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Lynch Law.—Col. Charles Lynch, a brother of the founder oj Lynchburg, was an officer of the American revolution. His residence Was on the Staunton, in the sw. part of this county, now the seat of his grandson, Chas. Henry Lynoh, Esq. At that time, this country was very thinly settled, and infested by a lawless band of tories and desperadoes. The necessity of the case involved desperate measures, and Col. Lynch, then a leading whig, apprehended and had them punished, without any superfluous legal ceremony. Hence the origin of the term "Lynch Law." This practice of Lynching continued years after the war, and was applied to many cases of mere suspicion of guilt, which could not be regularly proven. "In 1792," says Wirt's Life of Henry, "there were many suits on the south side of James River, for inflicting Lynch's law." At the battle of Guilford Court-House, a regiment of riflemen, raised in this part of the state, under the command of Col. Lynch, behaved with much gallantry. The colonel died soon after the close of the war. Charles Lynch, a governor of Louisiana, wa« bis son.

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New London is on the Salem turnpike, 11 miles s\v. of Lynchburg. It contains 2 churches, a classical academy, and a few dwellings. It was founded several years prior to the American revolution. About the period of the war, it was a place of considerable importance, and contained, says the Marquis de Chastellux, in his travels, "at least 70 or 80 houses." There was here then, an arsenal, a long wooden structure, which stood opposite Echol's tavern. The establishment has long since been removed to Harper's Ferry. There was also a long building, used as a magazine in the war, which was under the guard of some soldiers. In July, 1781, Cornwallis detached Tarleton to this place, for the purpose of destroying the stores and intercepting some light troops reported to be on their march to join Lafayette. But neither stores n»r troops were found, and on the 15th, he rejoined his lordship in Suffolk county. Early in the war, there were several Scotch merchants largely engaged in business here. Refusing to take the


oath of allegiance, they were compelled to break up and leave the country. This, with the superior location of Lynchburg, gave a permanent shock to its prosperity, and it is now a broken down village, fast going to decay.

New London was at first the county-seat of Lunenburg. In 1753, on the formation of Bedford, it was made the county-seat of the latter. Still later, under the old district system, the superior court was held here. There is now standing in thetown,an interesting relic of a more prosperous era—the old court-house—which, in its pristine days, was the scene of important events; but it is now dilapidated, tumbling to ruins, and is used as a barn. Humble as this building is at present, once admiring audiences, moved by the magic eloquence of Patrick Henry, were assembled within its walls. Here it was, that he delivered his celebrated speech in the Johnny Hook case, the account of which is thus given by his biographer:

Hook was a Scotchman, a man of wealth, and suspected of being unfriendly to the American cause. During the distresses of the American army, consequent on the joint invasion of Cornwallia &ni Phillips in 1781, a Mr. Venable, an army commissary, had taken two of Hook's steers for the use of the troops. The act had not been strictly legal; and on the establishment of peace, Hook, on the advice of Mr. Cowan, a gentleman of some distinction in the law, thought proper to bring an action of trespass against Mr. Venable, in the district court of New London. Mr. Henry appeared for the defendant, and is said to have deported himself in this cause to the infinite enjoyment of his hearers, the unfortunate Hook always excepted. After Mr. Henry became animated in the cause, says a correspondent, he appeared to have complete control over the passions of his audience: at one time he excited their indignation against Hook; vengeance was visible in every countenance; again, when he chose to relax and ridicule him, the whole audience was in a roar of laughter. He painted the distresses of the American army, exposed almost naked to the rigor of a winter's sky, and marking the frozen ground over which they marched with the blood of their unshod feet; where was the man, he said, who had an American heart in his bosom, who would not have thrown open his fields, his barns, his cellars, the doors of his house, the portals of his breast, to have received with open arms, the meanest soldier in that little band of famished patriots 1 Where is the man ?—There he stands—but whether the heart of an American beats in his bosom, you, gentlemen, are to judge. He then carried the jury, by the powers of his imagination, to the plains around York, the surrender of which had followed shortly titer the act complained of: he depicted the surrender in the most glowing and noble colors of his eloquence—the audience saw before their eyes the humiliation and dejection of the British, as they marched out of their trenches—they saw the triumph which lighted up every patriotic face, and heard the shouts of victory, and the cry of Washington and liberty, as it rung and echoed through the American ranks, and was reverberated from the hills and shores of the neighboring river—" but, hark! what notes of discord are these which disturb the general joy, and silence the acclamatious of victory —they are the notes of John Hook, hoarsely bawling through the American camp, beef.' beef! beef!"

The whole audience were convulsed: a particular incident will give a better idea of the effect, than any general description. The clerk of the court, unable to command himself, and unwilling to commit any breach of decorum in his place, rushed out of the court-house, and threw himself on the grass, in the most violent paroxysm of laughter, where he was rolling, when Hook, with very different feelings, came out for relief into the yard also. "Jemmy Steptoe," he said to the clerk, " what the devil ails ye, mon V Mr. Steptoe was only able to say, that he could not help it. "Never mind ye," said Hook, " wait till Billy Cowan gets up: he'll show him the W,'' Mr. Cowan, however, was so completely overwhelmed by the torrent which bore upon his client, that when he rose to reply to Mr. Henry, he was scarcely able to make an intelligible or audible remark. The cause was decided almost by acclamation. The jury retired for form Jjke, and instantly returned with a verdict for the defendant. Nor did the effect of Mr. Henry's speech stop here. The people were so highly excited by the lory audacity of

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such a suit, that Hook began to hear around him a cry more terrible than that of bttf, it was the cry of tar and feathers; from the application of which, it is said, that nothing saved him but a precipitate flight and the speed of his horse.

About half a mile N. of the village is the seat of the above mentioned " Jemmy Steptoe." He was clerk of Bedford 40 years: an intimate friend of Jefferson, who was a frequent visitor at his residence. He died in 1826, esteemed for his amiable and generous disposition.

"Poplar Forest," 3 miles Ne. of New London, is the name of the seat of William Cobbs, Esq., which was originally the property of Jefferson, and occasionally his residence in the summer months. It is an octagonal brick edifice, built by him, on the same plan with Monticello, although much smaller. Its situation is commanding, within sight of the Blue Ridge, and the grounds around are beautifully laid out, and adorned with shrubbery.

Immediately after Tarlcton's incursion to Charlottesville, when Jefferson narrowly escaped being made prisoner, he retired with his family to Poplar Forest, where, riding upon his farm some time after, he was thrown from his horse and seriously injured. "While Mr. Jefferson was confined at Poplar Forest," says Tucker, " in consequence of the fall from his horse, and was in consequence incapable of any active employment, public or private, he occupied himself with answering the queries which Mons. De Marbois, then secretary of the French legation to the United States, had submitted to him respecting the physical and political condition of Virginia; which answers were afterwards published by him, under the title of ' Notes on Virginia.' When we consider how difficult it is, even in the present day, to get an accurate knowledge of such details in our country, and how much greater the difficulty must then have been, we are surprised at the extent of the information which a single individual had thus been enabled to acquire, as to the physical features of the state—the course, length, and depth of its rivers; its zoological and botanical productions; its Indian tribes ; its statistics and laws. After the lapse of more than half a century, by much the larger part of it still gives us the fullest and most accurate information we possess of the subjects on which it treats. Some of its physical theories are, indeed, in the rear of modern science; but they form a small portion of the book, and its general speculations are marked with that boldness, that utter disregard for received opinions, which always characterized him; and the whole is written in a neat, flowing style, always perspicuous, and often peculiarly apt and felicitous."

Jefferson's notes were printed in Paris, in 1784, soon after his arrival there as minister 'to the court of France. Says the same author: "One of the first objects which engaged his attention, was the printing his notes on Virginia. He had, for the sake of gratifying a few friends with copies, wished to publish them in America, but was prevented by the expense. He now found they could be printed for about a fourth of what he had been asked at home. He therefore corrected and enlarged them, and had 200 copies printed. Of these he presented a few in Europe, and sent the rest to America. One of them having fallen into the hands of a bookseller in Paris, he had it translated into French, and submitted the translations to the author for revision. It was a tissue of blunders, of which only the most material he found it convenient to correct; and it was thus printed. A London bookseller having requested permission to print the original, he consented, " to let the world see that it was not really so bad as the French translation had made it appear."


Caroline was formed in 1727, from Essex, King and Queen, and King William. It is 30 miles long by 20 broad. The Rappahannock flows on its north, the Pamunkey on its south boundary, and the Mattapony runs near its centre. The surface is broken, and the soil various, but the low grounds of these streams are extremely fertile, and admirably adapted to the culture of corn, wheat and

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