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lapses of kingdoms and states from justice | crieth without, she uttereth her voice in the and God's true worship. Lastly, whatso- streets, in the top of high places, in the ever in religion is holy and sublime, in vir- chief concourse, and in the opening of the tue amiable or grave, whatsoever hath pas- gates.” Whether this may not be, not only sion or admiration in all the changes of in pulpits, but after another persuasive that which is called fortune from without, method, at set and solemn paneguries, in or the wily subtleties and refluxes of man's theaters, porches, or what other place or thoughts from within; all these things with way may win most upon the people to rea solid and treatable smoothness to paint out ceive at once both recreation and instrucand describe. Teaching over the whole book tion, let them in authority consult. of sanctity and virtue, through all the in- The thing which I had to say, and those stances of example, with such delight to intentions which have lived within me ever those especially of soft and delicious tem- since I could conceive myself anything per, who will not so much as look upon worth to my country, I return to crave truth herself, unless they see her elegantly excuse that urgent reason hath plucked dressed; that whereas the paths of honesty from me, by an abortive and foredated disand good life appear now rugged and diffi- covery. And the accomplishment of them cult, though they be indeed easy and pleas- lies not but in a power above man's to ant, they will then appear to all men both promise; but that none hath by more stueasy and pleasant, though they were rugged dious ways endeavored, and with more unand difficult indeed. And what a benefit wearied spirit that none shall, that I dare this would be to our youth and gentry, may almost aver of myself, as far as life and be soon guessed by what we know of the free leisure will extend; and that the land corruption and bane which they suck in had once enfranchised herself from this daily from the writings and interludes of impertinent yoke of prelaty, under whose libidinous and ignorant poetasters, who inquisitorious and tyrannical duncery no having scarce ever heard of that which is free and splendid wit can flourish. Neither the main consistence of a true poem, the do I think it shame to covenant with any choice of such persons as they ought to in- knowing reader, that for some few years yet troduce, and what is moral and decent to I may go on trust with him toward the payeach one; do for the most part lay up vi- ment of what I am now indebted, as being cious principles in sweet pills to be swal- a work not to be raised from the heat of lowed down, and make the taste of virtuous youth, or the vapors of wine; like that documents harsh and sour.

which flows at waste from the pen of some But because the spirit of man cannot valgar amorist, or the trencher fury of a demean itself lively in this body, without rhyming parasite; nor to be obtained by some recreating intermission of labor and the invocation of Dame Memory and her serious things, it were happy for the com- siren daughters, but by devout prayer to monwealth, if our magistrates, as in those that eternal Spirit, who can enrich with famous governments of old, would take into all utterance and knowledge, and sends out their care, not only the deciding of our his seraphim, with the hallowed fire of his contentious lawcases and brawls, but the altar, to touch and purify the lips of whom managing of our public sports and festival he pleases: to this must be added induspastimes; that they might be, not such as trious and select reading, steady observawere authorized a while since, the provoca- tion, insight into all seemly and generous tions of drunkenness and lust, but such as arts and affairs; till which in some measure may inure and harden our bodies by martial be compassed, at mine own peril and cost, exercises to all warlike skill and perform- I refuse not to sustain this expectation from ance; and may civilize, adorn, and make as many as are not loth to hazard so much discreet our minds by the learned and affa- credulity upon the best pledges that I can ble meeting of frequent academies, and the give them. Although it nothing content me procurement of wise and artful recitations, to have disclosed thus much beforehand, but sweetened with eloquent and graceful en- that I trust hereby to make it manifest ticements to the love and practice of justice, with what small willingness I endure to intemperance, and fortitude, instructing and terrupt the pursuit of no less hopes than bettering the nation at all opportunities, these, and leave a calm and pleasant solithat the call of wisdom and virtue may be tariness, fed with cheerful and confident heard everywhere, as Solomon saith : "She thoughts, to embark in a troubled sea of



noises and hoarse disputes, put from behold- Visit'st my slumbers nightly, or when Morn ing the bright countenance of truth in the Purples the East. Still govern thou my quiet and still air of delightful studies, song, to come into the dim reflection of hol- Urania, and fit audience find, though few. low antiquities sold by the seeming bulk, But drive far off the barbarous dissonance and there be fain to club quotations with Of Bacchus and his revelers, the race men whose learning and belief lies in mar- Of that wild rout that tore the Thracian ginal stuffings, who, when they have, like bard good sumpters, laid ye down their horse- In Rhodope, where woods and rocks had loads of citations and fathers at your door, with a rhapsody of who and who were bish- To rapture, till the savage clamor drowned ops here or there, ye may take off their Both harp and voice; nor could the Muse packsaddles, their day's work is done.

defend Her son.

So fail not thou who thee im


For thou art heavenly, she an empty

dream. [From Paradise Lost, VII, 1-39] Descend from Heaven, Urania, by that

[From Samson Agonistes] If rightly thou art called, whose voice di

But, chief of all, vine

O loss of sight, of thee I most complain! Following, above the Olympian hill I soar, Blind among enemies! ( worse than chains, Above the flight of Pegasean wing!

Dungeon, or beggary, or decrepit age! The meaning, not the name, I call; for thou Light, the prime work of God, to me is Nor of the Muses nine, nor on the top extinct, Of old Olympus dwell'st; but, heavenly- And all her various objects of delight born,

Annulled, which might in part my grief Before the hills appeared or fountain have eased. flowed,

Inferior to the vilest now become Thou with Eternal Wisdom didst converse,

Of man

or worm, the vilest here excel Wisdom thy sister, and with her didst play In presence of the Almighty Father,

Father, They creep, yet see; I, dark in light, exposed pleased

To daily fraud, contempt, abuse, and With thy celestial song. Up led by thee, wrong, Into the Heaven of Heavens I have pre- Within doors, or without, still as a fool, sumed,

In power of others, never in my ownAn earthly guest, and drawn empyreal air, Scarce half I seem to live, dead more than Thy tempering. With like safety guided half. down,

O dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon, Return me to my native element;

Irrecoverably dark, total eclipse Lest, from this flying steed unreined (as Without all hope of day!

O first-created beam, and thou great Word, Bellerophon, though from a lower clime) “Let there be light, and light was Dismounted, on the Aleian field I fall,

all," Erroneous there to wander and forlorn. Why am I thus bereaved thy prime decree ? Half yet remains unsung, but narrower The Sun to me is dark bound

And silent as the Moon, Within the visible Diurnal Sphere.

When she deserts the night, Standing on Earth, not rapt above the pole, Hid in her vacant interlunar cave. More safe I sing with mortal voice, un- Since light so necessary is to life, changed

And almost life itself, if it be true To hoarse or mute, though fallen on evil That light is in the soul, days,

She all in every part, why was the sight On evil days though fallen, and evil tongues, To such a tender ball as the eye confined, In darkness, and with dangers compassed So obvious and so easy to be quenched, round,

And not, as feeling, through all parts difAnd solitude; yet not alone, while thou





That she might look at will through every

Then had I not been thus exiled from light,
As in the land of darkness, yet in light,
To live a life half dead, a living death,
And buried; but, O yet more miserable!
Myself my sepulcher, a moving grave;
Buried, yet not exempt,
By privilege of death and burial,
From worst of other evils, pains, and

But made hereby obnoxious more
To all the miseries of life,
Life in captivity
Among in human foes.


[From Paradise Lost, VI, 29-37] "Servant of God, well done! Well hast

thou fought The better fight, who single hast maintained Against revolted multitudes the cause Of truth, in word mightier than they in

arms, And for the testimony of truth hast borne Universal reproach, far worse to bear Than violence; for this was all thy careTo stand approved in sight of God, though

worlds Judged thee perverse."

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Of Man's first disobedience, and the fruit
Of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste
Brought death into the world, and all our

With loss of Eden, till one greater Man

us, and regain the blissful seat, Sing, Heavenly Muse, that on the secret top Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire That shepherd who first taught the chosen

seed In the beginning how the Heavens and Earth Rose out of Chaos: or, if Sion hill Delight thee more, and Siloa's brook that

flowed Fast by the oracle of God, I thence Invoke thy aid to my adventurous song, That ith no middle flight soar Above the Aonian mount, while it pursues Things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme. And chiefly Thou, 0 Spirit, that dost prefer Before all temples the upright heart and

pure, Instruct me, for Thou know'st; Thou from

the first Wast present, and, with mighty wings out

spread, Dove-like sat'st brooding on the vast Abyss, And mad'st it pregnant: what in me is dark Illumine, what is low raise and support; That to the highth of this great argument I may assert Eternal Providence, And justify the ways of God to men. Say first--for Heaven hides nothing from

Thy view, Nor the deep tract of Hell-say first what

Moved our grand parents, in that happy

state, Favored of Heaven so highly, to fall off 30 From their Creator, and transgress his will For one restraint, lords of the world besides. Who first seduced them to that foul revolt ? The infernal Serpent; he it was, whose

guile, Stirred up


revenge, deceived The mother of mankind, what time his pride Had cast him out from Heaven, with all his

host Of rebel Angels, by whose aid, aspiring To set himself in glory above his peers, He trusted to have equaled the Most High, 40 If he opposed; and with ambitious aim Against the throne and monarchy of God Raised impious war in Heaven, and battle

proud, With vain attempt. Him the Almighty

Power Hurled headlong flaming from the ethereal

sky, With hideous ruin and combustion, down To bottomless perdition; there to dwell In adamantine chains and penal fire, Who durst defy the Omnipotent to arms. Nine times the space that measures day and night

50 To mortal men, he with his horrid crew Lay vanquished, rolling in the fiery gulf, Confounded, though immortal. But his doom Reserved him to more wrath; for now the

thought Both of lost happiness and lasting pain Torments him; round he throws his baleful

eyes, That witnessed huge affliction and dismay,



Mixed with obdurate pride and steadfast

hate. At once, as far as Angels ken, he views The dismal situation waste and wild:

60 A dungeon horrible on all sides round As one great furnace flamed; yet from those

flames No light; but rather darkness visible Served only to discover sights of woe, Regions of sorrow, doleful shades, where

peace And rest can never dwell, hope never comes That comes to all; but torture without end Still urges, and a fiery deluge, fed With ever-burning sulphur unconsumed. Such place Eternal Justice had prepared For those rebellious; here their prison

ordained In utter darkness, and their portion set, As far removed from God and light of

Heaven As from the center thrice to the utmost pole. Oh how unlike the place from whence they

fell! There the companions of his fall, o'er

whelmed With floods and whirlwinds of tempestuous

fire, He soon discerns; and, weltering by his

side, One next himself in power, and next in

crime, Long after known in Palestine, and named 80 Beëlzebub. To whom the Arch-Enemy, And thence in Heaven called Satan, with

bold words Breaking the horrid silence, thus began:“If thou beest hebut Oh how fallen!

how changed From him, who in the happy realms of light, Clothed with transcendent brightness, didst

outshine Myriads, though bright !-if he whom mutual

league, United thoughts and counsels, equal hope And hazard in the glorious enterprise, Joined with me once, now misery hath joined In equal ruin-into what pit thou seest From what highth fallen: so much the

stronger proved He with his thunder: and till then who knew The force of those dire arms? Yet not for

those, Nor what the potent Victor in his rage Can else inflict, do I repent, or change, Though changed in outward luster, that fixed


And high disdain from sense of injured

merit, That with the Mightiest raised me to con

tend, And to the fierce contention brought along 100 Innumerable force of Spirits armed, That durst dislike his reign, and, me pre

ferring, His utmost power with adverse power

opposed In dubious battle on the plains of Heaven, And shook his throne. What though the

field be lost? All is not lost: the unconquerable will, And study of revenge, immortal hate, And courage never to submit or yield, And what is else not to be overcome. That glory never shall his wrath or might 110 Extort from me. To bow and sue for grace With suppliant knee, and deify his power Who, from the terror of this arm, so late Doubted his empire—that were low indeed; That were an ignominy and shame beneath This downfall; since by fate the strength of

gods And this empyreal substance cannot fail; Since, through experience of this great event, In arms not worse, in foresight much ad

vanced, We may with more successful hope resolve 120 To wage by force or guile eternal war, Irreconcilable to our grand Foe, Who now triumphs, and in the excess of joy Sole reigning holds the tyranny of Heaven.' So spake the apostate Angel, though in

pain, Vaunting aloud, but racked with deep

despair; And him thus answered soon his bold com

peer :“O Prince! O Chief of many throned

powers That led the embattled Seraphim to war Under thy conduct, and, in dreadful deeds 130 Fearless, endangered Heaven's perpetual

King, And put to proof his high supremacy, Whether upheld by strength, or chance, or

fate! Too well I see and rue the dire event That with sad overthrow and foul defeat Hath lost us Heaven, and all this mighty

host In horrible destruction laid thus low, As far as gods and heavenly essences Can perish: for the mind and spirit remains Invincible, and vigor soon returns,







Though all our glory extinct, and happy Consult how we may henceforth most offend state

Our Enemy, our own loss how repair, Here swallowed up in endless misery. How overcome this dire calamity, But what if he our Conqueror (whom I now What reinforcement we may gain from hope, Of force believe almighty, since no less If not what resolution from despair." Than such could have o'erpowered such force Thus Satan, talking to his nearest mate, as ours)

With head uplift above the wave, and eyes Have left us this our spirit and strength That sparkling blazed; his other parts beentire,

sides, Strongly to suffer and support our pains, Prone on the flood, extended long and large, That we may so suffice his vengeful ire, Lay floating many a rood, in bulk as huge Or do him mightier service as his thralls As whom the fables name of monstrous size, By right of war, whate'er his business be, 150 Titanian, or Earth-born, that warred on Here in the heart of Hell to work in fire,

Jove, Or do his errands in the gloomy Deep? Briareos or Typhon, whom the den What can it then avail, though yet we feel By ancient Tarsus held, or that sea-beast 200 Strength undiminished, or eternal being Leviathan, which God of all his works To undergo eternal punishment ?”

Created hugest that swim the ocean-stream. Whereto with speedy words the Arch- Him, haply slumbering on the Norway foam, Fiend replied:

The pilot of some small night-foundered "Fallen Cherub, to be weak is miserable,

skiff Doing or suffering: but of this be sure Deeming some island, oft, as seamen tell, To do aught good never will be our task, With fixed anchor in his scaly rind, But ever to do ill our sole delight,

Moors by his side under the lee, while night As being the contrary to his high will

Invests the sea, and wished morn delays. Whom we resist. If then his providence So stretched out huge in length the ArchOut of our evil seek to bring forth good,

Fiend lay, Our labor must be to pervert that end. Chained on the burning lake; nor And out of good still to find means of evil; thence Which ofttimes may succeed so as perhaps Had risen or heaved his head, but that the Shall grieve him, if I fail not, and disturb

will His inmost counsels from their destined aim. And high permission of all-ruling Heaven But see! the angry Victor hath recalled Left him at large to his own dark designs, His ministers of vengeance and pursuit 170 That with reiterated crimes he might Back to the gates of Heaven; the sulphurous Heap on himself damnation, while he sought hail,

Evil to others, and enraged might see Shot after us in storm, o'erblown hath laid How all his malice served but to bring forth The fiery surge that from the precipice Infinite goodness, grace, and mercy, shewn Of Heaven received us falling; and the On Man by him seduced; but on himself 219 thunder,

Treble confusion, wrath, and vengeance Winged with red lightning and impetuous poured. rage,

Forthwith upright he rears from off the Perhaps hath spent his shafts, and ceases pool

His mighty stature; on each hand the flames To bellow through the vast and boundless Driven backward slope their pointing spires, Deep.

and, rolled Let us not slip the occasion, whether scorn In billows, leave i’ the midst a horrid vale. Or satiate fury yield it from our Foe. Then with expanded wings he steers his Seest thou yon dreary plain, forlorn and flight wild,

Aloft, incumbent on the dusky air, The seat of desolation, void of light,

That felt unusual weight; till on dry land Save what the glimmering of these livid He lights-if it were land that ever burned flames

With solid, as the lake with liquid fire, Casts pale and dreadful? Thither let us tend And such appeared in hue, as when the From off the tossing of these fiery waves;

force There rest, if any rest can harbor there; Of subterranean wind transports a hill And, reassembling our afflicted powers, Torn from Pelorus, or the shattered side




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