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4. But cent and quatre-vingt never take the s when followed by another numeral adjective ; as, deux cENT cinquante personnes, two hundred and fifty persons ; quatreVINGT dix-sept maisons, ninety-seven houses.
5. Before onze, and the ordinal number onzième, the definite article is written, as though these words began with a consonant, and we say le onze, the eleventh ; du onzième, of the eleventh; instead of l'onze, de l'onzième, which are never used.
6. When speaking of dates, mille, thousand, is changed into mil; as, dans l'année mil huit cent trente, in the year one thousand eight hundred and thirty. In all other instances we write mille; as, deux mille hommes, two thousand
When, however, mille means a mile, it follows the rule of other substantives, and takes an s in the plural.
7. When two cardinal numbers are joined, the highest number is placed first, and the English conjunction and is not rendered in French ; thus we say trente-deux, and not deux et trente, two and thirty, &c.
8. But from twenty to eighty the conjunction et is used before un ; as, quarante-ET-UN jours, one and forty days.
9. When any of the cardinal numbers precede a participle past, they are accompanied by the preposition de. Ex. Il y en eut vingt d'absous et cinq DE condamnés, twenty of them were acquitted and five were condemned.
10. The cardinal numbers, instead of the ordinal, must be used in French when speaking of the days of the month, except the first. Ex. Le trois
de Novembre, the third of November ; le PREMIER de Mai, the first of May.
11. The preposition on, which in English precedes a date, must not be rendered in French: as, he died on the eleventh of November, il mourut le onze de Novembre, and not sur le onze, &c.
12. In speaking of sovereigns the cardinal number is used in French instead of the ordinal, and the article is omitted : as, George the Third, George Trois ; Henry the Fourth, Henri QUATRE. But the two first ordinal numbers are an exception to this rule, and we say, still omitting the article, François PREMIER, Francis the First; Charles SECOND, Charles the Second.
13. In speaking of the Emperor Charles the Fifth, and of the Pope Sixtus the Fifth, we say, Charles Quint and Sixte Quint, quint being a contraction of the Latin word quintus, fifth.
14. Besides the numeral adjectives, or nouns of number, above mentioned, there are other substantives expressive of number, such as the collective, which express a collected number; as, une douzaine, a dozen ; une vingtaine, twenty, &c. ; the distributive, which express a part of a number ; as, la moitié, the half; le quart, the fourth, &c. .. and the proportional, which express a multiplication of the number ; as, le double, the double ; le triple, the triple, &c.
QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION.
ON THE NUMERAL ADJECTIVES.
What is meant by cardinal and ordinal numbers ?
When two cardinal numbers occur together, how are they rendered in French ?
What occurs if a cardinal number precedes a participle ?
Are the cardinal or the ordinal numbers used in French when speaking of the day of the month?
Should the preposition on, which precedes a date in English, be rendered in French ?
Is the cardinal or the ordinal number used in French when speaking of sovereigns ?
How are Charles the Fifth and Sixtus the Fifth rendered in French ?
What other words expressive of number are there?
EXERCISES ON NUMERAL ADJECTIVES.
I. EXERCISE ON RULES 1-9, P. 45, 46. I was in the
company of eleven gentlemen and compagnie, f.
messieurs nine ladies.—He has spoken to three officers and two
generals.—The army of our allies was composed of a général, m. armée, f. nos allié, m. composée hundred thousand men of infantry, and of twenty thousand
infanterie, f. men of cavalry.—They took fifteen hundred men pricavalerie, f. firest
killed four thousand, wounded a thousonnier, m. en tuèrent
en blessèrent sand, and (carried away) above two millions in specie. emportèrent plus de
en espèce, f. The battle (was fought) in one thousand eight hundred
bataille, f. and fourteen, at three o'clock in the morning.--I shall be
heure, f. pl. a du matin. here (at about) eleven o'clock.— I have found a purse in ici
trouvé bourse, f. dans which (there were) one and thirty guineas, one and forty laquelle il y avait
guinée, f. crowns, and one and twenty shillings.- I saw one and fifty écu, m.
chelin, m. J'ai vu men assembled before St. James's palace.
When my assemblé devant, p. St. Jacques, m. Quand brother died he was one and thirty years old.--Mr. P.
mourut avait (will pay) me one and sixty guineas. I received yesterday paiera?' me?
reçus hier last mail one and forty letters.—The enemy dernier malle, f.
lettre, f. ennemis, pl. had one hundred men killed, seventy wounded, forty eurent
lost, and five hundred taken prisoners. perdu, P. P.
fait, p. p.
prisonnier. II. EXERCISE ON RULES 10 AND 11, P. 46. My friend will come to see us on the fifth of next viendra voira nous!
du prochain" month. Lady day* falls on the twenty-fifth of
mois', m. Notre-dame, f. jour, m. tombe March.-In the leap year the month of February has Mars, m. bissextile année!, f.
mois, m. Février, m. • Lady.day; that is to say, the day of our lady.
tué, p. P:
blessé, p. p.
one day more, which is the twenty-ninth.—Come on the de plus, qui
Venez first day of July. On the 11th of June I received Juillet, m.
Juin, m. reçus twelve letters, but the eleventh has afforded me more
a: procurés mel plus pleasure than the others. Mrs. B. is the fifth lady
Madame, f. whom I have seen to-day.--The spring begins on que
vue aujourd'hui printemps, m. commence the twenty-first or twenty-second of March.--He cannot
Mars, m. ne peut spend the sixth part of his fortune.—The eleventh of dépenser
partie, f. fortune, f. November, which is the eleventh month of the year,
année, f. the dullest day of the whole month. triste
III. EXERCISE ON RULES 12 AND 13, P. 46.
See Rule 6, on the Article, p. 14. Edward the Sixth, the son of Henry the Eighth, Edouard
fils, m. Henri and the grandson of Henry the Seventh, (was but) nine
petit-fils years old when he began to reign.--Henry the Fifth, an, m.la quand commença à régner. king of England, the son of Henry the Fourth, and father
roi, m. of Henry the Sixth, married Catharine, the daughter of
épousa Catherine, f. fille Charles the Sixth, king of France, conquered the greatest
conquit grand part of that kingdom, and died in the) midst of partie, f.
milieu his victories.—George the Fourth was son of George the ses victoire, f. George
était Third.-Charles the Fifth, king of Spain, and the Pope
Pape, m. Sixtus the Fifth, were two great men,
RECAPITULATORY EXERCISES UPON THE
Iron, steel, and brass, more useful than gold Fer, m. acier, m. cuivre, m.
utile and silver.—This house is well situated.-That church is
argent. Cette maison, f. bien situé. Cette église, f. badly built.—(That is) an ancient custom.- The study of mal bâti. C'est ancien coutume, f.
étude, f. grammar is neither so dry nor so dull as it is thought). grammaire, f. n'est ni
ni triste on se l'imagine. -This cloth is the best of all. Your brothers have Cette étoffe, f. meilleur f. pl. Vos
ont been very fortunate, and your sisters extremely unété heureux,
extrêmement malfortunate.-(There is) in the neighbourhood a forest twenty heureux. Il y a voisinage, m.
forét, f. miles long and eleven wide.—These old clothes mille, m.
Ces hardes, f. ne sont good for nothing.There is) a new fashion (every year). à rien.
Il y a
tous les ans. -Those two pictures
equal in merit.-Lewis Ces deux tableau, m. ne sont pas égal en mérite. Louis the Sixteenth was the grandson of Lewis the Fifteenth.
William, surnamed the Conqueror, one of the
Guillaume, surnomme Conquérant, m. était greatest generals of the eleventh century.-Homer was
siècle. Homère doubtless a greater genius than Virgil; but Virgil's taste sans doute
grand génie, m. Virgile ; mais goût was more delicate and more refined than Homer's fin
délicat celui d'Homère. The rose (is not) less beautiful than the tulip, though
tulipe, f. quoique the tulip be more rich.-The love of our neighbour is
soit brillant. amour du la prochain
f. n'est pas