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to pray for those who persecute us.-Of all virtues that

qui persécutent which most distinguishes a Christian is charity. This qui le plus distingue?

c'est book and that which I lent you are the two best.—Those

que ai prétés3 vous! who

to be happy are not always so. qui paraissent être






Puis-je savoir




IV. EXERCISE ON RULES 8 AND 9, P. 70 AND 71. I know what has happened.-Do you know what I think? sais

est arrivé. -This pleases me; that frightens me.—May I know what

fait peur your grief,

and sadness ?-Your father has

chagrin, m. tristesse, f. (a great) friendship for you; for he never refuses beaucoup

ne jamais refuse you what you ask of him. You seem much demandez an lui.

paraissez bien dejected ; tell me what vexes you.—Go and tell my dites-moi fâche

Allez a dire à mon father what has passed here ; and do not forget what you s'est passé ici ;

oubliez have seen and what you have heard.--Give me this, and

entendu. take that. I prefer this to that. prenez


abattu ;


The relative pronoun is that which relates to a noun or pronoun previously expressed, which is called the antecedent. There are in French six relative pronouns :

qui, who, which, or that,
que, whom, which, or that.
lequel, which
dont, whose, of whom, of which, from whom, from which.
quoi, what.
, d'où, par , in which, from which, through which.



to you.

1. Qui, which is used for either gender or number, may, when it is not preceded by a preposition, relate to persons and things, and is the subject, or nominative, of the verb. Ex.

L'homme qui vous parlait ; the man who was speaking Les arbres Qui croissent dans. the trees which grow in your votre jardin ;

garden. 2. Que, which may also relate either to persons or things, is the object, or accusative, of the verb. Ex. Le Dieu que j'adore ;

the God whom I adore. Les livres QUE je lis ;

the books which I read.

3. The pronouns whom, which, 'that, are frequently understood in English, but must always be expressed in French. Ex.

L'enfant que vous aimez tant;

the child you love so much.

4. Moreover, the relative pronouns qui and que must be repeated in French before every verb, though expressed only before the first verb in English. Ex. Le Dieu QUE nous aimons et the God whom we love and QUE nous adorons ;



5. It is a general rule that the relative pronoun should be placed immediately after its antecedent, in order to avoid ambiguity. When, from the nature of the sentence, that is not possible, and the use of qui or que, common to both genders and numbers, might leave a doubt as to the substantive to which they relate, the English relative pronoun must be rendered by lequel, which can leave no doubt as to its antecedent, as it must agree with it. in gender and number. Lequel is thus declined :

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6. As has been observed above, lequel is used, instead of qui or que, only when the use of qui or que might create ambiguity. Ex. Dieu qui a créé le ciel et la God who created heaven and terre;


In the above sentence, qui following immediately its antecedent Dieu, there can be no doubt as to the word to which it relates ; and to say Dieu LEQUEL would, therefore, be improper. But, in the following sentence, C'est un effet de la bonté de la It is an effect of the good

divine Providence, LEQUEL ness of divine Providence, attire l'admiration de tout which (effect) commands le monde ;

the admiration of all ; had qui been used, coming, as it would have done, immediately after Providence, it would have appeared as relating to that last substantive, and not to its real antecedent, effet ; but by using lequel, which is masculine, like effet, there cannot be any ambiguity.

7. Whenever the English pronoun which, relating to animals or to inanimate objects, is preceded by a preposition, it must not be rendered in French by qui or que, but by lequel, duquel, &c. Ex. Le chevel AUQUEL il donne à the horse to which he is boire m'appartient ;

giving some drink belongs

to me. La table sur LAQUELLE vous the table upon which you are écrivez;




8. Dont, which may relate to persons and to things, is used instead of duquel, de laquelle, desquels, which can never be used immediately after the substantive to which they relate.

Les livres dont vous parlez ; the books of which you speak. Ces dames DONT con- those ladies, whose amiable naissez les aimables qualités ; qualities you know.

QUOI, où, d'où, PAR Oų. 9. Quoi, meaning the thing which, can of course never be used when speaking of persons, and is always preceded by a preposition. Ex. Dites-moi À QUOI vous pensez; tell me what you are thinking

of. Je ne sais DE QUOI vous vous I do not know of what you plaignez ;

complain. 10. , d'où, par , which signify where, in which, to which, from which, through which, always relate to inanimate objects. Ex. Voilà la maison il est ; this is the house in which he

was born. Dans les villes PAR Où vous in the cities through which avez passé ;

you came.



What are relative pronouns?
How many are there in French ?
When is qui used, and when que ?

Which of these two pronouns is used as the subject, or nominative, and which as the object, or accusative, of the verb ?

Can the relative pronoun be omitted in French ?
How often must it be repeated ?

When should lequel be used instead of qui ?
When should dont be used instead of duquel, &c. ?
When is quoi used ?
In what sense are , d'où, and • par

ou used ?


1. EXERCISE ON RULES 1–4, P. 74.

camp, m.

I know a man who is to go) and see the camp.-I have connais

doit aller read the letter you have sent me.-The lady of whom lu


dame your speak is not handsome.—The person to whom I parlez


f. wrote last year has answered me this morning.--He écrivis passée? [ année!, f. répondu

matin, m. Celui who was with you related to me (every thing) that had était a raconté

tout ce

qui s'était passed.—She will not hear of the lady whom he passé.

veut entendre parler (is going) to marry.-Who was with you? It was a genon épouser. était avec

Ce tleman whose name I know not *, -The man whom I sieur

sais sent to you was honest.—The man who caresses and



nom, m.

ai envoyé


flatters us is the most dangerous being I know.—The letflatte

plus (32-3) être que je connaisse. ters which you have written and shown me were tolerably écrites montrées

passablement well written.—The woman, to whom I have lent so much femme, f.

prété money, and spoken of so often, is dead.-Servants are men parlé

mort. Domestiques

* Turn the sentence thus : of whom I know not the name.

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