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miles from this great mound, that are evidently a kind of porcelain, and very similar, if not identical in substance with artificial teeth set by dentists. He has also an image of stone, found with other relics, about eight miles distant. It is in human shape, sitting in a cramped position, the face and eyes projecting upwards. The nose is what is called Roman. On the crown of the head is a knot, in which the hair is concentrated and tied. The head and features particularly is a display of great workmanship and ingenuity. It is eleven inches in height, but if it were straight would be double that height. It is generally believed to have been an idol.
Mr. Henry R. Colcraft, [Schoolcraft,] whose researches upon the Indian antiquities of the west have placed him at the head of the list of scientific inquirers upon this subject, visited Grave Creek in August, 1843, and devoted several days to the examination of the antique works of art at that place. The result of his investigations is partially given in a communication to the New York Commercial Advertiser, copied below. We were subsequently at Grave Creek, and obtained an impression in wax of the hieroglyphical stone to which he alludes. An accurate engraving from this impression we insert in its proper place in his article:
I have devoted several days to the examination of the antiquities of this place and its vicinity, and find them to be of even more interest than was anticipated. The most prominent object of curiosity is the great tumulus, of which notices have appeared in western papers; but this heavy structure of earth is not isolated. It is but one of a series of mounds and other evidences of ancient occupation at this point, of more than ordinary interest, I have visited and examined seven mounds situated within a short distance of each other. They occupy the summit level of a rich alluvial plain, stretching on the left or Virginia bank of the Ohio, between the junctions of Big and Little Grave creeks with that stream. They appear to have connected by low earthen intrenchments, of which plain traces are still visible on some parts of the commons. They included a well, stoned up in the usual manner, which is now filled with rubbish.
The summit of this plain is probably 75 feet above the present summit-level of the Ohio. It constitutes the second bench or rise of land above the water. It is on this summit, and one of the most elevated parts of it, that the great tumulus stands. It is in the shape of a broad cone, cut off at the apex, where it is some fifty feet across. This area is quite level, and commands a view of the entire plain, and of the river above and below, and "the west shores of the Ohio in front. Any public transaction on this area would be visible to multitudes around it, and it has, in this respect, all the advantages of the Mexican and Yucatanese teocalli. The circumference of the base has been stated at a little under 900 feet; the height is 69 feet
The most interesting object of antiquarian inquiry is a small flat stone, inscribed with antique alphabetic characters, which was disclosed on the opening of the mound. These
characters are in the ancient rock alphabet of 16 right and acute-angled single strokes, used by the IVlusgi and other early Mediterranean nations, and which is the parent of the modern Runic as well as the Bardic. It is now some four or five years since the completion of the excavations, so far as they have been made, and the discovery of this relic. Several copies of it soon got abroad which differed from each other, and, it was supposed, from the original. This conjecture is true. Neither the print published in the Cincinnati Gazette in 1839, nor that in the American Pioneer in 1843, is correct. I have terminated this uncertainty by taking copies by a scientific process, which does not leave the lines aud figures to the uncertainty of man's pencil.
The existence of this ancient art here could hardly be admitted, otherwise than as an insulated fact, without some corroborative evidence in habits and customs, which it would be reasonable to look for in the existing ruins of ancient occupancy. It is thought tome such testimony has been found. I rode out yesterday three miles, back to the range of high hills which encompass this sub-valley, to see a rude tower of stone standing on an elevated point, called Parr's Point, which commands a view of the whole plain, and which appears to have been constructed as a watch-tower, or lookout, from which to descry an approaching enemy. It is much dilapidated. About six or seven feet of the work is still entire. It is circular, and composed of rough stone, laid without mortar, or the mark of a hammer. A heavy mass of fallen walls lies around, covering an area of some forty feet in diameter. Two similar points of observation, occupied by dilapidated towers, are represented to exist, one at the prominent summit of the Ohio and Grave creek hills, and another on the promontory on the opposite side of the Ohio, in Belmont county, Ohio.
It is well known to all acquainted with the warlike habits of our Indians, that they never evinced the foresight to post a regular sentry, and these rude towers may be regarded as of contemporaneous age with the interment of the inscription.
Several polished tubes of stone have been found in one of the lesser mounds, the use of which is not very apparent. One of these now on my table is twelve inches long, one and it fourth wide at one end, and one and a half at the other. It is made of a fine, compact, lead-blue steatite, mottled, and has been constructed by boring, in the manner of a gun-barrel. This boring is continued to within about three-eighths of an inch of the larger end, through which but a small aperture is left. If this small aperture be looked through, object s at a distance are more clearly seen. Whether it had this telescope or others, the degree df art evinced in its construction is far from rude. By inserting a wooden rod and valve, this tube would be converted into a powerful syphon or syringe.
I have not space to notice one or two additional traits which serve to awaken new interest at this ancient point of aboriginal and apparently mixed settlement.
Marion was formed in 1842, from Harrison and Monongalia, and named from General Francis Marion. It is about 40 miles long, with a mean width of 13 miles. It is watered by the west fork of the Monongahela and its branches. The county is well timbered, and adapted to grazing; its surface is hilly, and much of the soil fertile. Fairmont, formerly called Middletown, is the county-seat; it is 278 miles Nw. of Richmond, 40 miles E. of the Ohio, 22 N. of Clarksburg, and 18 s. of Morgantown. It was established by law in 1820, and is now a flourishing village, pleasantly situated on the west bank of the Monongahela, near the southern line of the county. It contains 5 mercantile stores, 1 Methodist and 1 Presbyterian church, several flouring and other mills in it and vicinity, and about 70 dwellings. The face of the surrounding country is somewhat hilly; the soil is generally of a rich loamy clay, producing all the staples common to the middle states. The forests abound with the finest timber, and the earth is stored with iron ore, and the best stone-coal, the latter of which is largely exported: Palatine lies opposite Fairmont, on the Monongahela. It is a new and flourishing village, containing 2 stores, some mills, and about 25 dwellings. Holtsville, Newport, and Milford, are small but flourishing places on the Monongahela, below Fairmont. As this county comes within the limits of the tract described in Doddridge's Notes, we make an extract depicting the customs of those primitive times:
The settlements on this side of the mountains commenced along the Monongahela, and between that river and the Laurel ridge, in the year 1772. In the succeeding year they reached the Ohio River. The greater numlicr of the first settlers came from the upper parts of the then colonies of Maryland and Virginia. Braddock's trail, as it was called, was the route by which'the greater number of them crossed the mountains. A less number of them came by the way of Bedford and Fort Ligonier, the military road from Pennsylvania to Pittsburg. They effected their removals on horses furnished with pack-saddles. This was the more easily done, as but few of these early adventurers into the wilderness were encumbered with much baggage.
Land was the object which invited the greater number of these people to cross the mountain, for, as the saying then was, " It was to be had here for taking up;" that is, building a cabin and raiting a crop of grain, however small, of any kind, entitled the occupant to four hundred acres of land, and a pre-emption right to one thousand acres more adjoining, to be secured by a land-office warrant. This right was to take effect if there happened to be so much vacant land, or any part thereof, adjoining the tract secured by the settlement right.
At an early period the government of Virginia appointed three commissioners to give certificates of settlement rights. These certificates, together with the surveyor's plat, were sent to the laud-office of the state, where they lay six months, to await any caveat which might be offered. If none was offered, the patent then issued.
There was, at an early period of our settlements, an inferior kind of land title denominated a " tomahawk right," which was made by deadening a few trees near the head of a spring, and marking the bark of some one or more of them with the initials of the name of the person who made the improvement. I Temeniber having seen a number of those " tomahawk rights" when a boy. For a long time many of them bore the names of those who made them. I have no knowledge of the efficacy of the tomahawk improvement, or whether it conferred any right whatever, unless followed by an actual settlement. These rights, however, were often bought and sold. Those who wished to make settlements on their favorite tracts of land, bought up the tomahawk improvements, rather than enter into quarrels with those who had made them. Other improvers of the land, with a view to actual settlement, and who happened to be stout veteran fellows, took a very different course from that of purchasing the " tomahawk rights." When annoyed by the claimants under those rights, they^deliberately cut a few good hickories, and gave them what was called in those.days a " laced jacket," that is, a sound whipping.
Some of the early settlers took the precaution to come over the mountains in the spring, leaving their families behind to raise a crop of corn, and then return and bring them out in the fall. This I should think was the better way. Others, especially those whose families were small, brought them with them in the spring. My father took the latter course. His family was but small, and he brought them all with him. The Indian meal which he brought over the mountain was expended six weeks too soon, so for that length of time we had to live without bread. The lean venison and the breast of wild turkeys we were taught to call bread. The flesh of the bear was denominated meat. This artifice did not succeed very well. After living in this way for some time we became sickly, the stomach seemed to be always empty and tormented with a sense of hunger. I remember how narrowly the children watched the growth of the potato tops, pumpkin and squash vines, hoping from day to day to get something to answer in the place of bread. How delicious was the taste of the young potatoes when we got them! What a jubilee, when we were permitted to pull the young corn for roasting ears. Still more so, when it had acquired sufficient hardness to be made into ">nny-cakes by the aid of a tin grater. We then became healthy, vigorous, and contented with our situation, poor as it was.
My father, with a small number of his neighbors, made their settlements in the spring of 1773. Though they were in a poor and destitute situation, they nevertheless lived 'n peace; but their tranquillity was not of long continuance. Those most atrocious •Burdens of the peaceable, inoffensive Indians at Captina and Yellow Creek, brought on j«* war of Lord Dunmore in the spring of the year 1774. Our little settlement then broke up. The women and children were removed to Morris's Fort, in Sandy Creek glade, some distance to the east of Uniontown. The fort consisted of an assemblage of ■mall hovels, situated on the margin of a large and noxious marsh, the effluvia of which Cave the most of the women and children the fever and ague. The men were com. Polled by necessity to return home, and risk the tomahawk and scalping-knife of the Indians, in raising corn to keep their families from starvation the succeeding winter. Those sufferings, dangers, and losses, were the tribute we had to pay to that thirst for blood which actuated those veteran murderers who brought the war upon us! The memory of the sufferers in this war, as well as that of their descendants, still looks back upon them with regret and abhorrence, and the page of history will consign their names to posterity with the full weight of infamy they deserve«
My father, like many others, believed that, having secured bis legal allotment, the rest of the country belonged of right to those who chose to settle in it. There was a piece of vacant land adjoining his tract, amounting to about 200 acres. To this tract of land he had the pre-emption right, and accordingly secured it by warrant; but his conscience would not permit him to retain it in his family; he therefore gave it to an apprentice lad whom he had raised in his house. This lad sold it to an uncle of mine for a cow and a calf, and a wool hat.
Owing to the equal distribution of real property directed by our land laws, and the sterling integrity of our forefathers in their observance of them, we have no districts of "sold land," as it is called, that is, large tracts of land in the hands of individuals, or companies, who neither sell nor improve them, as is the case in Lower Canada, and the northwestern part of Pennsylvania. These unsettled tracts make huge blanks ui the population of the country where they exist.
The division-lines between those whose lands adjoined, were generally made in an amicable manner, before any survey of them was made, by the parties concerned. In doing this they were guided mainly by the tops of ridges and water-courses, but particularly the former. Hence the greater number of farms in the western parts of Pennsylvania and Virginia bear a striking resemblance to au amphitheatre. The buildings occupy a low situation, and the tops of the surrounding hills are the boundaries of the tract to which the family mansion belongs.
Our forefathers were fond of farms of this description, because, as they said, they are attended with this convenience, " that every thing comes to the house down hill."
Most of the early settlers considered their land as of little value, from an apprehension that after a few years' cultivation it would lose its fertility, at least for a long time. I have often heard them say that such a field would bear so many crops, and another so many, more or less than that. The ground of this belief concerning the short-lived fertility of the land in this country, was the poverty of a great proportion of the land in the lower parts of Maryland and Virginia, which, after producing a few crops, became unfit for use, and was thrown out into commons.
My reader will naturally ask where were their mills for grinding grain? Where their tanneries for making leather? Where their smith-shops for making and repairing their farming utensils? Who were their carpenters, tailors, cabinet workmen, shoemakers, and weavers? The answer is, those manufacturers did not exist, nor had they any tradesmen who were professedly such. Every family were under the necessity of doing every thing for themselves as well as they could. The hommony-block and haud-mills were in use in most of our houses. The first was made of a large block of wood about three feet long, with an excavation burned in one end, wide at the top and narrow at the bottom, so that the action of the pestle on the bottom threw the com up to the sides towards the top of it, from whence it continually fell down into the centre. In consequence of this movement, the whole mass of the grain was pretty equally subjected to the strokes of the pestle. In the fall of the year, while the Indian corn was soft, the block and pestle did very well for making meal for jonny-cake and mush, but vat rather slow when the corn became hard.
The sweep was sometimes used to lessen the toil of pounding grain into meal This was a pole of some springy elastic wood, thirty feet long or more; the butt end was placed under the side of a house, or a large stump. This pole was supported by two forks, placed about one-third of its length from the butt end, so as to elevate the small end about fifteen feet from the ground; to this was attached, by a large mortise, a piece ot a sapling, about five or six inches in diameter, and eight or ten feet long. The h>wer end of this was shaped so as to answer for a pestle. A pin of wood was put through it at a proper height, so that two persons could work at the sweep at once. This simple machine very much lessened the labor, and expedited the work. I remember that, when a boy, I put up an excellent sweep at my father's. It was made of a sugar-tree sapling. It was kept going almost constantly, from morning till night, by our neighbors for several weeks. In the Greenbrier country, where they had a number of saltpetre caves, the first settlers made plenty of excellent gunpowder by the means of those sweeps and mortars.
A machine still more simple than the mortar and pestle, was used for making meal.
while the com was too soft to be beaten. It was called a grater. This was a half, circular piece of tin, perforated with a punch from the concave side, and nailed by its edges to a block of wood. The ears of corn were rubbed on the rough edges of the holes, while the meal fell through them on the board or block to which the grater was nailed, which, being in a slanting direction, discharged the meal into a cloth or bowl placed for its reception. This, to be sure, was a slow way of making meal, but necessity has no law.
The hand-mill was better than the mortar and grater. It was made of two circular stones, the lowest of which was called the bed-stone, the upper one the runner. These were placed in a hoop, with a spout for discharging the meal. A staff was let into a hole in the upper surface of the runner, near the outer edge, and its upper end through a hole in a board fastened to a joist above, so that two persons could be employed in taming the mill at the same time. The grain was put into the opening in the runner by hand. These mills are still in use in Palestine, the ancient country of the Jews. To a mill of this sort our Saviour alluded, when, with reference to the destruction of Jerusalem, he said: "Two women shallbe grinding at a mill, the one shall be taken and the other left." This mill is much preferable to that used at present in Upper' Egypt for making the dhoura bread. It is a smooth stone, placed on an inclined plane, upon which the grain is spread, which is made into meal by rubbing another stone up and down upon it.
Our first water-mills were of that description denominated tub-mills. It consists of a perpendicular shaft, to the lower end of which a horizontal wheel of about four or five feet in diameter is attached; the upper end passes through the bed-stone, and carries the runner after the manner of a tru idlehead. These mills were built with very little expense, and many of them answered the purpose very well. Instead of bolting cloths, sifters were in general use. They were made of deerskins, in the state of parchment, stretched over a hoop, and perforated with a hot wire.
Our clothing was all of domestic manufacture. We had no other resource for clothing, and this indeed was a poor one. The crops of flax often failed, and the sheep were destroyed by the wolves. Linsey, which is made of flax and wool—the former the chain, and the latter the filling—was the warmest and most substantial cloth we could make. Almost every house contained a loom, and almost every woman was a weaver.
Every family tanned their own leather. The tan-vat was a large trough sunk to the upper edge in the ground. A quantity of bark Wub easily obtained every spring in clearing and fencing land. This, after drying, was brought in, and in wet days was shaved and pounded on a block of wood, with an axe or mallet. Ashes were used in place of lime, for taking off the hair. Bears' oil, hogs' lard, and tallow, answered the place of fish oil. The leather, to be sure, was coarse; but it was substantially good. The
operation of currying was performed by a drawing-knife with its edge turned, after the manner of a currying-knife. The blacking for the leather was made of soot and hogs' lard.
Almost every family contained its own tailors and shoemakers. Those who could not make shoes, could make shoepacks. These, like moccasins, were made of a single piece of leather, with the exception of a tongue-piece on the top of the foot. This was about two inches broad, and circular at the lower end. To this the main piece of leather was sewed with a gathering stitch. The seam behind was like that of a moccasin. To the shoepack, a sole was sometimes added. The women did the tailor-work. They could all cut out and make hunting-shirts, leggings, and drawers.
The state of society which existed in our country at an early period of its settlement, » well calculated to call into action every native mechanical genius. This happened in this country. There was, in almost every neighborhood some one, whose natural in. genuity enabled him to do many things for himself and his neighbors, far above what could have been reasonably expected. With the few tools which they brought with them . into the country, they certainly performed wonders. Thi ir ploughs, harrows with wooden teeth, and sleds, were in many instances well made. Their cooper-ware, which comprehended every thing for holding milk and water, was generally pretty well executed, fne cedar.ware, by having alternately a white and red stave, was then thought btautiMu ! many of their puncheon floors were very neat, their joints close, and the top even fd smooth. Their looms, although heavy, did very well. Those who could not exer°se these mechanic arts, were under the necessity of giving labor or barter to their neighbors in exchange for the use of them, so far as their necessities required.