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Mrs. Nelson's servant knows the price of all the
servante, f. sait prix, m. provisions.—She bought yesterday some chickens at one denrée, f. acheta
poulet, m. à shilling and three pence) a-piece.-She came from America quinze sous
est venue in three weeks.—Thomas was formerly a musician,
était autrefois musicien, m. he is a poet,
to-morrow he (will be) a painter.— à présent poète, m. demain
peintre, m. Shame is a mixture of the grief and fear Honte, f. mélange, m.
chagrin, m. crainte, f. which infamy causes.-Religion, morality, government, que infamie, f. cause, v.
morale, f. gouvernement, m. fine arts, in a word (everything) is overturned.—Pride beaux arts, en mot, m. tout
renversé. and vanity are often the source of the misfortunes of vanité, f. souvent
malheur, m. mankind. Pindar (was born) at Thebes, a city of
Pindare, m. naquit à, p. Greece.- Health, honours, and fortune, cannot often Grèce, f. Santé, f.
ne peuvent souvent satisfy the heart of man.—Hypocrisy is a homage satisfaire ceur, m.
hommage, m. which vice pays to virtue. -Give me a knife and fork.que vice, m. rend
Donnez-moi Thomas has wit, but he has discretion.
ill ar nepointa discrétion, f.
The learner must have observed, by this time, that two negations are used in French : ne-pas, ne-point, ne-aucun, ne-personne, ne-jamais; and that ne is put before the verb, and the others after.
ON THE ADJECTIVE.
The adjective is a word used to express the quality of a person or thing, as bon roi, good king; bonne reine, good queen; bele nfant, fine child ; méchant garçon, naughty boy :
good, fine, and naughty are adjectives, because they express the qualities of king, queen, child, and boy. Whenever we can add the word person or thing to another word, we may be sure it is an adjective. For example: rich, poor, good, bad, are adjectives, because we may say, rich person, poor person, good thing, &c.
French adjectives agree in gender and number with the substantive which they qualify: bon roi, bonne reine; and the gender is marked by an alteration in their termination.
FORMATION OF THE FEMININE OF ADJECTIVES.
1. Adjectives ending in d, e, i, l, n, r, s, t, and u, form their feminine by adding an e mute.
poli, aimé, civil, demi, nu,
great, tall, large.
2. The last two adjectives are undeclined when they precede a substantive ; but they are declined when they follow it. Ex.
half a pound.
3. All adjectives ending with an e mute are the same for both genders. Ex.
un jeune homme,
a young man.
4. The feminine of adjectives ending in an, as, el, il, eil, ien, se, et, is, on, os, ot, and ul, is formed by doubling the final letter, and adding an e mute. Ex.
fat. genteel. eternal.
chrétienne, Christian. moyen,
foolish. 5. The following are irregular, and cannot be comprised under any class, viz. Masc. beau, BEL,* Fem. belle,
handsome, fine. bénin,
malicious. mou, MOL,*
soft. nouveau, NOUVEL, nouvelle,
new. vieur, VIEIL,* vieille,
old. 6. Adjectives ending in c take he, after the c, for their feminine. Ex. Masc. blanc, Fem. blanche,
sèche, 7. The four following are excepted : Masc. caduc, Fem. caduque,
in decay. Grec,
plain, ingenuous. neuf,
* The adjectives bel, fol, mol, nouvel, and vieil, are used instead of beau, fou, nouveau, and vieux, before masculine substantives beginning with a vowel or an h mute.
9. Adjectives ending in a change x into se. Ex. Masc. douloureux, Fem. douloureuse, painful, dolorous. heureux,
heureuse, happy. jalour,
jalouse, jealous, &c.
10. The following are excepted :
faux, préfir, rour,
FORMATION OF THE PLURAL OF ADJECTIVES.
11. The French adjectives form their plural by adding an s to the singular, as un grand homme, a great man ; de grands hommes, great men.
12. Adjectives ending in French in .s or x, are the same in the singular and in the plural. Ex.
a fat man.
un honime gras,
a happy child.
13. Adjectives ending in au form their plural by the addition of an x; those ending in al change al into aux : as, beau, fine, beaux ; nouveau, new, nouveaux ; général, general, généraux.
14. But most of the adjectives ending in al have no plural for the masculine, as, conjugal, conjugal; fatal, fatal ; filial, filial; final, final; frugal, sober; jovial, jovial; pectoral, pectoral; nasal, nasal ; natal, natal ; naval, naval; total, total,
RULES ON THE ADJECTIVE.
1. The adjective must agree in gender and number with the substantive which it qualifies, as, un bon dictionnaire et une bonne grammaire, a good dictionary and a good grammar.
2. If an adjective qualifies two or more substantives, it must be put in the plural ; and if the substantives be of different genders, the adjective must be put in the masculine plural. Ex. Son père et sa mère sont morts, his father and mother are
OF THE PLACE OF ADJECTIVES.
3. In French the adjective is generally placed after the substantive ; as, un cheval blanc, a white horse.
4. We place after the substantive all participles used as adjectives; as, une boîte peinte,
a painted box. de la viande rôtie,
roast meat. 5. Also adjectives ending in esque, il, ic, ique, or ule. Ex.
un style burlesque, a burlesque style.
une femme crédule, a credulous woman.
a round table. une chambre carrée, a square room. 7. All those which express colour or taste; as, un chapeau noir,
a black hat. une liqueur amère,
a bitter liquor. 8. Those which express the names of nations ; as, l'empire romain,
the Roman empire. un livre français,
a French book, 9. But the following are generally placed before the substantive :
beau, bel, handsome. joli, pretty
mauvais, bad. cher, dear.
meilleur, better. chétif, mean.
moindre, less. galant, well-bred.
petit, little. grand, great.
saint, holy. gros, big;
tous, all. honnête, honest.
vieux, old. jeune, young