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may know

At first sight if the bird be flown; But what fair well or grove he sings in now,

That is to him unknown. And yet as angels in some brighter dreams

Call to the soul, when man doth sleep, So some strange thoughts transcend our

wonted themes, And into glory peep. If a star were confined into a tomb,

The captive flames must needs burn there; But when the hand that locked her up, gives

room, She'll shine through all the sphere. O Father of eternal life, and all

Created glories under Thee, Resume Thy spirit from this world of thrall

Into true liberty. Either disperse these mists, which blot and

fill My perspective still as they pass; Or else remove me hence unto that hill,

Where I shall need no glass.

mind whether to go back or to stand his ground. But he considered again that he had no armor for his back, and therefore thought that to turn the back to him might give him the greater advantage with ease to pierce him with his darts. Therefore he resolved to venture and stand his ground; for, thought he, had I no more in mine eye than the saving of my life, 'twould be the best way to stand.

So he went on, and Apollyon met him. Now the monster was hideous to behold: he was clothed with scales like a fish (and they are his pride); he had wings like a dragon, feet like a bear, and out of his belly came fire and smoke; and his mouth was as the mouth of a lion. When he was come up to Christian, he beheld him with a disdainful countenance, and thus began to question with him.

A pol. Whence come you? and whither are you bound ?

Chr. I am come from the City of Destruction, which is the place of all evil, and am going to the City of Zion.

A pol. By this I perceive thou art one of my subjects; for all that country is mine, and I am the prince and god of it. How is it then that thou hast run away from thy king? Were it not that I hope thou mayest do me more service, I would strike thee now at one blow to the ground.

Chr. I was born indeed in your dominions, but your service was hard, and your wages such as a man could not live on; for the wages of sin is death. Therefore when I was come to years, I did as other considerate persons do, look out, if perhaps I might mend myself. [Apollyon now tries in vain to reclaim Christian, who refuses, saying that henceforth he owes allegiance only to the Prince.]

A pol. I am an enemy to this Prince; I hate his person, his laws, and people; I am come out on purpose to withstand thee.

Chr. Apollyon, beware what you do, for I am in the King's highway, the way of holiness; therefore take heed to yourself.

Apol. Then Apollyon straddled quite over the whole breadth of the way, and said, I am void of fear in this matter. Prepare thyself to die; for I swear by my infernal den that thou shalt go no further; here will I spill thy soul.

And with that he threw a flaming dart at his breast; but Christian had a shield in his hand, with which he caught it, and so prevented the danger of that.



[From The Pilgrim's Progress, 1678] But now, in this Valley of Humiliation, poor Christian was hard put to it; for he had gone but a little way before he espied a foul fiend coming over the field to meet him: his name is Apollyon. Then did Christian begin to be afraid, and to cast in his


Then did Christian draw, for he saw 'twas He sent him harness'd out; and he with rage time to bestir him; and Apollyon as fast That hellish was, did fiercely me engage: made at him, throwing darts as thick as But blessed Michael helped me, and I hail; by the which, notwithstanding all that By dint of sword did quickly make him fly. Christian could do to avoid it, Apollyon Therefore to Him let me give lasting praise, wounded him in his head, his hand, and And thank and bless His holy name always. foot. This made Christian give a little back; Apollyon therefore followed his work Then there came to him a hand with some anain, and Christian again took courage, of the leaves of the Tree of Life, the which and resisted as manfully as he could. This Christian took and applied to the wounds sore combat lasted for above half a day, that he had received in the battle, and was even till Christian was almost quite spent; healed immediately. He also sat down in for you must know that Christian, by reason that place to eat bread, and to drink of the of his wounds, must needs grow weaker and bottle that was given him a little before: so weaker.

being refreshed, he addressed himself to his Then Apollyon, espying his opportunity, journey, with his sword drawn in his hand; began to gather up close to Christian, and for he said, I know not but some other wrestling with him, gave him a dreadful enemy may be at hand. But he met with no fall; and with that Christian's sword flew other affront from Apollyon quite through out of his hand. Then said Apollyon, I am this valley. sure of thee now; and with that he had almost pressed him to death, so that Christian

VANITY FAIR began to despair of life. But as God would have it, while Apollyon was fetching of his last blow, thereby to make a full end of this

[From The Pilgrim's Progress] good man, Christian nimbly reached out his hand for his sword, and caught it, saying, Then I saw in my dream, that when they Rejoice not against me, O mine enemy! were got out of the wilderness, they preswhen I fall I shall arise; and with that gave ently saw a town before them, and the name him a deadly thrust, which made him give of that town is Vanity. And at the town back, as one that had received his mortal there is a fair kept, called Vanity Fair; it wound. Christian perceiving that, made at is kept all the year long; it beareth the name him again, saying, Nay, in all these things, of Vanity Fair, because the town where 'tis we are more than conquerors, through him kept is lighter than Vanity; and also bethat loved us.

And with that Apollyon cause all that is there sold, or that cometh spread forth his dragon's wings, and sped thither, is Vanity. As is the saying of the him away, that Christian for a season saw wise, “All that cometh is Vanity." him no more.

This fair is no new-erected business, but In this combat no man can imagine, un- a thing of ancient standing; I will show you less he had seen and heard as I did, what the original of it. yelling and hideous roaring Apollyon made Almost five thousand years agone, there all the time of the fight;-he spake like a were pilgrims walking to the celestial city, dragon; and on the other side, what sighs as these two honest persons are; and Beelzeand groans burst from Christian's heart. I bub, Apollyon, and Legion, with their comnever saw him all the while give so much as panions, perceiving by the path that the one pleasant look, till he perceived he had pilgrims made, that their way to the city lay wounded Apollyon with his two-edged through this town of Vanity, they contrived sword; then indeed he did smile and look here to set up a fair; a fair wherein should upward. But 'twas the dreadfullest fight be sold all sorts of Vanity, and that it should that ever I saw.

last all the year long: therefore at this fair So when the battle was over, Christian are all such merchandise sold, as houses, said, I will here give thanks to Him that lands, trades, places, honors, preferments, hath delivered me out of the mouth of the titles, countries, kingdoms, lusts, pleasures, lion, to Him that did help me against Apol- and delights of all sorts, as lives, blood, lyon. And so he did, saying,

bodies, souls, silver, gold, pearls, precious

stones, and what not. Great Beelzebub, the Captain of this fiend, And moreover, at this fair there is at all Design'd my ruin; therefore to this end times to be seen juggling, cheats, games, plays, fools, apes, knaves, and rogues, and of the fair to the other they seemed barthat of all sorts.

barians each to the other. Here are to be seen too, and that for Thirdly: But that which did not a litnothing, thefts, murders, adulteries, false- tle amuse the merchandisers was, that these swearers, and that of a blood-red color. pilgrims set very light by all their wares:

And as in other fairs of less moment there they cared not so much as to look upon are the several rows and streets under their them; and if they called upon them to buy, proper names, where such and such wares they would put their fingers in their ears, are vended, so here likewise you have the and cry, “Turn away mine eyes from beproper places, rows, streets, (viz., countries holding vanity," and look upwards, signiand kingdoms) where the wares of this fair fying that their trade and traffic was in are soonest to be found: Here is the Britain Heaven. Row, the French Row, the Italian Row, the One chanced, mockingly, beholding the Spanish Row, the German Row, where sev- carriages of the men, to say unto them, eral sorts of vanities are to be sold.

“What will ye buy ?" But they, looking Now, as I said, the way to the celestial gravely upon him, answered, "We buy the city lies just through this town where this Truth." At that there was an occasion lusty fair is kept; and he that will go to the taken to despise the men the more; some city, and yet not go through this town, must mocking, some taunting, some speaking reneeds go out of the world. The Prince of proachfully, and some calling upon others Princes himself, when here, went through to smite them. At last things came to a this town to his own country, and that upon hubbub and a great stir in the fair, insoa fair-day too; yea, and as I think, it was much that all order was confounded. Now Beelzebub, the chief lord of this fair, that was word presently brought to the great invited him to buy of his vanities : yea, one of the fair, who quickly came down and would have made him lord of the fair, would deputed some of his most trusty friends he but have done him reverence as he went to take those men into examination, about through the town. Yea, because he was whom the fair was almost overturned. So such a person of honor, Beelzebub had him the men were brought to examination; and from street to street, and showed him all the they that sat upon them, asked them whence kingdoms of the world in a little time, that they came, whither they went, and what he might (if possible) allure that Blessed they did there in such an unusual garb? One to cheapen and buy some of his vani- The men told them that they were pilgrims ties; but he had no mind to the merchandise, and strangers in the world, and that they and therefore left the town, without laying were going to their own country, which was out so much as one farthing upon these van- the heavenly Jerusalem; and that they had ities. This fair therefore is an ancient given no occasion to the men of the town, thing, of long standing and a very great nor yet to the merchandisers, thus to abuse fair.

them, and to let them in their journey, exNow these pilgrims, as I said, must needs cept it was for that, when one asked them go through this fair. Well, so they did; but what they would buy, they said they would behold, even as they entered into the fair, buy the truth. But they that were apall the people in the fair were moved, and pointed to examine them did not believe the town itself as it were in a hubbub about them to be any other than bedlams and mad, them; and that for several reasons: for or else such as came to put all things into

First: The pilgrims were clothed with a confusion in the fair. Therefore they such kind of raiment as was diverse from took them and beat them, and besmeared the raiment of any that traded in that fair. them with dirt, and then put them into the The people therefore of the fair made a cage, that they might be made a spectacle great gazing upon them: some said they to all the men of the fair. There therewere fools, some they were bedlams, and fore they lay for some time, and were made some they are outlandish-men.

the objects of any man's sport, or malice, Secondly: And as they wondered at or revenge, the great one of the fair laughtheir apparel, so they did likewise at their ing still at all that befell them. But the speech; for few could understand what they men being patient, and not rendering railsaid: they naturally spoke the language ing for railing, but contrariwise blessing, of Canaan but they that kept the fair were and giving good words for bad, and kindthe men of this world; so that from one end ness for injuries done, some men in the fair that were more observing, and less prejudiced than the rest, began to check and blame the baser sort for their continual abuses done by them to the men; they therefore in angry manner let fly at them again, counting them as bad as the men in the cage, and telling them that they seemed confederates, and should be made partakers of their misfortunes. The other replied, that for aught they could see, the men were quiet, and sober, and intended nobody any harm; and that there were many that traded in their fair that were more worthy to be put into the cage, yea, and pillory too, than were the men that they had abused. Thus, after divers words had passed on both sides, the men behaving themselves all the while very wisely and soberly before them) they fell to some blows among themselves, and did harm one to another. Then were these two poor men brought before their examiners again, and there charged as being guilty of the late hubbub that had been in the fair. So they beat them pitifully and hanged irons upon them, and led them in chains up and down the fair, for an example and a terror to others, lest any should speak in their behalf, or join themselves unto them. But Christian and Faithful behaved themselves yet more

wisely, and received the ignominy and shame that were cast upon them, with so much meekness and patience, that it won to their side (though but a few in comparison of the rest) several of the men in the fair. This put the other party yet into a greater rage, insomuch that they concluded the death of these two men. Wherefore they threatened, that the cage, nor irons should serve their turn, but that they should die, for the abuse they had done, and for deluding the men of the fair.

Then were they remanded to the cage again, until further order should be taken with them. So they put them in, and made their feet fast in the stocks.

Here also they called again to mind what they had heard from their faithful friend Evangelist, and were the more confirmed in their way and sufferings, by what he told them would happen to them. They also now comforted each other, that whose lot it was to suffer, even he should have the best of it; therefore each man secretly wished that he might have that preferment: but committing themselves to the All-wise dispose of Him that ruleth all things, with much content they abode in the condition in which they were, until they should be otherwise disposed of.


3. CARPE DIEM: ROBERT HERRICK [From Hesperides and Noble Vumbers, And sweet as Flora. Take no care 1648]

For jewels for your gown or hair:

Fear not; the leaves will strew

Gems in abundance upon you: Get up, get up for shame, the blooming

Besides, the childhood of the day has kept,

Against you come, some orient pearls unl'pon her wings presents the god unshorn.

wept; See how Aurora throws her fair

Come and receive them while the light Fresh-quilted colors through the air:

Hangs on the dew-locks of the night: Get up, sweet slug-a-bed, and see

And Titan on the eastern hill The dew bespangling herb and tree.

Retires himself, or else stands still Each flower has wept and bow'd toward the Till you come forth. Wash, dress, be brief east

in praying: Above an hour since: yet you not dress'd; Few beads are best when once we go a-MayNay! not so much as out of bed ?

ing. When all the birds have matins said And sung their thankful hymns, 'tis sin,

Come, my Corinna, come; and, coming,

mark Nay, profanation, to keep in, Whenas a thousand virgins on this day

How each field turns a street, each street a

park Spring, sooner than the lark, to fetch in

Made green and trimm'd with trees; see

how Rise and put on your foliage, and be seen Devotion gives each house a bough To come forth, like the spring-time, fresh Or branch: each porch, each door ere



and green,

That age is best which is the first,

When youth and blood are warmer; But being spent, the worse, and worst

Times still succeed the former. Then be not coy, but use your time,

And while ye may, go marry; For, having lost but once your prime,

You may forever tarry.


An ark, a tabernacle is,
Made up of white-thorn, neatly interwove;
As if here were those cooler shades of love.

Can such delights be in the street
And open fields and we not see't?
Come, we'll abroad; and let's obey

The proclamation made for May:
And sin no more, as we have done, by

But, my Corinna, come, let's go a-Maying.
There's not a budding boy or girl this day
But is got up, and gone to bring in May.

A deal of youth, ere this, is come
Back, and with white-thorn laden home.
Some have dispatched their cakes and

cream Before that we have left to dream: And some have wept, and woo'd, and

plighted troth, And chose their priest, ere we can cast off

Many a green-gown has been given;
Many a kiss, both odd and even:
Many a glance too has been sent

From out the eye, love's firmament;
Many a jest told of the key's betraying
This night, and locks pick’d, yet we're not

a-Maying Come, let us go while we are in our prime; And take the harmless folly of the time.

We shall grow old apace, and die
Before we know our liberty.
Our life is short, and our days run

As fast away as does the sun;
And, as a vapor or a drop of rain,
Once lost, can ne'er be found again,

So when or you or I are made
A fable, song, or fleeting shade,
All love, all liking, all delight

Lies drowned with us in endless night. Then while time serves, and we are but de

caying, Come, my Corinna, come, let's go a-Maying.

Fair Daffodils, we weep to see

You haste away so soon;
As yet the early rising sun
Has not attained his noon.

Stay, stay,
Until the hasting day

Has run

But to the even-song; And, having prayed together, we

Will go with you along. We have short time to stay, as .ou,

We have as short a spring;
As quick a growth to meet decay,
As you, or anything.

We die
As your hours do, and dry


Like to the summer's rain; Or as the pearls of morning's dew,

Ne'er to be found again.




Lord, thou hast given me a cell

Wherein to dwell,
A little house, whose humble roof

Is weather-proof,
Under the spars of which I lie

Both soft and dry; Where thou, my chamber for to ward,

Hast set a guard
Of harmless thoughts to watch and keep

Me, while I sleep.
Low is my porch, as is my fate,

Both void of state;
And yet the threshold of my door

Is worn by th’ poor,
Who thither come and freely get

Good words, or meat. Like as my parlor, so my hall

And kitchen's small;
A little buttery, and therein

A little bin,
Which keeps my little loaf of bread

Unchipped, unflead;

Gather ye rosebuds while ye may,

Old Time is still a-flying; And this same flower that smiles today,

Tomorrow will be dying.

The glorious lamp of heaven, the sun,

The higher he's a-getting,
The sooner will his race be run,

And nearer he's to setting.

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