« PreviousContinue »
or women whom we
keep and reward for the ser
nourissons récompensons vices which they do
de la guerre,
II. EXERCISE ON RULES 5-7, P. 74 AND 75. A sovereign who fears God, who respects his laws, and Le craint
lois, causes them (to be) respected ; who, an enemy to war, fait
respecter ; loves peace and maintains it in his dominions; who always
état ; has the good of his people at heart, should, if possible,
bien, m. son peuple à cæur, devrait, s'il était possible, be immortal.—God, who has created us, who (every day) immortel.
tous les jours grants us new benefits, commands us to love him.-The accorde (16—2) bienfait, m. commande de trade to which you apply,
and the profession commerce, m. vous vous appliquez
profession, f. to which he is devoted, are very honourable.---(Is that) dévoué,
Est-ce là the horse for which you gave
a hundred guineas ?
avez donné Lying is a vice for which young people ought to have Mensonge, m.
gens doivent the greatest horror.—The table upon which you write is horreur, f. table, f.
écrivez broken. The reasons upon which you ground your raison, f.
appuyez system are satisfactory.--Charity, the exercise (of which) systéme, m. satisfaisant.
pratique?, f. dont 1 is so often commanded in the Holy Scriptures, is one of the recommandé
Ecriture, noblest virtues.
cassée, p. p.
III. EXERCISE ON RULES 8—10, P. 76.
parlez —The sacred religion of which you (so boldly) attack saint religion, f.
the principles, has been sealed (by the) blood of its divine
principe été scellée du founder.—Do you know of what your sister complains ? fondateur. a
se plaint -Could you tell me of what he is guilty ?-(There is) Pourriez dire
Il n'y a nothing for which he is not fit.-The town to which he is quoi
propre. gone is precisely the same place through which we passed allé précisément même place, f. par
passames in (coming up) to London.—(This is) the door through venant
Voici which the thieves came into the house. The prison in
voleur entrèrent dans which they
used to shut up the prisoners has on avait coutume de renfermer prisonnier been demolished. été détruite.
INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. There are five of these pronouns, which, as their name implies, serve to ask questions; they are qui, quoi, que, quel, and lequel. Qui, who, and whom, is used only when speaking of per
whom do you seek ?
of whom do you speak ? Que and quoi are used when speaking of things ; and quoi is always preceded by a preposition. Ex. Que voulez-vous ?
what do you want ? De quoi parlez-vous ? what are you speaking of ? Quel is always followed by the noun to which it relates, and with which it agrees in gender and number. Ex.
Quels livres choisissez-vous ? what books do you choose ?
dire ? Lequel is generally used to distinguish one out of several
objects of the same nature, and agrees with it in gender and number. Ex. Laquelle de ces gravures pré- which of these engravings do férez-vous ?
EXERCISE ON THE INTERROGATIVE
Whom should you choose for your bosom friend ?-Ten devez choisir
de confiancea ami'? Dir people are invited to dinner at your father's; who are personnes invitées
chez they ? —Who was the first king of France ? Pharamond,
fut (according to the opinion of the most creditable histosuivant
digne de foi rians*. -Who can give credit to a young man who does
peut ajouter foi, f. not speak the truth?—Of whom (were you speaking) when dit vérité, f.
parlez-vous I came in ?-To whom did you lend my slate?—Whom do suis entré ?
prêté ardoise, f. you seek ?—Who told it to you ?--From whom do you
cherchez? know it ?—What (are you doing)?—What do you say
dites? What do
you ask of me?-One of your cousins is arrived demandeza
cousin, m. arrivé from the continent; which is it ?--An aunt of yourst
continent, m. est-ce?
last week; which was it?-I have heard était malade dernière la semaine, f.
ouï dire that two horses of yours I were lost; tell me which.
étaient perdus ; dites My brother writes to me that two of your sisters (are going) écrit
vont to learn French; which are they?
apprendre le Français ;
* Turn, of the historians the most creditable.
OF INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
These pronouns are called indefinite, because they only serve to denote persons and things in a vague and indeterminate manner.
Many of them, being invariable, will require no observation, and rules will only be given regarding those which offer peculiar difficulties.
The indefinite pronouns are :
aucun, aucune, autre, autrui, chacun, chacun, chacune, chaque, l'un l'autre, les uns-les autres, l'un et l'autre, l'un ou l'autre, ni l'un ni l'autre, nul, nul, nulle,
none, no one, not one, not any other, any other. other, other people. every one, every body. every one, each. every, each. one another, each other. some-others, some-some. both. either. neither. no one, nobody. none, not one. one, people, they.
none, not one. Snobody, none, no one, any one,
any body. most. many, several. whatever. some, any. something, anything. whosoever, whatsoever, what
ever, however, howsoever, though, &c.
pas un, pas une,
personne, la plupart de—des, plusieurs, quelconque, quelque, quelque chose, quelque-que, quel que, m. quelle que, f. qui que ce soit qui or que, quoi que, quoi que ce soit que, tout ce qui or que, quelqu'un, quelqu'un, quelqu'une, quiconque,
some one, somebody. some, any. whoever, anybody.
qui que ce soit, ou fút,
or that, &c.
1. AUTRE, another, any other, which is considered as a pronoun, whenever it is not joined to a substantive or accompanied by the pronoun en, is generally preceded by tout or un.
2. But when autre is joined to a substantive or accompanied by the pronoun en, it is an adjective, and en, which supplies in French the place of some antecedent word understood, must be placed immediately before the word which governs another or others. Thus we translate, This pen is not good, give him another, by Cette plume n'est pas bonne, donnez-lui En une AUTRE; that is, another of them, or another
Laissez ces livres, et prenez leave those books, and take EN ď'AUTRES ;
some others (of them).
3. L'UN L'AUTRE, one another, each other, in which the article un is declined, is used in speaking of persons and of things. Ex.
Ils se haïssent LES UNS LES AUTRES ; they hate one another.
4. When this pronoun is governed by a preposition, that preposition must not, as in English, be placed before the two words of which this pronoun is composed, but between them. Ex.
Ils parlent mal l'un de l'autre; they speak ill of one another.