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5. L'UN ET L'AUTRE, both, governs the verb in the plural: and when l'un is preceded by a preposition, that preposition must be repeated before l'autre. Ex. L'un et l'autre ont raison ; both are right. Je rends justice à l'un et à l'autre ; I do justice to both.
6. Ni L'UN NI L'AUTRE always requires ne before the verb ; and as it implies two subjects, whenever both have concurred in the action expressed by the verb, that verb must be put in the plural. Ex. Ni l'un ni l'autre ne PURENT they, neither of them, could
le corrompre ; 7. But if, on the contrary, the action can fall on one subject only, the verb must be in the singular. Ex. Ni l'un ni P'autre ne sera neither of them will be apnommé ;
8. The same observation is applicable to substantives united by the conjunction ni, repeated before two or more substantives, which are the subjects of one verb. Ex. Ni la grandeur ni la richesse neither grandeur nor wealth
ne nous RENDENT heureux ; make us happy 9. When neither is governed in English by a preposition, that preposition must be repeated, in French, after each of the conjunctions ni. Ex. Je n'ai parlé ni à l'un ni à l'autre; I have spoken to neither.
On, signifying one, people, we, they, some one.
10. The English pronouns above enumerated may, when they are used in a vague or indefinite sense, be elegantly rendered in French by the pronoun on, which always governs the verb in the third person singular. Ex.
On frappe à la porte ;
some one knocks at the door.
11. On, like every other pronoun, must be repeated before every verb of which it is the subject. Ex. On joua, on chanta, Et l'on they played, sang, and danced dansa toute la nuit ;
all night. 12. L'on is used instead of on after the words et, si, ou, and où. Ex.
Dites-moi où l'on va ; tell me where they are going. Demandez si l'on vient ; ask if any body is coming.
13. But even after any of the words above-mentioned, on must be preferred to l'on, before the pronouns le, la, les, leur, lui. Ex.
Si on le lui donne ;
if it is given him.
14. It must be recollected that, as on requires the singular, all the words which it governs or which relate to it, must be in the singular in French, though they may be in the plural in English. Ex. Quand ON PERD sa réputation, when men have lost their reputaON CROIT tout perdu ;
tion, they consider every thing lost.
QUELQUE QUE, whatever, however, fc. 15. When the English words however, howsoever, &c. occur before an adjective or a participle, they must be rendered in French by quelque, undeclined, before the adjective, and que before the verb, which must be in the subjunctive. Ex. Quelque grandes que soient however great may be your vos fautes ;
faults. 16. If the English word whatever be placed before a substantive, it must be rendered in French by quelque, if the substantive be singular, and quelques if it be plural, the verb being also in the subjunctive, and governed by que.
whatever faults you may
have ayez commises ;
17. But if whatever be placed before a verb, it must be rendered by quel que or quelle que for the singular, and quels que, quelles que for the plural, according to the gender and number of the substantive to which it relates, taking care not to write the pronoun in one word, as before (quelque), but in two, as above (quel que). Ex. QUELLES QUE soient vos fautes; whatever be your
18. When whatever can, in English, be changed into all that which, every thing which, it must be rendered in French by tout ce qui and tout ce que ; by the former, if the English pronoun which be the subject of the following verb, and by the latter (tout ce que), if it be the object. Ex. Il fait tout ce qui est né- he does whatever (or, all that cessaire ;
which) is requisite. Il fera tout CE QUE vous
he will do whatever (or, every voudrez ;
Tout, quite, entirely, fc.
TOUT-QUE, although, however, fc. 19. Tout, preceding an adjective immediately followed by que, is declined only before adjectives, used in the feminine gender and beginning with a consonant or with an h aspirated. Ex.
Tout savans qu'ils sont, ils learned as they are, they somese trompent quelquefois ;
times err. Toute belle qu'est cette dame, though that lady is handsome, elle ne me plait pas ;
she does not please me.
20. If several adjectives occur in the sentence, tout must be repeated before every one.
Ex. Tout riche et tout grand que rich and great as you are, be
vous êtes, soyez modeste ; modest.
QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION.
ON THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
What are indefinite pronouns?
What is the difference between l'un l'autre and l'un et l'autre ?
When l'un l'autre is governed by a preposition, where is that preposition placed in French ?
When is the verb put in the singular, and when in the plural, after ni l'un ni l'autre ?
What signification has the pronoun on ?
How is the English word however rendered when it occurs before an adjective ?
How is whatever rendered when before a substantive ?
How is it rendered in French when it can be turned in English into all that which ?
When is tout declinable, and when is it not?
EXERCISES ON THE INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
1. EXERCISE ON RULES 1 AND 2, P. 82.
Your brother has lost his books ; shall I give him others ?
perdu —I doubt whether any other could act with (so much) doute
que quelque pût agir autant de simplicity as you do.—As you have broken my penknife, que ca Comme
cassé canif, m. you (shall give) me another.-Other people's opinions donnerez (82—2)
sentiment, m. are not the rule of mine.-Do not speak ill of other règle, f.
parlez mal people, if you (will have nobody speak) ill of you.
voulez que personne ne parle
Always remember that principle of natural law; souvenez-vous de
principe, m. naturel loi, f. (do not do) to others what you (would not wish) that ne faites pas (they should do to you.—What are other people's troubles, on fît
peine, f. if (we compare them) with ours? si nous les comparons
II. EXERCISE ON RULES 3, AND 4, p. 82.
Fire and water destroy one another.-My cousins
se détruisent cannot bear each other. Love one another *, said our ne peuvent se souffrir Aimez-vous
dit Lord to his disciples. — The seasons follow one another Seigneur disciple.
saison, f. se suivent without interruption.-Rogues always mistrust one an
se défient de other. --They do justice to one another.-It is rare to se rendent
rare de hear two authors speak well of one another.--Multientendre auteur dire du bien
Multiplication teaches to multiply two numbers by each plication, f. enseigne à multiplier
nombre, m. par other.—The columns were close against one another.
colonne, f. étaient serrées contre
III. EXERCISE ON RULES 5-9, P. 83.
Both serve to the same purpose.—My father and mother
servent même usage, m. set off last week for the country; but (both of them) are partirent campagne, f.
sont already returned ; and both intend to stay in town all déjà
se proposent de rester en the winter.— I called on your cousins, and I heard that
hiver, m. ai passé chez cousine, f.
ai appris que
Observe that as the number of our Lord's disciples was not limited to two, you cannot translate one another by l'un l'autre, but by les uns les autres.