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10. When a substantive is qualified by two or more adjectives, these adjectives must all be placed after the substantive. Ex. Une femme bonne, aimable, et à good, amiable, and virtuous
ON ADJECTIVES EXPRESSIVE OF MEASURE.
The idea of size, length, breadth, &c. is always expressed in English by an adjective; but in French it may be rendered either by a substantive or an adjective.
1. When a French adjective is used in such a case, it must be placed immediately after the substantive, and be followed by the preposition de. Ex. A table ten feet long and une table LONGUE DE dix pieds, eight broad;
et LARGE DE huit ; which may be rendered literally in English by,–A table LONG OF ten feet and BROAD OF eight.
2. But if the English adjective is expressed by a French substantive, the order of the words must be altered according to the following example: A table ten feet long and une table de dix pieds de loneight broad;
gueur, et de huit de largeur ; which may be literally rendered in English by,--A table of TEN FEET OF LENGTH and OF EIGHT OF BREADTH.
QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION.
ON THE ADJECTIVE.
What change does the adjective undergo in French?
What place does the adjective generally occupy in French ?
Name those which usually precede the substantive.
What classes of adjectives are always placed after the substantive?
Where are the adjectives placed when several qualify a substantive?
How are English adjectives, expressive of measure, rendered in French ?
EXERCISES ON THE ADJECTIVE.
I. EXERCISE ON RULE 1, P. 31. The tall man, the little woman, and the pretty chilgrand petit
joli dren, whom I met yesterday with their grandmother *,
que je rencontrai hier, adv. leur (were going) to London : they were all very hungry allaient
avaient GRAND' faim* and thirsty. The polite inhabitants of that fine city
cette treat all strangers (in a) civil and frank manner. traitent étranger, m. d'une
manière', f. Lean sheep grow fat in good pastures.-ConMaigre brebis, f. deviennent dans pâturages, m. stant study, joined to a great application, makes men étude, f. joint
application, f. rend learned. The new coat which you (gave me) is savant. neuf t habit, m.
m'avez donné better than the old great-coat which my father had meilleur que, c. redingote, f.
avait bought at his tailor's.-— We went yesterday to the high achetée chez son tailleur. allâmes hier court, where we found all the judges already assembled. trouvámes
déjà, adv. assemblé.
* In the following instances the adjective grand loses the e in the feminine, and, instead of it, takes the apostrophe : grand' faim,
very hungry. Avoir grand' soif,
very thirsty. grand peur,
very much frightened. la grand mère,
the grandmother. la grand' messe,
the high mass. la grand' chambre,
the high court. + New must be translated by neuf, when applied to a thing which has not been used, or worn ; and by nouveau, when speaking of a new fashion, of something new.
II. EXERCISE ON RULE 2, P. 32. The book, paper, pencil, and penknife, which you
papier, m. crayon, m. canif, m. que lent me, are excellent.—The pen, ruler,
desk, avez prêtés 2 mei excellent
règle, f. écritoire, f. and grammar,
brother has bought, are very que mon
très, adv. good.—The king, queen, prince, and princesses, were
princesse, étaient gone.—The corn, wheat, rye, peas, and beans, in sorti.
fève, f. en word, all the grains which were on the ground were mot, m.
grain, m. qui étaient sur terre, f. furent frozen.—My father's house and my uncle's (country-seat) gelé. Mon
château, m. are (very much) alike.—He studies with an incredible bien, adv. semblable. étudie
incroyable, adj. application and courage. She left the trunk, the
courage, m. laissa coffre, m. room, and the closet
the doors, chambre, f. cabinet, m. ouvert. ai trouvé
porte, f. the windows and the shutters, shut.-We found the fenêtre, f.
volets, m. fermé. trouvámes children, father, and mother, quite recovered. When
tout-à-fait rétabli. Quand arrived on the frontiers, we found the soldiers,
arrivâmes sur frontière, f. trouvâmes soldat the officers, and the general in chief, assembled, and officier
chef, m. assemblé (drawn up) in (battle array). rangé
bataille, f. III. EXERCISE ON RULES 3 AND 4, P. 32. I have seen a handsome lady, who (was speaking) to an
parlait old gentleman.—He had a fine hat and a pretty sword. monsieur. Il avait chapeau, m.
épée, f. -Your little sister deserved a better fate.--I know a Votre méritait
destin, m. connais young man who has a good horse, but a bad stable.—He
écurie, f. 11
has lent it to an honest man.—The apostle Paul was a ao prétés le?
apôtre était holy man.-My brother has bought a good watch.—Your
montre, f. Votre father was a brave general, and a well-bred man.—You était
bien élevé have lost all your money.
Vile, creature, I have heard avez perdu votre
créature, f. entendu your wicked conversation.
IV. EXERCISE ON RULES 5—10, P. 32, 33. We have a just, wise, and bountiful king.--Mr.
Nous avons juste sage bienfaisant Monsieur Brown's daughter is with a sincere and generous lady.-I
sincère généreux have a scholar of a solid, bright, and lively disposition.écolier, m.
solide brillant vif esprit, m. Miss Preston is a young, handsome, and wellMademoiselle
bieninformed lady.-She has married a learned, virtuous, and instruit dame. Elle
épousé savant vertueux amiable man.- That is my brother's only daughter. aimable
C'est mon frère unique ? fille? I like a French comedy, an English tragedy, and an J'aime Français comédie, f. Anglais tragédie, f. Italian opera.--Some persons like sweet wines, others Italien opéra, m. Quelques personnes aiment doux vins, d'autres
prefer strong drink. He has many bound books.préfèrent fort boisson. Il bcaucoup de reliélivre, m. They live in that white house. Ils demeurent dans cette blanc maison, f.
V. EXERCISE ON ADJECTIVES EXPRESSIVE OF MEASURE.
N.B. This Exercise must be written TWICE ; first according to Rule 1, and then according to Rule 2, p. 33. I
tree eighteen feet large.--I have J ai vu un arbre, m. dix-huit pied, m. gros box four inches thick, ten feet
long, and une boîte, f. quatre pouce, m. épais dix pied, m. long
ON THE DEGREES OF SIGNIFICATION.
six broad.—I know a man seven feet high.-(It is) a large connais un
haut. C'est un ditch nine feet six inches deep, and five feet broad. fossé, m. neuf six profond, cing -(There is) a
paces long, and Voilà
chambre, f. cinquante pas, m. twenty broad. The walls
of our garden are thirty vingt muraille, f. notre
trente feet three inches high, and two feet broad.—I have a tree
trois sixty feet high, and eighteen round. soixante
ON THE DEGREES OF SIGNIFICATION. Adjectives are suceptible of three degrees of signification: the positive, the comparative, and the superlative.
The positive degree expresses the quality abstractedly, without conveying any idea of comparison, as to superiority or inferiority, of the same quality in another object; as,
Un homme heureux, a happy man.
Une femme aimable, an amiable woman. The comparative degree implies that a comparison is made between two objects as to the same quality ; and as the one may be equal, superior, or inferior to the other, there are three sorts of comparatives, viz. the comparative of equality, of inferiority, and of superiority.
1. The comparative of equality is expressed in French by placing aussi (as) before the adjective, and que (as) after it. Ex. Ma sæur est aussi grande
sister is as tall as
you. 2. The comparative of superiority is expressed by placing plus (more) before the adjective, and que (than) after it. Ex. Il est PLUS sage QUE VOUS,
he is wiser (or more wise)
3. The comparative of inferiority is formed by placing