« PreviousContinue »
te, thee. il, he or it ;
lui, to him, m. le, him, it. elle, she or it ; lui, to her, f.
la, her, it. nous, we ; nous, to us;
nous, us. vous, you; vous, to you;
VOUS, you. ils, they, m.
leur, to them, m. les, them, m. elles, they, f.
leur, to them, f. les, them, f. dat. and acc. himself, herself, it-) is used with se, sing. and plur. self, themselves, to reflective mas. and fem. himself, &c.
y, to it, to them, &c. used in the dative in reference to things. en, of it, of him, of them, &c. used in the genitive, princi
pally in reference to things.
The disjunctive pronouns, governed by a preposition, are placed after the verb; they are NOM.) Moi, toi, lui, elle, soi, nous, vous, eux, m. elles, f. and I thou, he, she, oneself, we, you, they, they, me, thee, him, her,
them. To the above pronouns, même is sometimes added; as,
SINGULAR.—Moi-même, myself; toi-même, thyself; lui-même, himself ; elle-même, herself ; soi-même, oneself.
PLURAL.—Nous-mêmes, ourselves ; vous-mêmes, yourselves ; eur-mêmes, themselves, m.; elles-mêmes, themselves, f.
Of the above pronouns, se and soi are of both genders and of both numbers. Se always precedes the verb; soi always follows it, being preceded by a preposition. Soi is never used but in reference to an indefinite subject; as, chacun pense à soi, every one thinks of himself.
RULES ON THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
1. The pronouns of the first and second persons are applied only to persons or to things personified. Those of the third person are applied either to persons or things.
2. The English pronouns it and they must always, when rendered in French, assume the gender of the nouns they represent. Ex. This table is old, but it is good; cette table est vieille, mais ELLE est bonne.
3. The personal pronouns in French, whether used in the dative or the accusative case, precede the verb. Ex, Il vous aime, he loves you ; il lui parle, he speaks to him.
4. If the verb be used in the first or second person of the imperative affirmative, the pronoun follows it. Ex. Suivez-les, follow them ; dépêchons-nous, let us make haste. But if the verb be in the imperative negative, the pronoun must always precede the verb. Ex. Ne Les suivez pas, do not follow them; ne nous dépêchons pas, let us not make haste.
5. If there are several verbs in a sentence, having a pronoun for nominative, that pronoun must be repeated
before each of these verbs, if they are in different tenses. Ex.
Il est arrivé hier, et il viendra he arrived yesterday, and will nous voir demain ;
come to see us to-morrow.
6. But if they are in the same tense, the pronoun may or may not be repeated. Ex. Il arriva hier matin, et vint he arrived yesterday morning, nous voir dans la soirée ; and came to see us in the
evening 7. The pronoun must also be repeated, if, of two verbs * having a subject in common, one is used affirmatively and the other negatively. Ex. Il a promis de venir, mais il he promised to come, but did n'est pas venu ;
not. 8. But the nominative pronouns must not be repeated if the verbs are preceded by the conjunction ni, neither, nor. Ex.
Il est très-malade ; il ne mange, he is very ill ; he neither eats, ni ne boit, ni ne dort ;
drinks, nor sleeps. 9. The English pronouns I, thou, he, and they, are rendered in French by je, tu, il, and ils, when they immediately precede the verb of which they are the nominative. Ex.
Je sais qu'il est riche, I know that he is rich,
10. But the pronouns I, thou, he, they, are rendered by moi, toi, lui, eux, in answer to such questions as who is it? or who has done it ? and also when coming after it is. Ex.
Qui l'a dit. Mor; who said it ? I.
C'est lui qui a fait cela ; it was he who did that.. 11. I, thou, he, they, are also expressed by moi, toi, lui, eux, when a verb has two or more subjects; in that case; the verb must be in the plural, and it is generally governed by nous, when in the first person : see page 114, R. 32. Ex. Vous et moi nous serons bons you and I shall be good amis,
friends. (We shall be.) Mon frère et lui partiront la my brother and he will set semaine prochaine,
out next week. Vous et lui n'étiez jamais d'ac- you and he never agreed.
cord, 12. It has been said, Rule 3, p. 54, that the conjunctive pronouns, in the dative and accusative cases, are placed before the verb. Two pronouns of this kind often occur ; as, I give him to you, je vous le donne. This is the order in which the pronouns are to be placed in such cases me le, me la, me les, m'en, m’y: te le, te la, te les, t'en, t'y : nous le, nous la, nous les, nous en, nous y : vous le, vous la, vous les, vous en, vous y : le lui, la lui, l'en, l'y : les lui, les leur, les en, les y: lui en, leur en. Ex.
Nous voUS LE montrerons, we will show it you.
she will speak of it to him. Vous LEUR EN donnerez, you will give them some.
ON THE PRONOUNS EN AND Y.
En is principally used in speaking of things; it serves to express of it, of them, from it, from them, or the words some, any, either expressed or understood, referring to a noun antecedent. Ex JEN parle,
I speak of it.
I will send you some.
we nave ten.
he abstains from it.
likewise be used in reference to persons. Quant à votre soeur, nous n'en entendons pas parler, as for your
we do not hear of her.
Y means to it, to them, in speaking of things ; but is chiefly used in the sense of there, here, in reference to a place antecedently named. Ex.
Nous y mettrons un verre, we will put a glass to it.
she will be there to-morrow. 13. Y and en always are placed before the verb, except in the first and second person of the imperative affirmative. Ex. Laissez-En un peu, leave a little.
14. When these pronouns occur with others in the same sentence, they follow them, en being always the last. Ex. Il vous En demande,
for some. Je vous Y EN enverrai, I will send you some there. 15. Moi is never used before en ; but oi is cut off, as, donnez-m'en, give me some.
ON THE SUPPLYING PRONOUNS, LE, LA, LES. 16. These pronouns are often used in French, to prevent the repetition of one or more words, or to supply their place. Ex. Etes-vous la nièce de mon ami ? are you my friend's niece ? Oui, je La suis ;
Yes, I am (his niece). Il est riche, mais je ne LE suis pas, he is rich, but I am not.
17. If the word thus rendered be a substantive, le, la, or les must be used according to its gender and number. Ex. Etes-vous les enfants de mon are you my brother's children?
frère ? Oui, nous LES som- Yes, we are.
18. But if the word, thus understood, is an adjective, then le is undeclined. Ex. Elle n'est pas si riche qu'on she is not so rich as she is LE dit,
said to be (rich); Ils ne sont pas si savants qu'ils they are not so learned as LE disent,
they say (they are). 19. The objective pronouns, used in French, must be repeated before every verb. Ex. Votre fils vous aime et vous your son loves and fears craint,
QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION.
ON THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
What are pronouns ?
What is done if the pronouns, used in the same sentence, are of different persons ?
What if they are of different cases ?
and en occupy
in a sentence ? In what peculiar manner are the pronouns le, la, and les used ?
How often must the objective pronoun be repeated ?
EXERCISES ON THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
1. EXERCISE ON RULES 1 To 4, p. 53 AND 54. I love and adore the God of all goodness, who created aime adore
de bonté, f. (a créé) -We too often forget
the benefits * nous? trop3 souvent4 oublions? bienfaits que received. This picture is very old; but it is well reçus. portrait, m. ancien
bien painted.—The house which I have bought is well situated, peint
située but I assure you that it cost me much.—The books
coûte me beaucoup. * Which is understood after the word benefits ; but in this, and similar cases, it must be expressed in French, and translated by que.