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face is hilly, but much of the soil is fertile. The county abounds in coal. Large quantities are quarried on the side hills on the Ohio. There is not at the present time, (Sept. 1843,) a licensed tavern in the county, for retailing ardent spirits, and not one distillery; nor has there been a criminal prosecution for more than two years. Pop. 1830,7,040 ; 1840, whites 7,080, slaves 91, free col'd. 77 ; total, 7,948.
Fairview, or New Manchester, lies on the Ohio, 22 miles N. of Wellsburg, on an elevated and healthy situation. It contains about 25 dwellings. The churches are Presbyterian and Methodist. Holliday's Cove is a long and scattering village, about 7 miles above Wellsburg, in a beautiful and fertile valley, of a semi-circular form. It contains 1 Union church, 1 Christian Disciples' church, an academy, and about 60 dwellings. Flour of a superior quality is manufactured at the mills on Harmon's Creek, in this valley. Bethany is beautifully situated, 8 miles E. of Wellsburg. It contains a few dwellings only. It is the residence of Dr. Alexander Campbell, the founder of the denomination generally known as "the Campbellite Baptists:" a name, however, which they themselves do not recognise, taking that of " Disciples, or Christian Baptists."
Bethany College, Brooke County.
Bethany College was founded by Dr. Alexander Campbell, in 1841. Its instructors are the president, (Dr. Campbell,) and 4 professors. The institution is flourishing, numbering something like a hundred pupils, including the preparatory department. The buildings prepared for their reception are spacious and convenient.
The following historical sketch of" the Disciples of Christ," with a view of their religious opinions, is from Hay ward's Book of Religions:
The rise of this society, if we only look back to the drawing of the lines of demarcation between It and other professors, is of recent origin. About the commencement of the present century, the Bible alone, without any human addition in the form of creeds or confessions of faith, begin to be preached by many distinguished ministers of different denominations, both in Europe and America.
With various success, and with many of the opinions of the various sects imperceptibly carried with them from the denominations to which they once belonged, did the advocates of the Bible cause plead fur the union of Christians of every name, on the broad basis of the apostles' teaching. But it was not until the year 1323 that a restoration of the original gospti and order of thing began to be advocated in a periodical edited by Alexander Campbell, of Bethany, Virginia, entitled "The Christian Baptist."
He and his father, Thomas Campbell, renounced the Presbyterian system, and were immersed, In the year 1812. They, and the congregations which they had formed, united with the Redstone Baptist Association, protesting against all human creeds as bonds of union, and professing subjection to the Bible alone. This union look place in the year 1813. But, in pressing upon the attention of thnt society and the public the all-sufficiency of the sacred Scriptures for every thing necessary to the perfection of Christian character,—whether in the private or social relations of Life, in the church, or in the world,— they began to be opposed by a strong creed-party in that association. After some ten years' debating and contending for the Bible alone, and the apostles' doctrine, Alexander Campbell, and the church to which be belonged, united with the Mahoning association, in the Western Reserve of Ohio; that association being more favorable to his views of reform.
In his debates on the subject and action of baptism with Mr. Walker, a seceding minister, in the year 1830. and with Mr. M'Calla, a Presbyterian minister of Kentucky, In the year 1823, his views of reformation began to be developed, and were very generally received by the Baptist society, as far as these works were read.
But in his "Christian Baptist," which began July 4, 1823, his views of the need of reformation were nore fully exposed; and, as these gained ground by the pleading of various ministers of the Baptist denomination, a party in opposition began to exert itself, and to oppose the spread of what they were pleased to call heterodoxy. But not till after great numbers began to act upon these principles, was there any attempt towards separation. After the Mahoning association appointed Mr. Walter Scott, an evangelist, in the year 1837, and when great numbers began to be immersed into Christ, under his labors, and new churches began to be erected by him and other laborers in the field, did the Baptist associations begin to declare non-fellowship with the brethren of the reformation. Thus, by constraint, not of choice, they were obliged to form societies out of those communities thai split, upon the ground of adherence to the 30051168* doctrine. The distinguishing characteristics of their views and practices are the following :—
They regard all the sects and parties of the Christian world as having, in greater or less degree, departed from the simplicity of faith and manners of the first Christians, and as forming what the apostle Paul calls '" the apostacy." This defection they attribute to the great varieties of speculation and metaphysical dogmatism of the countless creeds, formularies, liturgies, and books of discipline, adopted and inculcated as bonds of union, and platforms of communion in all the parties which have sprung from the Lutheran reformation. The effect of these synodical covenants, conventional articles of belief, and rule* of ecclesiastical polity, has been the introduction of a new nomenclature.—a human vocabulary of religious words, phrases, and technicalities, which has displaced the style of the living oracles, and affixed to the sacred diction ideas wholly unknown to the apostles of Christ
To remedy and obviate these aberrations, they propose to ascertain from the Holy Scriptures, according to tbe commonly received and well-established rules of interpretation, the ideas attached to the leading terms and sentences found in the Holy Scriptures, and then to use the words of the Holy Spirit in the apostolic acceptation of thrm.
By thus expressing the ideas communicated by the Holy Spirit, in the terms and phrases learned from the apostles, and by avoiding the artificial and technical language of scholastic theology, they propose to restore a pure speech to the household of faith; and. by accustoming the family of Cod to use the language and dialect of the Heavenly Father, they expect to promote the sanetificalion of one another through the truth, and to terminate those discords and debates which have always originated from the words which man's wisdom tenches, and from a reverential regard and esteem for the style of the great masters of polemic divinity; believing that speaking the same things in the same style, is the only certain way to thinking the same things.
They make a very marked difference between faith and opinion; between the testimony of God and th*» reasonings of in« n; tin; words of the Spirit and human inferences. Faith in the testimony of God, and obedience to tho commandments of Jesus, .-ire their bond of union, and not an agreeinent in any abstract views or opinions upon what i* written or spoken by divine authority. Hence all the speculations, questions, debates of words, and abstract reasonings, found in hum-in creeds, have no place in their religious fellowship. Regarding Calvinism and Artiilnianism, Trinitarianism and I'nitarianism, and all the opposing theories of religious sectaries, as rxtremrs begotten by each other, they cautiously avoid them, as equidistant from the simplicity and practical tendency of the promises and precepts, of the doctrine and facts, of the exhortations and precedents, of the Christian Institution.
They look for unity of spirit and the bonds of peace in the practical acknowledgment of one faith, one Lord, one immersion, one hope, one l>odv, one Spirit, one Cod and Father of all; not In unity of opinions nor in unity of forms, ceremonies, or modes of worship. 9
The Holy Scriptures of both Testaments they regard as containing revelations from God, and ns all necewiry to make the man of God perfect, and accomplished for every good word and work; the New Testament, or thr living oracles of Jesus Christ, ihey understand ns containing the Christian religion ; the testimonies of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, they view as illustrating and proving the great proposition on which our religion rests, viz., that Jesus id" Nazareth is the Messiah, the only Itegotten and wellbeloved Am of God, and the only Saviour of the world; the Acis of the Apostles as a divinely authorized nsrrative of the beginning and progress of ihe reign fir kingdom of Jesus Christ, recording the full development of the gospel by the Holy Spirit sent down from heaven, and the procedure of the apostles in setting up the Churrh of Christ on earth; the Epistles as carrying out and applying the doctrine of the apostles to the practire of individuals and congregations, and as developing the tendencies of the gospel in the behavior of its professors; and all as forming a complete standard of Christian faith nnd morals, adapted to the Interval between the ascension of Christ and his return with the kingdom which he has received from God; the Apocalypse, or Revelation of Je<us Christ to John, In Paimm, as a figurative and prospective view of all the fortunes of Christianity, from its date to the return of the Saviour.
Every one who sincerely believes the testimony which God gave of Jesus ol" Nazareth, saying, "This Is my Son. the beloved, in whom I delight" or, in other words, believes what the evangelists and apostles have testified concerning him, from his conception to bis coronation in heaven as Lord of all, and who is willing to obey him in every thin?, they regard as n proper subject of immersion, and no one ef*cThcy consider immersion into the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, after a public, sincere, and Intelligent confession of the faith in Jesus, as necessary to admission to the privileges of the kingdom o/ the Messiah, and as a solemn pledge, on the part of Heaven, of the actual remission of all post sins, and of adoption into the family of God.
The Holy Spirit is promised only to those who believe and obey the Savionr. No one is taught to expect the reception of that heavenly Monitor and Comforter, as a resident in his bean, till he obeys the gospel.
Thus, while they proclaim faith and repentance, or fnith and a change of heart, as preparatory to immersion, remission, and the Holy Spirit, they say to all penitent-*, or all those who believe and repent of their sins, as Peter said to the first audience addressed after the Holy Spirit was bestowed, after the prtorfl.i 'tin in of Jesus, "Be immersed, every Ulie of you, in Die name of the Lord Jesus, for the remission of sins, and you shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit." They leach sinners that God commands all men, everywhere, to reform, or turn to God; that the Holy Spirit strives with them, so to do, by the apostles and prophets; that God beseeches them to be reconciled, through Jesus Christ; and that it is the duty of all men to believe the gospel, and turn to God.
The immersed believers are congregated into societies, according to their propinquity to each other, and taught to meet every first day of the week, in honor and commemoration of the resurrection of Jeans, and to break the loaf, which commemorates the death of the Son of God, to read and hear the living oracles, to teach and admonish one another, to unite in all prayer and praise, to contribute to the necessities of saints, and to perfect holiness in the fear of the Lord.
Every congregation chooses Its own overseers and deacons, who preside over and administer the affairs of the congregations; and every church, either from Itself, or in cooperation with others, sends oat, u opportunity oners, one or more evangelists, or proclainiersof the word, to prenrh the word, and to immerse those who believe, to gather congregations, and toextend the knowledge of salvation where it is necessary, as far as their means allow. But every church regards these evangelists as its servants; and, therefore, they have no control over any congregation, each congregation being subject to its own choice of presi dents or elders, whom they have appointed. Perseverance in all the work of faith, labor of love, and patience of hope, is inculcated, by all the disciples, as essential to admission into the heavenly kingdom.
Such are the prominent outlines of the faith and practices of those who wish to be known as the Disciples of Christ; but no society among them would agree to make the preceding items either a confession of faith or a standard of practice, but, for the information of those who wish an acquaintance with them, are willing to give, at any time, a reason for their faith, hope, and practice.
View of WelUburgt Brooke County.
Wellsburg, the seat of justice for the county, is beautifully situated on the Ohio River, 337 miles from Richmond and 10 above Wheeling. It is a thriving, business place, and contains 9 mercantile stores, 2 academies, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist, 1 Christian Baptist, and 1 Episcopal church, 1 white flint-glass works, 1 glass-cutting establishment, 1 paper-mill, 1 large cotton factory, 2 extensive potteries, 1 steam saw-mill, 5 large warehouses, 1 newspaper printingoifice, 6 extensive flouring-mills in it and the vicinity, 1 woollen factory, a branch of the N. W. Va. Bank, and a population of over 2.000. Inexhaustible beds of stone-coal abound on all sides of the place, which is furnished at a few cents per bushel to the numerous manu
factories located here. About 50,000 barrels of flour are annually exported from here to New Orleans, in steam and flat boats.
Wellsburg was laid out in 1789, by Charles Prather, the original proprietor, from whom it was named Charleston. There being two other towns in the state of a similar name, it was afterwards changed to its present name from Alexander Wells, who built a flour warehouse at the point, the first ever erected on the Ohio. The first settlers came before the revolution: they were three brothers, Isaac, George, and Friend Cox, who built a fort, as a protection against the Indians, about a mile above the village. Most of the early settlers were from New England. The inhabitants in the town and vicinity, at an early date, whose names are. recollected, were Wm. M'Farland, Capt. Oliver Brown, Capt. Samuel Brown, Dr. Joseph and Philip Dodridge, James and Thomas Marshall, Major M'Mahon, who was killed in Wayne's campaign, Samuel Brady, the famous Indian hunter, James and Hezekiah GruTeth, Isaac Reeves, and James Perry. About a mile below town, on the river, at a place now called Indian Side, a Mrs. Buskirk was killed and scalped by the Indians. The Mingo tribe of Indians had a settlement three miles above Wellsburg, on the opposite side of the river.
Philip Dodridge, who died at Washington, in 1832, while a member of Congress, was from Wellsburg. He was scarcely less celebrated in western Virginia, for his eloquence and splendid talents, than was Patrick Henry, in his day, in the oldest portions of the state. Dr. S. P. Hildreth, in the American Pioneer, has given the subjoined sketch:
Mr. Dodridge, aa is well known to the early inhabitants of western Pennsylvania and Virginia, was for many years one of the most noted men in that region, for his splendid talents at the bar; and has probably never been excelled, if he has been equalled, for his discrimination in fathoming the depths of an intricate case, or his powerful and logical reasoning in unfolding it. His father was among the earliest settlers of northwestern Virginia, in the vicinity of what was then called Charleston, but now Wellsburg. His constitution being not very robust, at the age of sixteen or eighteen years he was taken from the plough, put to school, and commenced the study of Latin. His vigorous mind drank in knowledge with the rapidity of thought, or as a dry sponge absorbs Water. It soon became a habit with him to exercise his memory, in changing the common conversation around him into the idiom of his studies; and following his father in his evening and morning devotions, he soon learned to render his prayers into very good Latin, and to converse with his teacher fluently. This close application to his books, although it invigorated his mental powers, yet enfeebled his body, and it became necessary for a while to suspend his studies. At this period, the region in which he lived had become so much improved as to afford considerable surplus produce beyond the wants of the inhabitants, the only market for which was to bo found on the Mississippi River of at New Orleans. Some of his cousins, young men of his own age, having loaded a boat with flour, invited him to go with them, and recruit his enfeebled frame by a voyage to the south. Nothing very interesting occurred until they reached Natchez, at that time in the possession of the Spaniards. They were very strict in their police, forbidding any strangers or boatmen to go up into the town, seated on a high bluff, without a written permission from the commandant or governor of the place. Young Dodridge feeling the ill effects of confinement to the narrow limits of the boat, and that he needed exercise, determined to take a walk and visit the town on the hill. He had ascended about half way, when he was met by a well-dressed man, who accosted him in the Spanish language. Dodridge did not fully understand him, but thought it similar to the Latin, and answered him in that tongue. It so happened that the individual who addressed, him was no less a personage than the governor of Natchez, and was vrett versed in the Lutin, having been liberally educated in Spain. They soon fell into a very familiar and animated discourse, without Philip's once suspecting the station of his new acquaintance. Learning that he had visited the Mississippi country on account of his delicate health, and that he was now walking for exercise, after long confinement to the boat, and withal astonished and delighted to have discovered so learned a man in an up-country boatman, he invited him to his house. The sprightly wit and uncommon intellect of the young stranger soon won his whole heart, and interested the Spanish commandant deeply in his welfare. His admiration was not the less excited, from having pointed out to him on a large map of the western country, which hung against the wall, the spot near the head of the Ohio Kiver, where he was born, and from whence he departed on the present voyage. While thus agreeably engaged, a black servant drove up to the door with a neat Spanish carriage and pair of horses, accompanied with an invitation from the governor to step in and ride as far as he pleased. With many thanks, not the less acceptable to his benefactor from their being clothed in the Latin tongue, Philip accepted the offered kindness, and extended his ride to some distance around the suburbs of Natchez. When about to depart, he was i:ivitcd to cull everv day as long as he remained, and the carriage and servant should be ready for his service. This pleasing intercourse was continued for about a week; and when he finally took his leave, the governor gave him letters of introduction to several of the first men in New Orleans, accompanied with many flattering expressions of his admiration for his uncommon acquirements, and the pleasure his acquaintance had afforded him; thus demonstrating the homage that is ever paid by the wise and good to learning and worth, even when accompanied with poverty and among strangers. His companions looked with wonder and astonishment at the gracious reception and attention paid to their cousin by the governor, while they were barely allowed to step on shore, and not suffered to leave the vicinity of the landing. Philip laughingly told them it was all owing to his good looks, which they could hardly believe, as in this particular they were decidedly superior to their cousin. On reaching New Orleans, his letters procured him ready admission to the tables and the society of the most prominent men in the city; and the few weeks he staid there were passed in a round of amusements, freely bestowed by the hospitable Spaniards. At his departure they loaded him with their good wishes and assurances, that they should never forget his name, or the pleasure they had received from the brilliant sallies of his humor and wit.
The Rev. Dr. Joseph Dodridge, a brother of the above, was an Episcopal clergyman, in Wellsburg. He was the author of the work, entitled, " Notes on the settlement and Indian Wars of the western parts of Virginia and Pennsylvania, from the year 1763" until the year 1783, inclusive, together with a view of the state of society and manners of the first settlers of that country." From this interesting and graphic volume, we have, in our work, made several extracts. We here present the reader with his description of the weddings among the early pioneers:
For a long time after the first settlement of this country, the inhabitants in general married young. There was no distinction of rank, and very little of fortune. On these accounts the first impression of love resulted in marriage; and a family establishment cost but a little labor, and nothing else. A description of a wedding, from the beginning to the end, will serve to show the manners of our forefathers, and mark the grade of civilization which has succeeded to their rude state of society in the course of a few years. At an early period, the practice of celebrating the marriage at the house of the bride began, and, it should seem, with great propriety. She also had the choice of the priest to perform the ceremony.
A wedding engaged the attention of a whole neighborhood; and the frolic was anticipated by old and young with eager expectation. This is not to be wondered at, when it is told that a wedding was almost the only gathering which was not accompanied with the labor of reaping, log-rolling, building a cabin, or planning some scout or campaign.
In the morning of the wedding-day, the groom and his attendants assembled at the house of his father, for the purpose of reaching the mansion of his bride by noon, which