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or women whom we

keep and reward for the ser

nourissons récompensons vices which they do



de la guerre,


II. EXERCISE ON RULES 5-7, P. 74 AND 75. A sovereign who fears God, who respects his laws, and Le craint

lois, causes them (to be) respected ; who, an enemy to war, fait

respecter ; loves peace and maintains it in his dominions; who always

état ; has the good of his people at heart, should, if possible,

bien, m. son peuple à cæur, devrait, s'il était possible, be immortal.—God, who has created us, who (every day) immortel.


tous les jours grants us new benefits, commands us to love him.-The accorde (16—2) bienfait, m. commande de trade to which you apply,

and the profession commerce, m. vous vous appliquez

profession, f. to which he is devoted, are very honourable.---(Is that) dévoué,

Est-ce the horse for which you gave

a hundred guineas ?

avez donné Lying is a vice for which young people ought to have Mensonge, m.

gens doivent the greatest horror.—The table upon which you write is horreur, f. table, f.

écrivez broken. The reasons upon which you ground your raison, f.

appuyez system are satisfactory.--Charity, the exercise (of which) systéme, m. satisfaisant.

pratique?, f. dont 1 is so often commanded in the Holy Scriptures, is one of the recommandé

Ecriture, noblest virtues.

cassée, p. p.

The child of which you are speaking) is my youngest son.

parlez —The sacred religion of which you (so boldly) attack saint religion, f.

si hardimentattaquez


ne soit

the principles, has been sealed (by the) blood of its divine

principe été scellée du founder.—Do you know of what your sister complains ? fondateur. a

se plaint -Could you tell me of what he is guilty ?-(There is) Pourriez dire

coupable ?

Il n'y a nothing for which he is not fit.-The town to which he is quoi

propre. gone is precisely the same place through which we passed allé précisément même place, f. par

passames in (coming up) to London.—(This is) the door through venant

Voici which the thieves came into the house. The prison in

voleur entrèrent dans which they

used to shut up the prisoners has on avait coutume de renfermer prisonnier been demolished. été détruite.



INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS. There are five of these pronouns, which, as their name implies, serve to ask questions; they are qui, quoi, que, quel, and lequel. Qui, who, and whom, is used only when speaking of per

Qui cherchez-vous ?

whom do you seek ?
De qui parlez-vous ?

of whom do you speak ? Que and quoi are used when speaking of things ; and quoi is always preceded by a preposition. Ex. Que voulez-vous ?

what do you want ? De quoi parlez-vous ? what are you speaking of ? Quel is always followed by the noun to which it relates, and with which it agrees in gender and number. Ex.

Quels livres choisissez-vous ? what books do you choose ?
Quelle personne voulez-vous what person do you mean?

dire ? Lequel is generally used to distinguish one out of several

objects of the same nature, and agrees with it in gender and number. Ex. Laquelle de ces gravures pré- which of these engravings do férez-vous ?

you prefer?




Whom should you choose for your bosom friend ?-Ten devez choisir

de confiancea ami'? Dir people are invited to dinner at your father's; who are personnes invitées

chez they ? —Who was the first king of France ? Pharamond,

fut (according to the opinion of the most creditable histosuivant

digne de foi rians*. -Who can give credit to a young man who does

peut ajouter foi, f. not speak the truth?—Of whom (were you speaking) when dit vérité, f.

parlez-vous I came in ?-To whom did you lend my slate?—Whom do suis entré ?

prêté ardoise, f. you seek ?—Who told it to you ?--From whom do you

cherchez? know it ?—What (are you doing)?—What do you say


dites? What do

you ask of me?-One of your cousins is arrived demandeza

cousin, m. arrivé from the continent; which is it ?--An aunt of yourst

continent, m. est-ce?

last week; which was it?-I have heard était malade dernière la semaine, f.

ouï dire that two horses of yours I were lost; tell me which.

étaient perdus ; dites My brother writes to me that two of your sisters (are going) écrit

vont to learn French; which are they?

apprendre le Français ;

a dit


was ill

* Turn, of the historians the most creditable.
+ Turn, one of your aunts. # Turn, two of your horses.


These pronouns are called indefinite, because they only serve to denote persons and things in a vague and indeterminate manner.

Many of them, being invariable, will require no observation, and rules will only be given regarding those which offer peculiar difficulties.

The indefinite pronouns are :

aucun, aucune, autre, autrui, chacun, chacun, chacune, chaque, l'un l'autre, les uns-les autres, l'un et l'autre, l'un ou l'autre, ni l'un ni l'autre, nul, nul, nulle,

none, no one, not one, not any other, any other. other, other people. every one, every body. every one, each. every, each. one another, each other. some-others, some-some. both. either. neither. no one, nobody. none, not one. one, people, they.

none, not one. Snobody, none, no one, any one,

any body. most. many, several. whatever. some, any. something, anything. whosoever, whatsoever, what

ever, however, howsoever, though, &c.


pas un, pas une,

personne, la plupart dedes, plusieurs, quelconque, quelque, quelque chose, quelque-que, quel que, m. quelle que, f. qui que ce soit qui or que, quoi que, quoi que ce soit que, tout ce qui or que, quelqu'un, quelqu'un, quelqu'une, quiconque,

{ whowhateverwhosoever

, nobody


whatever, whatsoever.

some one, somebody. some, any. whoever, anybody.

qui que ce soit, ou fút,
quoique ce soit, ou fût,
tel, telle,
tel qui, m.
telle qui, f.


nothing, anything.
such a one, such.
such as he, she, they, who,

or that, &c.
every, every thing.
as—as ; although, however,

{aS &c.

1. AUTRE, another, any other, which is considered as a pronoun, whenever it is not joined to a substantive or accompanied by the pronoun en, is generally preceded by tout or un.


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2. But when autre is joined to a substantive or accompanied by the pronoun en, it is an adjective, and en, which supplies in French the place of some antecedent word understood, must be placed immediately before the word which governs another or others. Thus we translate, This pen is not good, give him another, by Cette plume n'est pas bonne, donnez-lui En une AUTRE; that is, another of them, or another



Laissez ces livres, et prenez leave those books, and take EN ď'AUTRES ;

some others (of them).

3. L'UN L'AUTRE, one another, each other, in which the article un is declined, is used in speaking of persons and of things. Ex.

Ils se haïssent LES UNS LES AUTRES ; they hate one another.

4. When this pronoun is governed by a preposition, that preposition must not, as in English, be placed before the two words of which this pronoun is composed, but between them. Ex.

Ils parlent mal l'un de l'autre; they speak ill of one another.

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