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magnesia, sulphate of soda, carbonate of lime, carbonate of magnesia, chloride of magnesium, chloride of sodium, chloride of calcium, peroxide of iron, phosphate of lime, Buiphate and hydrate of sodium, organic matter, precipitated sulphur, iodine. The gaseous matter consists of sulphurated hydrogen, carbonic acid, nitrogen, and oxygen. It is obvious, from this analysis, that the water must exert a very positive agency upon the system. Its remedial virtues extend chiefly to diseases of the liver, kidneys, alimentary canal, and to scrofula, rheumatism, and neuralgia.
The fountain is covered with a stately Doric dome, sustained by twelve large pillars, and surmounted with a colossal statue of Hygeia, looking towards the rising sun.
The Blue Sulphur Spring, in this county, is also quite popular. The improvements are extensive, and the location one of much natural beauty. The water tastes like that of the White Sulphur. Subjoined is the analysis:
Analysis.—Solid ingredients in the Blue Sulphur Water.—Sulphate of lime; sulphate of magnesia; sulphate of soda ; carbonate of lime ; carbonate of magnesia ; chloride of magnesium ; chloride of sodium ; chloride of calcium ; hydro-sulphate of sodium and magnesium; oxide of iron, existing as proto-sulphatc ; iodine, sulphur, organic matters. Gaseous ingredients.—Sulphurated hydrogen; carbonic acid; oxygen; nitrogen.
The spring is a very bold one, furnishing fifteen gallons of water to a minute; there is a great deal of red, white, and black, and other deposites from the water.
Greene was formed in 1838, from the western part of Orange, and named after Gen. Nathaniel Greene, of the revolution. It is 15 miles long, and 10 wide. The Blue Ridge runs on its western line. It is watered by branches of the Rivanna and the Rapid Ann. Its surface is mountainous and broken, and the soil in the valleys fertile. The principal products are tobacco, Indian corn, and wheat. A small quantity of cotton is produced. Population in 1840, whites 2,447, slaves 1,740, free colored 45; total, 4,232.
Stanardsville, the county-seat, is in the western part, 95 miles northwesterly from Richmond, and 18 miles w. of Orange C. H. The village is pleasantly situated, and contains about 35 dwellings.
Greensville was formed in 1784, from Brunswick. It is 28 miles long, with a variable breadth of from 8 to 24 miles. The Nottoway River runs on its N. boundary, and the Meherrin through it centrally. On the first-named stream anciently dwelt the Nottoway Indians ; on the last, the Meherrins and Tuteloes, " who were connected with the Indians of Carolina, probably with the Chowanocs." Large quantities of cotton are raised in this county. Population in 1840, whites 1,928, slaves 4,102, free colored 136; total 6,366.
Hicksford, the county-seat, lies 62 miles south of Richmond, on
the line of the great southern rail-road, which here crosses the Meherrin by a bridge 300 feet long, supported by stone piers. Besides the public buildings, it contains from 12 to 20 dwellings, and several stores and hotels.
In the march of Cornwallis into Virginia, after the battle of Guilford Courthouse, a company of militia under a Captain Robinson were made prisoners on the Meherrin, below Hicksford, without firing a shot, by a body of cavalry under Lieut-Col. Simcoe, who had been detached from Petersburg by Arnold, to gain information of Cornwallis. The whole party, the captors and captured, repaired to an adjacent tavern, where, in a conference among the British officers, it was announced to the prisoners that they were to be paroled. "Pray, gentlemen," demanded one of them, in great consternation, " what kind of a death is that 1"
Halifax was formed in 1752, from Lunenburg. Its length is 33 miles, and mean breadth 23 miles. The Roanoke runs on its N. and Ne. boundary, and the Dan and its branches flow through it centrally. The soil is fertile, and large quantities of excellent tobacco, corn, and oats, are raised. Population in 1840, whites 11,145, slaves 14,216, free colored 575; total, 25,930.
Banister, or Halifax C. H., lies 127 miles southwesterly from Richmond. It is a long, scattering village, well elevated by a gradual ascent of three quarters of a mile from Banister River; it contains a population of about 300. Brooklyn, Meadsville, Scottsburg, and Barksdale, contain each a few dwellings.
Hampshire was established in 1754, from Frederick and Augusta. Its mean length is about 33 miles, and mean breadth 30 miles. A large proportion of the county is mountainous, and much of the high mountain-land is untillable. The principal streams are the South and the North Branch of Potomac, the Potomac, and the Great Cacapon. On all of these there are extensive and fertile low grounds. Near the Maryland line are immense fields of bituminous coal, and depositcs of iron ore in various parts of the county. Population, whites 10,703, slaves 1,403, free colored 1S9; total 12,295.
Romney, the county-seat, is situated in the heart of the county, on the South Branch of Potomac, 188 miles Nw. of Richmond, and 89 miles from Winchester. It is a small village, yet one of considerable business, and has a branch of the Bank of the Valley, several stores, and about 350 inhabitants. It was established by law in 1702, and laid off by Lord Fairfax, its founder, into streets and half-acre lots. The Parkersburg turnpike passes through it
Frankfort, Springfield, Cold Stream Mill, and Paddytown, are small villages. ,
The Ice Mountain of Hampshire is one of the greatest natural curiosities in Virginia. It rises from the eastern bank of the North River, a branch of the Capon, and is distant 26 miles Nw. from Winchester, and 16 miles E. of Romney. It is in height 400 or 500 feet.
The west side of the mountain, for about a quarter of a mile, is covered with a mass of loose stone of a light color, which reaches down to the bank of the river. This part of the mountain is represented in the accompanying engraving. By removing the loose ■tone, pure crystal ice can always be found in the warmest days of summer. It has been discovered even as late as the 15th of September; but never in October, although it may exist throughout the entire year, and be found, if the rocks were excavated to a sufficient depth. The body of rocks where the ice is found is subject to the full rays of the sun from nine o'clock in the morning until sunset. The sun does not have the effect of melting the ice as much as continued rains. At the base of the mountain is a spring of water colder by many degrees than spring water generally is. "Very near this spring," says Kerchcval, " the owner of the property has removed the stone, and erected a small log dairy, for the preservation of his milk, butter, and fresh meats. When the author saw this little building, which was late in the month of April, the openings between the logs, (on the side next the cavity from which the stone had been taken out,) for eighteen inches or two feet from the floor, were completely filled with ice, and about one-half the floor was covered with ice several inches thick. Mr. Deevers, who is the owner of the property, informed the author that milk, butter, or fresh meats of every kind, are perfectly safe from injury for almost any length of time, in the hottest weather If a fly venture in, he is immediately stiffened with the cold and becomes torpid. If a snake in his rambles happens to pass over the rocks covering the ice, he soon loses all motion, and dies. Christopher Heiskcll, Esq., informed the author that several instances had occurred of the snakes being found dead among the rocks covering the ice. An intelligent young lady at the same time stated that she had seen instances of this character. In truth, it was upon her first suggesting the fact, that the author was led to make inquiry of Mr. Heiskell. And Mr. Beavers stated that he had several turns removed torpid flies from his dairy into a more temperate atmosphere, when they soon recovered life and motion, and flew off."
Mr. C. B. Hayden, in a recent number of Silliman's Journal,