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y is all the plan,
The chief pursuit of every man,
Whose heart is right, and fills the mouth
Of patriots all, from north to south;
May a poor bard, from bushes sprung,
Who yet has but to rustics sung,
Address your honorable House,
And not your angry passions rouse 1

Hark! for awhile your business stop;
One word into your ears I'll drop:
No longer spend your needless pains,
To mend and polish o'er our chains *
But break them off before you rise,
Nor disappoint our watchful eyes.

What say great Washington and Lee 1
"Our country is, and must be free."
What say great Henry, Pendleton,
And Liberty's minutest son 1
*Tis all one voice—they all agree,
** God made us, and we must be free."

Freedom we crave with every breath,
An equal freedom, or a death.

The heavenly blessing freely give,
Or make an act we shall not live.
Tax all things; water, air, and light,
If need there be; yea, tax the night,
But let our brave heroic minds
Move freely as celestial winds.

Make vice and folly feel your rod,
But leave our consciences to God:
Leave each man free to choose his font
Of piety, nor at him storm.

And he who minds the civil law,
And keeps it whole without a flaw,
Let him, just as he pleases, pray,
And seek for heaven in his own way;
And if he miss, we all must own,
No man is wrong'd but he alone.

About three miles from Urbanna is one of those decayed churches so common in lower Virginia. It is called "the Middle Church." A finely written description of this old church, including monumental inscriptions from the church-yard, is in the Southern Literary Messenger for May, 1842. We annex a single paragraph:

More than a century, yea, near two centuries have passed since the ringing of the mason's trowel broke the stillness of the surrounding forest, when the walls of this temple of the living God rose like a flower in the wilderness of Middlesex, and invited the way farer to its sacred precincts. More than half a century has gone by since last the solemn organ pealed forth its sublime symphonies, and the anthems of the choir told upon the feelings of rapt worshippers,—now the church is a desolate ruin; and the choir, and the worshippers—where are they 1 There is scarcely a vestige of the interior left; the

pulpit, the tablets, the altar, the chancel, the , all gone! The house is roofless,

window I ess. The walls alone are standing. The walls surrounding the spot constituting the church-yard, are in ruins too, portions only remaining to mark their boundaries. The tombs are nearly all in a dilapidated condition; but of many, there is enough left to mark them as having been monuments of the most exquisite sculpture.


Monongalia was formed in 1776, from the district of West Augusta. It is 50 miles long, with a mean width of 11 miles. The county is watered by the Monongahela and its branches. Laurel Hill, the last western regular ridge of the Alleghany, lies in the eastern part; the remainder of the county is generally hilly. Much of the soil is fertile. The principal exports are stock, iron, lumber, and some flour. In 1842, its limits were reduced by the formation of Marion. Population in 1840—whites 16,962, slaves 260, free colored 146, total, 17,368.

Morgantown, the county-seat, is 295 miles Nw. of Richmond, 35 Nne. of Clarksburg, and about 60 s. of Pittsburg. Penn. It was established in 1785, on the lands of Zaquell Morgan, when, by the act, Samuel Hanway, John Evans, David Scot, Michael Kearnes, and James Daugherty, gentlemen, were appointed trustees. This flourishing and wealthy village is handsomely situated on the Monongahela—navigable to this place in steamers—in a fertile country, and rich in mineral wealth, iron, coal, &c. It contains various mills, several mercantile stores, 1 or 2 newspaper printingoffices, a female academy, 1 Methodist and 1 Presbyterian church, and about 150 dwellings. Jamestown, Granville, Blacksville, and Smithfield, are villages in the county, none of which contain over 35 dwellings. Jackson's iron-works, on Cheat River, are among the most valuable in the state. On the road leading from Clarksburg and Beverly, 5 miles from Morgantown, on the planta'ion of Henry Hamilton, there is a large flat rock about 150 feet long and 50 wide, with numerous engravings of animals, well executed— such as panthers of full size, buffalo-tracks, horse-tracks, deertracks, turkey-tracks, eels, fish, women as large as life, human tracks, otters, beavers, snakes, crows, eagles, wild-cats, foxes, wolves, raccoons, opossums, bears, elks, &c.

An attempt was made at a settlement in the present limits of this county, as early as the French war, an account of which is here given from Withers:

Dr. Thomas Eckarly and his two brothers came from Pennsylvania, and camped at the mouth of a creek emptying into the Monongahela eight or ten miles below Morgantown; they were Dunkards, and from that circumstance the watercourse on which they fixed themselves for awhile, has been called Dunkard's creek. While their camp continued at this place, these men were engaged in exploring the country; and ultimately settled on Cheat River, at the Dunkard bottom. Here they erected a cabin for their dwelling, and made such improvements as enabled them to raise the first year, a crop of corn sufficient for their use, and some culinary vegetables: their guns supplied them with an abundance of meat, of a flavor as delicious as the refined palate of a modern epicure could well wish. Their clothes were made chiefly of the skins of animals*, and were easily procured; and although calculated to give a grotesque appearance to a fine gentleman in a city drawing-room, yet were they particularly suited to their situation, and afforded them comfort.

Here they spent some years entirely unmolested by the Indians, although a destructive war was then raging, and prosecuted with cruelty, along the whole extent of our frontier. At length, to obtain an additional supply of ammunition, salt, and shining, Dr. Eckarly left Cheat with a pack of furs and skins, to visit a trading-post on the Shenandoah. On his return he stopped at Fort Pleasant, on the South Branch, and having communicated to its inhabitants the place of his residence, and the length of time he had been living there, he was charged with being in confederacy with the Indians, and probably at that instant a spy, examining the condition of the fort In vain the Doctor protested his innocence, and the fact that he had not even seen an Indian in the country; the suffering condition of the border settlements rendered his account, in their opinion, improbable, and he was put in confinement.

The society of which Dr. Eckarly was a member, was rather obnoxious to a majority of the frontier inhabitants. Their intimacy with the Indians, although cultivated with the most laudable motives, and for noble purposes, yet made them objects at least of distrust to many. Laboring under these disadvantages, it was with difficulty that Dr. Eckarly prevailed on the officer of the fort to release him; and when this was done, his was only permitted to go home under certain conditions—he was to be escorted by a guard of armed men, who were to carry him back if any discovery were made prejudicial to him. Upon their arrival at Cheat, the truth of his statement was awfully confirmed. The first spectacle which presented itself to their view, when the party cams in sight of where the cabin had been, was a heap of ashes. On approaching the ruins, the half-decayed and mutilated bodies of the poor Dunkards were seen in the yard; the hoops on which their scalps had been dried were there, and the ruthless hand of desola. tion had waved over their little fields. Dr. Eckarly aided in burying the remains of his unfortunate brothers, and returned to the fort on the South Branch.

In the fall of 1758, Thomas Decker and some others commenced a settlement on the Monongahela River, at the mouth of what is now Decker's creek. In the ensuing spring it was entirely broken up by a party of Delawares and MingoeB, and the greater part of its inhabitants murdered.

There was at this time, at Brownsville, a fort then known as Redstone Fort, under the command of Captain Paul. One of Decker's party escaped from the Indians who destroyed the settlement, and making his way to Fort Redstone, gave to its commander the melancholy intelligence. The garrison being too weak to admit of sending a detachment in pursuit, Captain Paul dispatched a runner with the information to Captain John Gibson, then stationed at Fort Pitt. Leaving the fort under the command of Lieut. Williamson, Captain Gibson set out with thirty men to intercept the Indians on their return to their towns.

In consequence of the distance which the pursuers had to go, and the haste with which the Indians had retreated, the expedition failed in its object; they however accidentally came on a party of six or seven Mingoes, on the head of Cross Creek, in Ohio, near Stcubenville. These had been prowling about the river, below Fort Pitt, seeking an opportunity of committing depredations. As Captain Gibson passed the point of a. small knoll, just after daybreak, he came unexpectedly upon them. Some of them were lying down; the others were sitting round a fire, making thongs of green hides. Kiskepila, or Little Eagle, a Mingo chief, headed the party. So soon as he discovered Captain Gibson, he raised the war-whoop and fired his rifle; the ball passed through Gibson's hunting-shirt, and wounded a soldier just behind him. Gibson sprang forward, and swinging his sword with herculean force, severed the head of Little Eagle from his body. Two other Indians, were shot down, and the remainder escaped to their towns on the Muskingum.

When the captives who were restored under the treaty of 1763 came in, those who were at the Mingo towns when the remnant of Kiskepilu's party returned, stated that the Indians represented Gibson as having cut off Little Eagle's head with a long knife Several of the white persons were then sacrificed to appease the manes of Kiskepila and a war-dance ensued, accompanied with terrific shouts, and bitter denunciations of revenge on " the big.knife warrior" This name was soon after applied to the Virginia militia generally; and to this day they are known among the northwestern Indians as the " Long Knives," or " Big Knife nation."


Monroe was formed in 1799, from Greenbrier, and named from President Monroe; its mean length is 31 miles, mean breadth 1S\ miles. New River forms its southwestern boundary, and receives in its course the Greenbrier River, Indian Creek, and some minor streams. Much of the county is mountainous; but as a whole, it is a thriving agricultural section, having a large proportion of fertile soil, well adapted to grazing. Pop., whites 7,457, slaves 868, free colored 97; total, 8,422.

Union, the county-seat, lies 229 miles west of Richmond. It is a beautiful little village, situated in a picturesque and fertile valley, 14 miles west of the Alleghany mountains, and contains 3 mercantile stores, 1 Methodist, and 1 Presbyterian church, and a population of about 400. Peterstown, named from its first settler, Christian Peters, lies in the south angle of the county, on Rich's Creek, near the point where New River breaks through the Alleghany, and about 20 miles southerly from Union, in a wild, romantic country. Its site is well adapted for machinery, and it contains about 25 dwellings. Gap Mills, 8 miles N. of the C. IL, contains 1 fulling, 1 flour, 1 saw, and 1 oil mill, 1 woollen factory, 1 distillery, 1 tannery, and a few dwellings.

This county is favored with several noted and popular mineral springs. They are the Salt Sulphur, the Sweet, and the Red Sulphur Springs; the improvements at all of which are extensive. The descriptions below are from published sources:

The Red ScLrnuR Springs are situated on Indian creek, about 40 miles Bw. of the White Sulphur, and 16 from the Salt Sulphur. The spring is near one side of a little triangular plain, almost buried in mountains. The water is clear and cool—its temperature being 54° Fahrenheit—iB very strongly charged with sulphureted hydrogen gas, and contains portions of several neutral salts. The water is believed to be directly sedative, indirectly tonic, alterative, diuretic, and diaphoretic.

The water has been found efficacious in all forms of consumption, scrofula, jaundice, and other bilious affections, chronic dysentery and diarrhoea, dyspepsia, diseases of the uterus, chronic rheumatism and gout, dropsy, gravel, neuralgia, tremor, syphilis, scurvy, erysipelas, tetter, ringworm, and itch; and it has long been celebrated as a vermifuge.

The Salt Sulphur Springs are 25 miles from the White Sulphur, and 3 miles from the village of Union, on Indian Valley creek. There are at this place three springs— the Sweet, the Salt Sulphur, and the New Spring. The last contains a large portion of iodine, and is highly beneficial for scrofula, and those affections for which iodine is generally given. The two first are somewhat alike in their properties. The analysis of the Salt Sulphur is thus given by Prof. Rogers:

Solid Ingredients.—Sulphate of lime, sulphate of magnesia, sulphate of soda, carbonate of lime, carbonate of magnesia, chloride of sodium, chloride of magnesium, chloride of calcium, iodine, probably combined with sodium—sulpho-hydrate of sodium and magnesium, sulphur, mingled with a peculiar organic matter—peroxide of iron derived from proto-sulphate.

Gaseous Ingredients.—Sulphureted hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, carbonic acid. The bubbles of gas that are seen adhering to the sides of the spring, are composed almost entirely of nitrogen. The temperature of this is 50° Fahrenheit.

The Salt Sulphur, like almost all the sulphurous waters, being a stimulant, should consequently not be employed in acute or highly inflammatory affections. Nor in those in which there exists much active determination of blood to the head, or at least not until this determination has been guarded against by previous diet, purgation, and, if necessary, blood-letting. But in all chronic affections of the brain, nervous system, some diseases of the lungs, stomach, bowels, liver, spleen, kidneys, and bladder, it is one of the most valuable of . our remedial agents. In diseases of the joints (gout and rheumatism) and skin; in mercurial sequelae ; in hemorrhoidal affections; and in chronic diseases of the womb, it is also a remedy of immense importance.

The Sweet Springs j»re situated in a wide and beautiful valley, 18 miles from the White Sulphur, and 29 from Fincastle. The following description of the medicinal properties of the Sweet Spring waters, is taken from Dr. Bell, on baths and mineral waters:

The water of the spring rises into a large cylindrical reservoir, from opposite sides of which it flows out by small pipes: one conveying water to the bath for the men, the other to that for the ladies. The men's bath is of a quadrangular form, surrounded by a wall, and open at the top; it is of tolerable extent, and clear, the bottom being of gravel, and the water constantly flowing in, and as constantly passing out, after it reaches a certain height. The temperature of the spring is 73° Fahr., the same as that which in England, by a strange blunder, is called Bristol hot wells. There is a considerable resemblance between the two in other respects, as well in the abundant evolution of the carbonic acid gas, as in the earthy and saline matters held in solution. In the Virginia spring, however, iron has been detected, whereas the Bristol hot wells has none in its composition. If we can rely on the rather crude analysis of Bouelle, one quart of the water of the Sweet Spring contains—

Saline substances in general, 12 to 15 grains; earthy substances, 18 to 24 do.; iron, I to I do.

The saline substances are sulphate of magnesia, muriate of soda, and muriate of lime, with a little sulphate of lime. The earthy substances consist of sulphate of lime, a small portion of carbonate of magnesia and lime, with a small portion of silicious earth. The name is calculated to convey erroneous impressions of their taste, which is like a solution of a small quantity of a calcareous or magnesium carbonate. The excess of carbonic acid gives, however, the waters a briskness, productive of a very different effect on the palate from what an imperfect mixture of the earths would produce. The first effects of this water, due to its temperature and gaseous contents, when drunk, are a feeling of warmth at the stomach, with a sensation of fulness at the head and some giddiness. Taken at stated intervals in moderate quantity, it will produce a moisture on the skin and increase the flow of urine. If the stomach be in a good state, it gives additional appetite and imparts fresh vigor to the system. The Sweet Spring water is serviceable in the varieties of dyspepsia accompanied by gastrodynia or spasm, with pains occurring at irregular intervals, and heart-bum—when the extremities are cold, and the skin torpid. In secondary debility of the digestive canal, from the exhausting heat of summer, or in chronic diarrhea, and dysentery without fever, or not sustained by hepatic inflammation, much good will be produced by the internal use of these waters.

The harassing cough to which young persons are occasionally subject, and which often has its origin in an enfeebled state of the stomach, or in scrofulous habits from enlargement of the bronchial glands, as also the tussis humoralis of old people, will all be materially benefited by the use of these waters. The relief afforded in such cases as these has usually given Bristol hot wells its reputation in the cure of pulmonary consumption. Females of what are termed a nervous habit of body, will -find their strength and health restored by drinking these waters, as well as bathing in the manner to be seen mentioned. Irregularity in the uterine functions will often soon disappear 'after the restoration of the digestive system to its former energy. As we should have inferred from the excess of carbonic acid, and the presence of the earthy carbonates in the water, it is useful in calculus and nephritic complaints.

About a mile north of the Sweet Spring, is the Red Spring of Alleghany. This spring is a popular one, and the waters are said to be peculiarly efficacious in rheumatic complaints.


Montgomery was formed in 1776, from Fincastle county,* and named from Gen. Montgomery: it is about 23 miles long, and 22 broad. New River runs on its southwestern border, which, with the head-waters of Roanoke River, drain the county. The face of the county is broken and mountainous, though the streams are bordered with excellent soil, which yield heavy crops of corn and wheat. Pop. in 1840, whites 5,825, slaves 1,473, free colored 87; total, 7,405.

Christiansburg, the county-seat, lies 203 miles southwesterly from Richmond, 46 miles from Fincastle, and 47 from Wytheville, on the main stage-road from Richmond to Nashville, Tenn. It was established by law Oct. 10, 1792, and the following gentlemen appointed trustees: Christian Snido, Byrd Smith, James Barnett, Hugh Crockett, Samuel Eason, Joseph Cloyd, John Preston, James Charlton, and James Craig. It contains 4 stores, 1 Presbyterian and 1 Methodist church, and a population of about 400. Blacksburg, 9 miles north of the C. H., contains 1 Presbyterian and 1 Methodist church, and a population of about 250. Lafayette, in the north part of the county, at the junction of the two forks of the Roanoke, contains a Methodist church, and about 45 dwellings.

• Fincastle county was formed in 1772 from Botetourt, and extinguished in 1776 by the formation of Washington, Montgomery, and Kentucky counties from its territory.


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