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ing first the greatest discouragement and to that state of maturity, as not to be still affront that can be offered to learning and mistrusted and suspected, unless he carry to learned men. It was the complaint and all his considerate diligence, all his midlamentation of prelates, upon every least night watchings and expense of Palladian of a motion to remove pluralities, and dis- oil, to the hasty view of an unleisured licentribute more equally church revenues, that ser, perhaps much his younger, perhaps far then all learning would be forever dashed his inferior in judgment, perhaps one who and discouraged. “But as for that opinion, never knew the labor of bookwriting; and I never found cause to think that the tenth if he be not repulsed, or slighted, must appart of learning stood or fell with the pear in print like a puny with his guardian, clergy: nor could I ever but hold it for a and his censor's hand on the back of his title sordid and unworthy speech of any church- to be his bail and surety, that he is no idiot man, who had a competency left him. If or seducer; it cannot be but a dishonor and therefore ye be loath to dishearten utterly derogation to the author, to the book, to the and discontent, not the mercenary crew of privilege and dignity of learning. false pretenders to learning, but the free And what if the author shall be one so and ingenious sort of such as evidently were copious of fancy as to have many things born to study and love learning for itself, well worth the adding come into his mind not for lucre, or any other end, but the after licensing, while the book is yet under service of God and of truth, and perhaps the press, which not seldom happens to the that lasting fame and perpetuity of praise best and diligentest writers; and that perwhich God and good men have consented haps a dozen times in one book. The shall be the reward of those whose pub- printer dares not go beyond his licensed lished labors advance the good of mankind, copy; so often then must the author trudge then know, that so far to distrust the to his leave-giver, that those his new inserjudgment and the honesty of one who hath tions may be viewed; and many a jaunt but a common repute in learning, and never will be made, ere found, or found at leisure; yet offended, as not to count him fit to print meanwhile either the press must stand still, his mind without a tutor and examiner, lest which is no small damage, or the author lose he should drop a schism or something of his accuratest thoughts, and send the book corruption, is the greatest displeasure and forth worse than he had made it, which to indignity to a free and knowing spirit that a diligent writer is the greatest melancholy can be put upon him.
and vexation that can befall. What advantage is it to a man, over it is And how can a man teach with authority, to be a boy at school, if we have only es- which is the life of teaching; how can he caped the ferula, to come under the fescue be a doctor in his book, as he ought to be, of an imprimatur? If serious and elabo- or else had better be silent, whenas all he rate writings, as if they were no more than teaches, all he delivers, is but under the tuithe theme of a grammar-lad under his ped- tion, under the correction of his patriarchal agogue, must not be uttered without the licenser, to blot or alter what precisely accursory eyes of a temporizing and extem- cords not with the hide-bound humor which porizing licenser? He who is not trusted he calls his judgment? When every acute with his own actions, his drift not being reader, upon the first sight of a pedantic known to be evil, and standing to the hazard license, will be ready with these like words of law and penalty, has no greater argu- to ding the book a quoit's distance from ment to think himself reputed in the com- him: “I hate a pupil teacher; I endure not monwealth wherein he was born for other an instructor that comes to me under the than a fool or a foreigner. When a man wardship of an overseeing fist. I know writes to the world, he summons up all his nothing of the licenser, but that I have his reason and deliberation to assist him; he own hand here for his arrogance; who shall searches, meditates, is industrious, and warrant me his judgment ?” “The state, likely consults and confers with his judi- sir,” replies the stationer; but has a quick cious friends; after all which done, he takes return; “The state shall be my governors, himself to be informed in what he writes, but not my critics; they may be mistaken as well as any that wrote before him; if in in the choice of a licenser, as easily as this this, the most consummate act of his fidelity licenser may be mistaken in an author. and ripeness, no years, no industry, no This is some common stuff”: and he might former proof of his abilties, can bring him add from Sir Francis Bacon, that “such authorized books are but the language of breakfasted than He whose morning appethe times.” For though a licenser should tite would have gladly fed on green figs happen to be judicious more than ordinary, between Bethany and Jerusalem, his rewhich will be a great jeopardy of the next ligion walks abroad at eight, and leaves succession, yet his very office and his com- his kind entertainer in the shop trading all mission enjoins him to let pass nothing but day without his religion. what is vulgarly received already.
Another sort there be, who when they
hear that all things shall be ordered, all A HERETIC IN THE TRUTH
things regulated and settled; nothing writ
ten but what passes through the customWell knows he who uses to consider, house of certain publicans that have the that our faith and knowledge thrives by tonnaging and poundaging of all free-spoexercise, as well as our limbs and complex- ken truth, will straight give themselves up ion. Truth is compared in scripture to a into your hands, make them and cut them streaming fountain; if her waters flow not out what religion ye please: there be dein a perpetual progression they sicken into lights, there be recreations and jolly pasa muddy pool of conformity and tradition. times, that will fetch the day about from A man may be a heretic in the truth; and sun to sun, and rock the tedious year as in if he believes things only because his pas- a delightful dream. What need they tortor says so, or the assembly so determines, ture their heads with that which others have without knowing other reason, though his taken so strictly and so unalterably into belief be true, yet the very truth he holds their own purveying? These are the fruits becomes his heresy. There is not any bur- which a dull ease and cessation of our den that some would gladlier post off to knowledge will bring forth among the peoanother than the charge and care of their ple. How goodly, and how to be wished religion. There be, who knows not that were such an obedient unanimity as this! there be? of protestants and professors, What a fine conformity would it starch us who live and die in as errant and implicit all into! Doubtless a staunch and solid faith as any lay papist of Loretto.
piece of framework as any January could A wealthy man, addicted to his pleasure freeze together. and to his profits, finds religion to be a traffic so entangled, and of so many piddling LIBERTY THE NURSE OF ALL GREAT WITS accounts, that of all mysteries he cannot skill to keep a stock going upon that trade. Truth indeed came once into the world What should he do? Fain he would have with her divine master, and was a perfect the name to be religious, fain he would shape most glorious to look on: but when bear up with his neighbors in that. What he ascended and his apostles after him were does he therefore, but resolves to give over laid asleep, then straight arose a wicked toiling, and to find himself out some fac- race of deceivers, who, as that story goes of tor, to whose care and credit he may com- the Egyptian Typhon with his conspirators. mit the whole managing of his religious af- how they dealt with the good Osiris, took fairs; some divine of note and estimation the virgin Truth, hewed her lovely form that must be. To him he adheres, resigns into a thousand pieces, and scattered them the whole warehouse of his religion, with to the four winds. From that time ever all the locks and keys, into his custody; and since, the sad friends of Truth, such as indeed makes the very person of that man durst appear, imitating the careful search his religion: esteems his associating with that Isis made for the mangled body of him a sufficient evidence and commendatory Osiris, went up and down gathering up of his own piety. So that a man may say limb by limb still as they could find them. his religion is now no more within himself, We have not yet found them all, lords and but is became a dividual moveable, and goes commons, nor ever shall do, till her Masand comes near him, according as that good ter's second coming; he shall bring together man frequents the house. He entertains every joint and member, and shall mold him, gives him gifts, feasts him, lodges him; them into an immortal feature of lovelihis religion comes home at night, prays, is ness and perfection. Suffer not these licensliberally supped, and sumptuously laid to | ing prohibitions to stand at every place sleep; rises, is saluted, and after the malm- of opportunity forbidding and disturbing sey, or some well-spiced bruage, and better them that continue seeking, that continue to do our obsequies to the torn body of our ophy of this island. And that wise and civil martyred saint.
Roman, Julius Agricola, who governed once We boast our light; but if we look not here for Cæsar, preferred the natural wits wisely on the sun itself, it smites us into of Britain before the labored studies of the darkness. Who can discern those planets French. that are oft combust, and those stars of Nor is it for nothing that the grave and brightest magnitude that rise and set with frugal Transylvanian sends out yearly from the sun, until the opposite motion of their as far as the mountainous borders of Rusorbs bring them to such a place in the sia, and beyond the Hercynian wilderness, firmament, where they may be seen evening not their youth, but their staid men, to learn or morning? The light which we have our language and our theological arts. Yet gained was given us, not to be ever star- that which is above all this, the favor and ing on, but by it to discover onward things the love of Heaven, we have great argumore remote from our knowledge. It is ment to think in a peculiar manner propinot the unfrocking of a priest, the unmi- tious and propending towards us. Why tering of a bishop, and the removing him else was this nation chosen before any from off the presbyterian shoulders, that other, that out of her, as out of Sion, will make us a happy nation; no, if other should be proclaimed and sounded forth the things as great in the church, and in the rule first tidings and trumpet of reformation of life both economical and political, be not to all Europe? And had it not been the looked into and reformed, we have looked so obstinate perverseness of our prelates long upon the blaze that Zuinglius and Cal- against the divine and admirable spirit of vin have beaconed up to us that we are stark Wickliffe, to suppress him as a schismatic blind.
and innovator, perhaps neither the BoheThere be who perpetually complain of mian Husse and Jerome, no, nor the name schisms and sects, and make it such a calam- of Luther or of Calvin, had been ever ity that any man dissents from their max- known: the glory of reforming all our ims. It is their own pride and ignorance neighbors had been completely ours. But which causes the disturbing, who neither now, as our obdurate clergy have with viowill hear with meekness, nor can convince, lence demeaned the matter, we are become yet all must be suppressed which is not hitherto the latest and the backwardest found in their Syntagma. They are the scholars of whom God offered to have made troublers, they are the dividers of unity, us the teachers. who neglect and permit not others to unite Now once again by all concurrence of those dissevered pieces, which are yet want- signs, and by the general instinct of holy ing to the body of truth. To be still search- and devout men, as they daily and solemnly ing what we know not, by what we know, express their thoughts, God is decreeing to still closing up truth to truth as we find it begin some new and great period in his (for all her body is homogeneal, and pro- church, even to the reforming of reformaportional), this is the golden rule in theol- tion itself; what does he then but to reveal ogy as well as in arithmetic, and makes up himself to his servants, and as his manner the best harmony in a church; not the is, first to his Englishmen? I say, as his forced and outward union of cold and neu- manner is, first to us, though we mark not tral and inwardly divided minds.
the method of his counsels, and are unLords and commons of England! con- worthy. Behold now, this vast city, a city of sider what nation it is whereof ye are, and refuge, the mansion-house of liberty, enwhereof ye are the governors: a nation not compassed and surrounded with his proslow and dull, but of a quick, ingenious, and tection; the shop of war hath not there piercing spirit; acute to invent, subtile and more anvils and hammers working, to fashsinewy to discourse, not beneath the reach ion out the plates and instruments of armed of
any point the highest that human ca- justice in defense of beleaguered truth, than pacity can soar to. Therefore the studies there be pens and heads there, sitting by of learning in her deepest sciences have their studious lamps, musing, searching, rebeen so ancient, and so eminent among us, volving new notions and ideas wherewith to that writers of good antiquity and able present, as with their homage and their judgment have been persuaded that even fealty, the approaching reformation : others the school of Pythagoras and the Persian as fast reading, trying all things, assenting wisdom took beginning from the old philos- i to the force of reason and convincement.
What could a man require more from a and the graceful symmetry that commends nation so pliant and so prone to seek after the whole pile and structure. knowledge? What wants there to such a Let us therefore be more considerate towardly and pregnant soil, but wise and builders, more wise in spiritual architecfaithful laborers, to make a knowing peo- ture, when great reformation is expected. ple, a nation of prophets, of sages, and of For now the time seems come, wherein worthies? We reckon more than five months Moses, the great prophet, may sit in heaven yet to the harvest; there need not be five rejoicing to see that memorable and gloweeks, had we but eyes to lift up, the fields rious wish of his fulfilled, when not only are white already. Where there is much our seventy elders, but all the Lord's peodesire to learn, there of necessity will be ple, are become prophets. No marvel then much arguing, much writing, many opin- | though some men, and some good men too ions; for opinion in good men is but knowl- perhaps, but young in goodness, as Joshua edge in the making. Under these fantastic then was, envy them. They fret, and out terrors of sect and schism, we wrong the of their own weakness are in agony, lest earnest and zealous thirst after knowledge these divisions and subdivisions will undo and understanding which God hath stirred The adversary again applauds, and up in this city. What some lament of we waits the hour: when they have branched rather should rejoice at, should rather themselves out, saith he, small enough into praise this pious forwardness among men, parties and partitions, then will be our time. to reassume the ill-deputed care of their re- Fool! he sees not the firm root, out of which ligion into their own hands again. A lit- we all grow, though into branches; nor will tle generous prudence, a little forbearance beware, until he see our small divided manof one another, and some grain of charity iples cutting through at every angle of his might win all these diligences to join and ill-united and unwieldy brigade. And that unite into one general and brotherly search we are to hope better of all these supposed after truth; could we but forego this prelat- sects and schisms, and that we shall not need ical tradition of crowding free consciences that solicitude, honest perhaps, though and Christian liberties into canons and pre- overtimorous, of them that vex in this becepts of men. I doubt not, if some great half, but shall laugh in the end at those and worthy stranger should come among us,
malicious applauders of our differences, I wise to discern the mold and temper of a have these reasons to persuade me. people, and how to govern it, observing the First, when a city shall be as it were behigh hopes and aims, the diligent alacrity sieged and blocked about, her navigable of our extended thoughts and reasonings in river infested, inroads and incursions the pursuance of truth and freedom, but round, defiance and battle oft rumored to be that he would cry out as Pyrrhus did, ad- marching up, even to her walls and suburb miring the Roman docility and courage, “If | trenches; that then the people, or the such were my Epirots, I would not despair greater part, more than at other times, the greatest design that could be attempted wholly taken up with the study of highto make a church or kingdom happy." est and most important matters to be
Yet these are the men cried out against for reformed, should be disputing, reasonschismatics and sectaries, as if, while the tem- ing, reading, inventing, discoursing, even ple of the Lord was building, some cutting, to a rarity and admiration, things not besome squaring the marble, others hewing fore discoursed or written of, argues first the cedars, there should be a sort of irra- a singular good will, contentedness, and tional men, who could not consider there confidence in your prudent foresight, and must be many schisms and many dissec- safe government, lords and commons; and tions made in the quarry and in the timber from thence derives itself to a gallant braere the house of God can be built. And very and well-grounded contempt of their when every stone is laid artfully together, enemies, as if there were no small number it cannot be united into a continuity, it of as great spirits among us, as his was can but be contiguous in this world: neither who, when Rome nigh besieged can every piece of the building be of one by Hannibal, being in the city, bought that form; nay, rather the perfection consists piece of ground at no cheap rate whereon in this, that out of many moderate varieties Hannibal himself encamped his own regiand brotherly dissimilitudes that are not ment. vastly disproportional, arises the goodly Next, it is a lively and cheerful presage
of our happy success and victory. For as that made us so, less the lovers, less the in a body when the blood is fresh, the spir- founders of our true liberty. We can grow its pure and vigorous, not only to vital but ignorant again, brutish, formal, and slavish, to rational faculties, and those in the acutest as ye found us; but you then must first beand the pertest operations of wit and sub- come that which ye cannot be, oppressive, tlety, it argues in what good plight and con- arbitrary, and tyrannous, as they were from stitution the body is; so when the cheerful- whom ye have freed us. That our hearts ness of the people is so sprightly up, as that are now more capacious, our thoughts more it has not only wherewith to guard well its erected to the search and expectation of own freedom and safety, but to spare, and greatest and exactest things, is the issue of to bestow upon the solidest and sublimest your own virtue propagated in us; ye canpoints of contro, ersy and new invention, it not suppress that unless ye reinforce an betokens us not degenerated, nor drooping abrogated and merciless law, that fathers to a fatal decay, by casting off the old and may dispatch at will their own children. wrinkled skin of corruption to outlive these And who shall then stick closest to ye and pangs, and wax young again, entering the excite others? Not he who takes up arms glorious ways of truth and prosperous vir- for coat and conduct, and his four nobles of tue, destined to become great and honorable Danegelt. Although I dispraise not the dein these latter ages. Methinks I see in my fence of just immunities, yet I love my mind a noble and puissant nation rousing peace better, if that were all. Give me the herself like a strong man after sleep, and liberty to know, to utter, and to argue shaking her invincible locks; methinks I freely according to conscience, above all libsee her as an eagle mewing her mighty erties. youth, and kindling her undazzled eyes at the full midday beam; purging and unscal
OF DISCIPLINE ing her long-abused sight at the fountain
[From Reason of Church Government, itself of heavenly radiance; while the whole
1641] noise of timorous and flocking birds, with those also that love the twilight, flutter There is not that thing in the world of about, amazed at what she means, and in more grave and urgent importance throughtheir envious gabble would prognosticate a out the whole life of man, than is disciyear of sects and schisms.
pline. What need I instance? He that hath What should ye do then, should ye sup- read with judgment of nations and compress all this flowery crop of knowledge and monwealths, of cities and camps, of peace new light sprung up and yet springing and war, sea and land, will readily agree daily in this city? Should ye set an oli- that the flourishing and decaying of all garchy of twenty engrossers over it, to civil societies, all the moments and turnings bring a famine upon our minds again, when of human occasions are moved to and fro we shall know nothing but what is meas- as upon the axle of discipline. So that ured to us by their bushel ? Believe it, whatsoever power or sway in mortal things lords and commons! they who counsel ye to weaker men have attributed to fortune, I such a suppressing, do as good as bid ye durst with more confidence (the honor of suppress yourselves; and I will soon show Divine Providence ever saved) ascribe how. If it be desired to know the imme- either to the vigor or the slackness of disdiate cause of all this free writing and free cipline. Nor is there any sociable perfecspeaking, there cannot be assigned a truer tion in this life, civil or sacred, that can be than your own mild, and free, and humane above discipline; but she is that which with government; it is the liberty, lords and com- her musical cords preserves and holds all mons, which your own valorous and happy the parts thereof together. Hence in those counsels have purchased us; liberty which perfect armies of Cyrus in Xenophon, and is the nurse of all great wits: this is that Scipio in the Roman stories, the excellence which hath rarified and enlightened our of military skill was esteemed, not by the spirits like the influence of heaven ; this is not needing, but by the readiest submitting that which hath enfranchised, enlarged, and to the edicts of their commander. And cerlifted up our apprehensions degrees above tainly discipline is not only the removal of themselves. Ye cannot make us now less disorder; but if any visible shape can be capable, less knowing, less eagerly pursuing given to divine things, the very visible shape of the truth, unless ye first make yourselves, and image of virtue, whereby she is not only