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dit que

ce que


(is not) so tall as my nephew.—Her brother says that he n'est pas grand will not refuse you what you

ask of him.-Dear refusera

demandez a lui father, pray forgive me -My ambition is the only de grâce pardonnez

ambition, f.

seul cause of my imprudence.--I have seen your father, mocause,

f. imprudence, f. ai ther, brothers, and sisters.—Her affection for

me is

affection, f. pour false.—Good night, cousin ; I hope that you will soon faur. soir, m. espère

bientôt (to see my

country-house and gardens.--Your viendrezl voir de campagne maison? horses and carriage are very beautiful ; but the queen's cheval, m. carrosse, m.

beau horses and carriage much so.-Mother, where beaucoup plus

Maman is my sister ?






Your daughter is handsomer than mine, but mine has fille

beau more wit than yours.—Her house is more convenient esprit, m.

commode than ours; but is not so well situated as theirs.—This

situé hat is mine and not yours; but this sword is yours,


cette not his.- I lost a book of mine; and a friend of yours has

ai perdu found it.--He sold me a knife ; but this knife was not frouvé vendit couteau, m.

était ais ; a friend of his had lent it to him.--Is that your broavait prété

Est-ce-ther's book ? No: it is mine.—And these pens, whose are

non pas



à qui

they? They are ours.

Ce sont


The demonstrative pronouns are so called from their pointing out, as it were, the persons or things expressed by the substantives which they precede, or to which they refer. These pronouns are used before a substantive, or instead of one, as will be seen in the following lists :

Demonstrative Pronouns used before a Substantive. MAS, SING, FEM. SING.

PLUR, MAS. and FEM. ce, cet, cette, this;



Pronouns which are always followed by de, or by a relative


[blocks in formation]

Pronouns referring to the first of several Nouns. MAS. SING. FEM. SING.

MAS. PLUR. FEM, PLUR. celui-, celle-, that ; ceux-celles-, those.

[blocks in formation]

Pronouns referring to an object, without naming it.
ceci, this;

cela, that.


1. Ce, cet, cette, and ces, are always followed by the noun which they point out, and with which they agree in gender and number. Ex. CETTE maison est bien haute,

this house is very high. 2. Cet is used only before nouns masculine, singular, beginning with a vowel or h mute. Ex. Cet homme et cet enfant vous this man and this child ask demandent,

after vou.

3. When that and those are used in English, not before a substantive, but instead of one, they must be rendered in French by celui, celle, ceux, celles, according to the gender or number of the substantive to which they relate. J'ai lu vos livres et ceux de vos I have read your books and cousins,

those of your cousins. Avez-vous

cheval et have you seen my horse and CELUI de mon frère ?

my brother's ?



4. From the last example it will be seen that when the place of the demonstrative pronoun is supplied in English by the possessive case, it must be rendered in French by the demonstrative pronoun: as, send me back my books and my brother's (i. e. those of my brother), renvoyez-moi mes livres et ceux de mon frère.

5. The particles ci, here, and là, there, are often placed after the substantive before which ce, cet, cette, or ces are used, in order to indicate more particularly the persons or things to which they refer. Ex. Je n'aime pas cette pomme-ci,

I do not like this apple. Je mangerai cette poire-LÀ,

I shall eat that pear.

6. The same particles are added, for the same purpose, to the pronouns celui, ceux, celle, and celles. Ex. De ces deux livres, il choisit of these two books

CELUI-LÀ, je prends chooses that one, and I CELUI-CI,

take this.



7. When the personal pronouns he, she, they, him, her, them, followed by the pronouns who, whom, &c., are used in English, without reference to any noun previously expressed, they must be rendered in French by the demonstrative pronoun. Ex. CELUI QUI aime Dieu aime son he who loves God, loves his prochain,

neighbour. Ceux DONT vous parlez sont they of whom you speak are absents,


8. Whenever the English pronoup what can be changed into that which, it must be rendered in French by ce qui or

ce que : by ce que, if what be the accusative; by ce qui, if it be the nominative to the verb. Ex. Je comprends ce que vous dites, I understand what (or that

which) you say. Nous savons CE QUI vous arri. we know what (or that which) vera,

will happen to you. 9. When this and that mean this thing or that thing, this must be rendered by ceci, and that by cela. Ex. Ceci est bon et cela est mau- this (thing) is good and that vais,

(thing) is bad.



What is a demonstrative pronoun ?
Mention the different classes of demonstrative pronouns.
When is cet used ?
When are celui and ceux used instead of ce and ces ?
When are ci and added to the demonstrative pronoun?

When are the English personal pronouns rendered by the demonstrative in French ?

How is what rendered when it means that which ?
How are this and that expressed when they mean this or

that thing ?



1. EXERCISE ON THE RULES 1 AND 2, P. 69. This book has made a great noise).--That history of

fait beaucoup de bruit. England is much esteemed.—The lady is my niece, and those fort admiré.

nièce two children are her sons. That man, that woman, and the se

children whom you see walking along the river

que voyez se promener le long de rivière, f. are foreigners.—Take this apricot and this orange.--See étrangers.

abricot, m.

orange, f. Voyez how those children are playing together.

jouent ensemble.




II. EXERCISE ON RULES 3 to 6, P. 70. She has brought her picture and that of her husband. apporté portrait, m.

mari I have seen the king's library and that of the queen.

bibliothèque, f. Your books and those of your sister are torn.-I have found

sont déchiré.

trouvé my hat and my brother's in the room. You may, if chapeau, m. .

chambre, f.

pouvez si take your grammar and your sister's; but voulez, prendre grammaire, f. leave mine and my friend's.—Learn this lesson ; it is not laissez

Apprenez leçon, f. so difficult as that. - I prefer this way to that road. difficile

chemin, m.

route, f. This is much larger than that.-—Which of the two chambre, f. grand

Lequel horses do you prefer, this or that ? cheval préférez-vous,

you like,


III. EXERCISE ON RULE 7, p. 70. He who supports idleness makes himself despicable.qui encourage


méprisable. She whom you saw at my brother's is not yet married. que vites chez

encore marié. You punish bim who is not guilty.-Men commonly punissex

coupable. ordinairement ? hate him whom they fear She whom you hate haïssent1 que craignent.

haïssez is my best friend.—You have punished him who did not amie, f.

puni deserve it, and rewarded her who was guilty.--We ought méritait récompensé


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