least four fingers higher than he. At chapel, where one Dr. Crofts made an indifanother place, at his inn, the master of the ferent sermon, and after it an

them, illhouse, as the King was standing with his sung, which made the King laugh. Here I hands upon the back of a chair by the fire- first did see the Princess Royal since she side, kneeled down and kissed his hand, came into England. Here I also observed, privately, saying, that he would not ask him how the Duke of York and Mrs. Palmer did who he was, but bid God bless him whither talk to one another very wantonly through he was going.

the hangings that parts the King's closet

where the ladies sit. May 25. I went, and Mr. Mansell, and one of the King's footmen, and a dog that November 4 (Lord's Day). In the morn the King loved, in a boat by ourselves, and to our own church, where Mr. Mills did so got on shore when the King did, who was begin to nibble at the Common Prayer, by received by General Monk with all imagina- saying Glory be to the Father, &c., after he ble love and respect at his entrance upon the had read the two psalms: but the people land at Dover. Infinite the crowd of people had been so little used to it, that they could and the gallantry of the horsemen, citizens, not tell what to answer. and noblemen of all sorts. The Mayor of the town come and give him his white staff, January 3, 1661. To the Theater, where the badge of his place, which the King did was acted “Beggar's Bush,” it being very give him again. The Mayor also presented well done; and here the first time that ever him from the town a very rich Bible, which I saw women come upon the stage. he took, and said it was the thing that he loved above all things in the world. А January 31. To my Lady Batten's; canopy was provided for him to stand

where my wife and she are lately come back under, which he did, and talked awhile with from being abroad, and seeing of Cromwell. General Monk and others, and so in a state- Ireton, and Bradshaw, hanged and buried ly coach there set for him, and so away at Tyburne. through the town towards Canterbury, without making any stay at Dover. The

THE PURITAN shouting and joy expressed by all is past imagination.

[From Hudibras, 1667-8] July 10. This day I put on my new silk suit, the first that ever I wore in my life. When civil dudgeon first grew high,

And men fell out they knew not why; August 25. This night W. Hewer brought When hard words, jealousies, and fears. me home from Mr. Pim's my velvet coat Set folks together by the ears, and cap, the first that ever I had.

And made them fight, like mad or drunk,

For Dame Religion as for punk; October 13. I went out to Charing Cross, Whose honesty they all durst swear for, to see Major-General Harrison hanged, Though not a man of them knew wherefore: drawn, and quartered; which was done there, When Gospel-trumpeter, surrounded he looking as cheerful as any man could do With long-ear'd rout, to battle sounded; in that condition. He was presently cut And pulpit, drum ecclesiastic, down, and his head and heart shown to the Was beat with fist instead of a stick; people, at which there was great shouts of Then did Sir Knight abandon dwelling, joy. It is said, that he said that he was And out he rode a-colonelling. sure to come shortly at the right hand of A wight he was, whose very sight would Christ to judge them that now had judged Entitle him Mirror of Knighthood, him; and that his wife do expect his coming That never bow'd his stubborn knee again. Thus it was my chance to see the To anything but chivalry, king beheaded at White Hall, and to see Nor put up blow, but that which laid

SAMUEL BUTLER

Right Worshipful on shoulder blade;
Chief of domestic knights and errant,
Either for chartel or for warrant;
Great on the bench, great in the saddle,
That could as well bind o'er as swaddle;
Mighty he was at both of these
And styld of War, as well as Peace:
(So some rats, of Amphibious nature,
Àre either for the land or water).
But here our Authors make a doubt
Whether he were more wise or stout:
Some hold the one, and some the other,
But, howsoe'er they make a pother,
The diff'rence was so small, his brain
Outweigh'd his rage but half a grain;
Which made some take him for a tool
That knaves do work with, call'd a Fool.

More peevish, cross, and splenetic,
Than dog distract, or monkey sick:
That with more care keep holyday
The wrong, than others the right way;
Compound for sins they are inclin'd to,
By damning those they have no mind to:
Still so perverse and opposite,
As if they worship'd God for spite:
The self-same thing they will abhor
One way, and long another for:
Freewill they one way disavow,
Another, nothing else allow:
All piety consists therein
In them, in other men all sin:
Rather than fail, they will defy
That which they love most tenderly;
Quarrel with minc'd-pies, and disparage
Their best and dearest friend, plum-por-

ridge; Fat pig and goose itself oppose, And blaspheme custard through the nose.

OF COMMONWEALTH

THOMAS HOBBES

He was in logic a great critic, Profoundly skill'd in analytic; He could distinguish, and divide A hair 'twixt south and southwest side; On either which he would dispute, Confute, change hands, and still confute: He'd undertake to prove, by force Of argument, man's no horse; He'd prove a buzzard is no fowl, And that a lord may be an owl; A calf an alderman, a goose a justice, And rooks Committee-men and Trustees. He'd run in debt by disputation, And pay with ratiocination: All this by syllogism, true In mood and figure he would do.

For his religion, it was fit To match his learning and his wit: 'Twas Presbyterian true blue; For he was of that stubborn crew Of errant saints, whom all men grant To be the true Church Militant; Such as do build their faith upon The holy text of pike and gun; Decide all controversies by Infallible artillery; And prove their doctrine orthodox, By A postolic blows and knocks; Call fire and sword, and desolation, A godly, thorough Reformation, Which always must be carry'd on, And still be doing, never done; As if Religion were intended For nothing else but to be mended: A sect whose chief devotion lies In odd perverse antipathies; In falling out with that or this, And finding somewhat still amiss;

[From Leviathan, 1651, chapters xvii, sviii.

xix, xxi] The Nature of a Commonwealth The final cause, end, or design, of men, who naturally love liberty and dominion over others, in the introduction of that restraint upon themselves in which we see them live in commonwealths, is the foresight of their own preservation and of a more contented life thereby; that is to say, of getting themselves out from that miserable condition of war which is necessarily consequent, as hath been shown in chapter xiji, to the natural

1 The following passage sets forth Hobbes' fa: mous idea of the state of nature with its perpetual warfare:

"Hereby it is manifest that, during the time men live without a common power to keep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war, and such a war as is of every man against every man. For 'war' consisteth not in battle only or the act of fighting, but in a tract of time wherein the will to contend by battle is sufficiently known, and therefore the notion of time' is to be considered in the nature of war, as it is in the nature of weather. For as the nature of foul weather lieth not in a shower or two of rain but in an inclination thereto of many days together, so the nature of war consisteth not in actual fighting but in the known disposition thereto during all the time, there is no assurance to the contrary. All other time is 'peace.'

"Whatsoever therefore is consequent to a time of war, where every man is enemy to every man. the same is consequent to the time wherein men live without other security than what their own strength and their own invention shall furnish

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