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perpetual sitting, it may be easily provided | people's choice, whether they will change to change a third part of them yearly, or them, or renew their power, as they shall every two or three years, as was above men

find cause. tioned; or that it be at those times in the

5. FOES OF THE STATE

grow sleek

and gasp.

ON THE DETRACTION WHICH FOLLOWED But from that mark how far they rove UPON MY WRITING CERTAIN TREATISES

we see,

For all this waste of wealth and loss of A book was writ of late called Tetrachor

blood. don, And woven close, both matter, form, and ON THE NEW FORCERS OF CONSCIENCE style;

UNDER THE LONG PARLIAMENT The subject new: it walked the town a

Because you have thrown off your Prelate while,

Lord, Numbering good intellects; now seldom

And with stiff vows renounced his Litpored on.

urgy, Cries the stall-reader, “Bless us! what a

To seize the widowed whore Plurality word on

From them whose sin ye envied, not abA title-page is this !"; and some in file

horred, Stand spelling false, while one might Dare ye for this adjure the civil sword walk to Mile

To force our consciences that Christ set End Green. Why, is it harder, sirs, than

free, Gordon,

And ride us with a Classic Hierarchy, Colkitto, or Macdonnel, or Galasp?

Taught ye by mere A.S. and RutherThose rugged names to our like mouths

ford ?

Men whose life, learning, faith, and pure That would have made Quintilian stare intent,

Would have been held in high esteem with Thy age, like ours, ( soul of Sir John

Paul Cheek,

Must now be named and printed heretics Hated not learning worse than toad or By shallow Edwards and Scotch What-d'yeasp,

call ! When thou taught'st Cambridge and

But we do hope to find out all your tricks, King Edward Greek.

Your plots and packing, worse than those

of Trent, ON THE SAME

That so the Par iment I did but prompt the age to quit their clogs May with their wholesome and preventive By the known rules of ancient liberty,

shears When straight a barbarous noise environs Clip your phylacteries, though baulk your

ears, Of owls and cuckoos, asses, apes, and

And succor our just fears, dogs;

When they shall read this clearly in your As when those hinds that were transformed charge: to frogs

New Presbyter is but old Priest, writ large. Railed at Latona's twin-born progeny, Which after held the sun and moon in

ON THE LORD GENERAL FAIRFAX fee.

Fairfax, whose name in arms through EuBut this is got by casting pearl to hogs,

rope rings, That bawl for freedom in their senseless Filling each mouth with envy or with mood,

praise, And still revolt when truth would set And all her jealous monarchs with amaze, them free.

And rumors loud that daunt remotest License they mean when they cry lib- kings, erty;

Thy firm unshaken virtue ever brings For who loves that must first be wise and Victory home, though new rebellions good :

raise

me

160

Their Hydra heads, and the false North

displays Her broken league to imp their serpent

wings. O yet a nobler task awaits thy hand (For what can war but endless war still

breed ?) Till truth and right from violence be

freed, And public faith cleared from the shameful

brand Of public fraud. In vain doth Valor

bleed, While Avarice and Rapine share the

land.

Guided by faith and matchless fortitude,
To peace and truth thy glorious way hast

plowed,
And on the neck of crowned Fortune proud
Hast reared God's trophies, and his work

pursued,
While Darwen stream, with blood of

Scots imbrued,
And Dunbar field, resounds thy praises

loud,
And Worcester's laureate wreath: yet much

remains To conquer still; peace hath her victories No less renowned than war: new foes

arise, Threatening to bind our souls with secular

chains. Help us to save free conscience from the

paw Of hireling wolves, whose gospel is their

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TO THE LORD GENERAL CROMWELL Cromwell, our chief of men, who through

a cloud Not of war only, but detractions rude,

maw.

6. THE INTERNATIONAL MIND ON THE LATE MASSACRE IN PIEDMONT Most Serene and Potent King, Most

Close Friend and Ally,—Your Majesty may Avenge, O Lord, thy slaughtered saints,

recollect that during the negotiations bewhose bones

tween us for the renewing of our League Lie scattered on the Alpine mountains

(which many advantages to both nations, cold;

and much damage to their common enemies, Even them who kept thy truth so pure

of

resulting therefrom, now testify to have old,

been wisely done), there fell out that misWhen all our fathers worshiped stocks

erable slaughter of the people of the valand stones,

leys; whose cause, on all sides deserted, and Forget not: in thy book record their groans

trodden down, we, with the utmost earnestWho were thy sheep, and in their ancient

ness and pity, recommended to your mercy fold

and protection. Nor do we think your Slain by the bloody Piedmontese, that

Majesty, for your own part, has been wantrolled

ing in an office so pious and indeed so huMother with infant down the rocks.

man, in so far as either by authority or Their moans

favor you might have influence with the The vales redoubled to the hills, and they

Duke of Savoy: we certainly, and many To heaven. Their martyred blood and

other Princes and States, by embassies, by ashes sow

letters, by entreaties directed hither, have O’er all the Italian fields, where still doth

not been wanting. sway

After that most sanguinary massacre, The triple tyrant; that from these may

which spared no age nor either sex, there grow

was at last a peace given; or rather, under A hundredfold, who, having learnt thy

the specious name of peace, a certain more wау,

disguised hostility. The terms of peace Early may fly the Babylonian woe.

were settled in your town of Pignerol:

hard terms; but such as these poor people, THE NATION'S PROTEST (PIEDMONT)'

indigent and wretched, after suffering all To the Most Serene and Potent Prince, manner of cruelties and atrocities, might Louis, King of France.

gladly acquiesce in ; if only, hard and un1 "An emphatic State-Letter:

just as the bargain is, it were adhered to. Cromwell meant, and John Milton thought and It is not adhered to: those terms are broken; wrote into words; not unworthy to be read." Carlyle.

the purport of every one of them is, by

which

Oliver

tions;

false interpretation and various subter- protection they now implore; promise of fuges, eluded and violated. Many of these thy ancestor they now, from thee the grandpeople are ejected from their old habita- son, suppliantly demand. To be thine

their native religion is prohibited to rather than his whose they now are, if by many: new taxes are exacted; a new for- any means of exchange it could be done, tress has been built over them, out of they would wish and prefer: if that may which soldiers frequently sallying plunder not be, thine at least by succor, by comor kill whomsoever they meet. Moreover, miseration, and deliverance. new forces have of late been privily got There are likewise reasons of state which ready against them; and such as follow the might give inducement not to reject these Romish reiigion are directed to withdraw people of the valleys flying for shelter to from among them within a limited time: so thee: but I would not have thee, so great that everything seems now again to point a King as thou art, be moved to the defense toward the extermination of all among these of the unfortunate by other reasons than unhappy people, whom the former massacre the promise of thy ancestors, and thy own had left.

piety and royal benignity and greatness of Which now, O Most Christian King, I mind. So shall the praise and fame of this beseech and obtest thee, by thy right-hand most worthy action be unmixed and clear; which pledged a league and friendship with and thyself shalt find the Father of Mercy, us, by the sacred honor of that title of and His Son Christ the King, whose name Most Christian,-permit not to be done: and doctrine thou shalt have vindicated, the nor let such license of savagery, I do not more favorable to thee, and propitious say to any Prince (for indeed no cruelty through the course of life. like this could come into the mind of any May the Almighty, for His own glory, Prince, much less into the tender years of for the safety of so many most innocent that young Prince, or into the woman's Christian men, and for your true honor, heart of his mother), but to those accursed dispose your Majesty to this determination. assassins, be given. Who while they pro- Your Majesty's most friendly fess themselves the servants and imitators Oliver Protector of the Commonwealth of of Christ oựr Savior, who came into this England. world that He might save sinners, abuse Westminster, 26th May, 1658. His most merciful name and commandments

(Translated

the Latin Milton by to the cruelest slaughterings. Snatch, thou Thomas Carlyle.) who art able, and who in such an elevation art worthy to be able, these poor suppliants of thine from the hands of murderers, who,

ENGLAND AND AMERICA lately drunk with blood, are again athirst

[From Of Reformation in England, 1641] for it, and think convenient to turn the discredit of their own cruelty upon their But to return whence was digressed: seePrince's score. Suffer not either thy titles ing that the throne of a king, as the wise and the environs of thy kingdom to be king Solomon often remembers us, “is essoiled with that discredit, or the peaceable tablished in justice,” which is the universal gospel of Christ by that cruelty, in thy justice that Aristotle so much praises, conreign. Remember that these very people taining in it all other virtues, it may assure became subjects of thy ancestor, Henry, us that the fall of prelacy, whose actions most friendly to Protestants; when Lesdi- are so far distant from justice, cannot shake guieres victoriously pursued him of Savoy the least fringe that borders the royal canacross the Alps, through those same valleys, opy; but that their standing doth continualwhere indeed the most commodious pass to ly oppose and lay battery to regal safety, Italy is. The instrument of their paction shall by that which follows easily appear. and surrender is yet extant in the public Amongst many secondary and accessory acts of your kingdom: in which this among causes that support monarchy, these are other things is specified and provided not of least reckoning, though common to against, that these people of the valleys all other states; the love of the subjects, should not thereafter be delivered over to the multitude and valor of the people, and anyone except on the same conditions un- store of treasure. In all these things hath der which thy invincible ancestor had re- the kingdom been of late sore weakened, and ceived them into fealty. This promised chiefly by the prelates. First, let any man

from

of

that shall break asunder the bonds of religion! Let the astrologer be dismayed at the portentous blaze of comets, and impressions in the air, as foretelling troubles and changes to states: I shall believe there cannot be a more ill-boding sign to a nation (God turn the omen from us!) than when the inhabitants, to avoid insufferable grievances at home, are enforced by heaps to forsake their native country.

consider, that if any prince shall suffer under him a commission of authority to be exercised, till all the land groan and cry out, as against a whip of scorpions, whether this be not likely to lessen and keel the affections of the subject. Next, what numbers of faithful and freeborn Englishmen, and good Christians, have been constrained to forsake their dearest home, their friends and kindred, whom nothing but the wide ocean, and the savage deserts of America, could hide and shelter from the fury of the bishops? O, sir, if we could but see the shape of our dear mother England, as poets are wont to give a personal form to what they please, how would she appear, think

ye, but in a mourning weed, with ashes upon her head, and tears abundantly flowing from her eyes, to behold so many of her children exposed at once, and thrust from things of dearest necessity, because their conscience could not assent to things which the bishops thought indifferent? What more binding than conscience? What more free than indifferency? Cruel then must that indifferency needs be, that shall violate the strict necessity of conscience; merciless and inhuman that free choice and liberty

THE BROTHERHOOD OF MAN

[From Tenure of Kings, 1649] Who knows not that there is a mutual bond of amity and brotherhood between man and man over all the world, neither is it the English sea that can sever us from that duty and relation: a straiter bond yet there is between fellow-subjects, neighbors, and friends.

Nor is it distance of place that makes enmity, but enmity that makes distance. He, therefore, that keeps peace with me, near or remote, of whatsoever nation, is to me, as far as all civil and human offices, an Englishman and a neighbor.

This is gospel, and this was ever law among equals.

III. THE BEGINNINGS OF FREE GOVERNMENT IN AMERICA

THE PILGRIMS AND THEIR COMPACT for us, and for our children, and for all our

substance. Upon which he spent a good WILLIAM BRADFORD

part of the day very profitably, and suit[From the History of Plymouth Plan

able to their present occasion. The rest of tation.]

the time was spent in pouring out prayers

to the Lord with great fervency mixed with Of their departure from Leyden, and abundance of tears. And the time being other things there about, with their arrival come that they must depart, they were at Southampton, where they all met to- accompanied with most of their brethren gether, and took in their provisions.

out of the city, unto a town sundry miles At length, after much travail and these off called Delfes Haven, where the ships lay debates, all things were got ready and pro- ready to receive them. So they left that vided. A small ship was bought and fitted goodly and pleasant city, which had been in Holland which was intended as to serve their resting place, near 12 years; but they to help to transport them, so to stay in the knew they were pilgrims and looked not country, and attend upon fishing and such much on those things, but lift up their eyes other affairs as might be for the good and to the heavens, their dearest country, and benefit of the colony when they came there. quieted their spirits. When they came to Another was hired at London, of burden the place they found the ship and all things about 9. score; and all other things got in ready. And such of their friends as could readiness. So being ready to depart, they not come with them followed after them, and had a day of solemn humiliation, their pas- sundry also came from Amsterdam to see tor taking his text from Ezra 8.21. And them shipped and to take their leave of there at the river, by Ahava, I proclaimed them. That night was spent with little a fast that we might humble ourselves be- sleep by the most, but with friendly enterfore our God, and seek of him a right way tainment and Christian discourse, and other real expressions of true Christian love. The dispatched and to have the conditions connext day the wind being fair they went firmed; but they refused, and answered him, aboard, and their friends with them, where that he knew right well that these were not truly doleful was the sight of that sad and according to the first agreement, neither mournful parting; To see what sighs and could they yield to them without the consobs and prayers did sound amongst them, sent of the rest that were behind and inwhat tears did rush from every eye, and deed they had special charge when they pithy speeches pierced each heart; that sun- came away, from the chief of those that dry of the Dutch strangers that stood on the were behind, not to do it. At which he quay as spectators, could not refrain from was much offended, and told them they tears. Yet comfortable and sweet it was must then look to stand on their own legs. to see such lively and true expressions of So he returned in displeasure, and this was dear and unfained love. But the tide (which the first ground of discontent between them. stays for no man) calling them away that And whereas they wanted well near £100 to were thus loath to depart, their reverend clear things at their going away, he would pastor falling down on his knees (and they not take order to disburse a penny, but all with him,) with watery cheeks com- let them shift as they could. So they were mended them with most fervent prayers to forced to sell off some of their provisions the Lord and his blessing. And then with to stop this gap which was some 3. or 4. mutual embraces and many tears, they took score firkins of butter, which commodity their leaves one of another; which proved they might best spare, having provided too to be the last leave to many of them. large a quantity of that kind.

Thus hoisting sail, with a prosperous wind they came in short time to Southampton,

The Compact of the Pilgrims where they found the bigger ship come from The rest of this History (if God gives me London, lying ready with all the rest of life, and opportunity) I shall, for brevity's their company. After a joyful welcome, sake, handle by way of Annals, noting and mutual congratulations, with other only the heads of principal things, and pasfriendly entertainments, they fell to parley sages as they fell in order of time, and may about their business, how to dispatch with seem to be profitable to know, or to make the best expedition; as also with their use of. And this may be as the second agents, about the alteration of the condi- Book. tions. Mr. Carver pleaded he was employed here at Hampton and knew not well what

The Remainder of Anno: 1620 the other had done at London. Mr. Cush- I shall a little return back and begin with man answered he sad done nothing but a combination made by them before they what he was urged to partly by the grounds came ashore, being the first foundation of of equity and more especially by necessity, their government in this place; occasioned otherwise all had been dashed and many partly by the discontented mutinous and undone. And in the beginning he acquaint- speeches that some of the strangers amongst ed his fellow agents herewith, who con

them had let fall from them in the shipsented unto him, and left it to him to That when they came ashore they would execute, and to receive the money at Lon- use their own liberty; for none had power don, and send it down to them at Hampton, to command them, the patent they had bewhere they made the provisions; the which he ing for Virginia, and not for New England, accordingly did, though it was against his which belonged to another Government, with mind, and some of the merchants, that they which the Virginia Company had nothing were there made. And for giving them to do. And partly that such an act by notice at Leyden of this change, he them done (this their condition considered) could not well in regard of the short- might be as firm as any patent, and in ness of the time; again, he knew it would some respects more sure. trouble them and hinder the business, which The form was as followeth. was already delayed overlong in regard of In ye name of God, Amen. We whose the season of the year, which he feared they names are vnderwritten, the loyall subjects would find to their cost. But these things of our dread soueraigne Lord, King James, gave not content at present. Mr. Weston, by ye grace of God, of great Britaine, Franc, likewise, came up from London to see them & Ireland king, defender of ye faith, &c.

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