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When is the definite article used in French, though not in English?

What takes place with regard to the article when several substantives occur together?

Is the French article used before a noun expressive of relationship?

Is it used before those which express dignity, &c. ?
Is it used after étre, preceded by ce?
Is it placed in French before names of countries, &c. ?
When

may

the article be omitted before several nouns occurring together?

When is the English preposition to rendered by de?
What is the indefinite article ?

When is the English indefinite rendered by the French definite article ?

When is the indefinite article omitted in French, though expressed in English?

Define the partitive article.
When is it used in French ?
When is it not used ?

What effect have words expressive of quantity upon the partitive article?

Is the partitive article used after a negative verb?

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See Rule 1, page 14. The father.-The mother. The sister.-The brother.père mère

frère From the master.—To the mistress.— Of the boy.--The maître maîtresse

garçon house. - To the room. - From the garden. - To the aunt. maison, f. chambre, f.

jardin, m.

tante -Of the child. — From the children. The historians, enfant, m.

historien, m. The prudence. - Of the amiability. From the study. prudence, f. amabilité, f.

étude, f. To the attention.—The king.–To the queen.-From the attention, f. roi, m.

reine, f.

Do yoii

comes

us

princes.—The glory of the heroes.-The humanity of the prince, s. gloire, f.

héros, m. -humanité, f.* princesses.-The beauty of the spring.--The heat of the

princesse, s. beauté, f. printems, m. chaleur, f. summers. - From the cold of the winters.--To the army été, m. froid, m. -hivers, m.

armée, f. of the Spaniards. Espagnol, m.

II, EXERCISE ON RULE 2, P. 14. I hate idleness. - Virtue is estimable. Je, pro. hais, v. paresse,

f. Vertu, f. est, v. estimable, adj. Gold is preferable to silver.

prefer Or, m. préférable, adj. argent, m. a vous –, pro. préférez?, v. England to France ? — Love wisdom.- Do not Angleterre, f. France, f. Aimez, v. sagesse, f. ane pas , adv. neglect -study. — She

from church. négligez?, v. étude, f. Elle, pro. vient, v.

église, f. We

speak of America, and not of Poland.Nous, pro. parlons, v. Amérique, f. non pas, adv. Pologne, f. Grant peace. — Honour is due

to kings. Accordez, v. nous, pro. paix, f. Honneur, m. dů, p.p. Toi, m. - They

from Africa. - Pride disgraces Ils, pro. viennent, v. Afrique, f. Orgueil, m. dégrade, v. . Charity patiently

bears injuries. homme. Charité, f. patiemment", adv. souffre?, v. injures, f.

III. EXERCISE ON RULE 3, P. 14. Where is the master of the house ? — The prince , adv. maitre, m.

maison, f. prince, m. spoke to the king.–Justice is the mistress and queen of parla, v.

Justice, f. maîtresse, f. reine, f. virtue.— Send the child to school. -Walk

Envoyez, v. enfant, m. école, f. Promenez-vous, v. in the garden.-Tranquillity of soul is the height of

jardin, m. Tranquillité, f. âme, f. comble, m. felicity.

Give the tooth-picks to the gentlement: félicité, f. Donnez, v. cure-dent, m.

Messieurs, m. * In the first exercises, the h mute will be indicated by a daslı placed before it.

+ Gentleman is never to be rendered in French by gentil-homine, unless it means nobleman.

come

man.

dans, p.

were

Education is to the mind what cleanliness is to Education, f. esprit, m. ce que, pro.

propreté, f. the body.—The enemies

on the mountain.-We corps, m.

ennemi, m. étaient, v. sur, p. montagne, f. go to the park. It is the will of the emperor.--The allons, v. parc, m. C'est, v. volonté, f.

empereur, fate of nations is governed by Providence. You sort, m. nation, f. gouverné, p. p. par, p. Providence, f. play with the boys.- Revenge is the pleasure of a jouez, v. avec, p. garçon. Vengeance, f. plaisir, m. de un

weak mind. — Italy is the garden of Europe. — The faible , adj. esprit, m. Italie, f.

Europe, f. most noble of virtues is charity.--He

comes from plus, adv. noble, adj.

Il, pro. vient, v. the Indies. Inde, f.

IV. EXERCISE ON RULES 4 AND 5, P. 14. Prefer virtue to riches, friendship to money, Préférez, v.

richesses, f. pl. amitié, f. argent, m. and utility to pleasure.-The father, mother, and children, utilité, f.

père mère enfant, m. - The men, women, and children, of the vil. sont morts, P.P. femme, f.

vil lage, were all

at the burial. -I like yellow lage, m. étaient tous, adj. à, p. enterrement, m. aime, v. jaune, m. and grey.—Peace and plenty make men happy.

gris, m. abondance, f. rendent, v. heureur, adj. Wheat and barley are dear.- -Bring the knives and Froment, m.

cher, adj. Apportez, v. couteau, m. forks. Patience and perseverance are necessary.--The fourchette, f. Patience, f.

persévérance, f. nécessaire desire of glory, riches, power, and pleasure, is a disease

désir, m. gloire, f. pouvoir, m. plaisir, m. maladie, f. of the mind.-Prefer always virtue, prudence, and good âme, f.

toujours, adv. prudence, f. bon, adj. sense, to beauty.—Put the wine, beer, and cider, sens, m. Mettez, v. vin, in. bière, f.

cidre, m. sur, p. the table.-(It is said that America, France, and Spain, table, f. On dit que Amérique

Espagne have made peace with England. ont, v. fait, p. p.

Angleterre,

are

dead.

orge, f.

on

mon

V. EXERCISE ON RULES 6, 7, AND 8, P. 14, 15. Who is this young man ?—He is the eldest son of my Qui ce jeune

C'est ainéa fils brother. - The Jupiter of the heathens was the son of

payen, m. était, v. fils Saturn, and the father of the gods. - Robert, duke of Saturne, m.

dieu, m.

duc Normandy, the brother of Henry, king of England, was the Normandie, f.

Henri son of William the Conqueror.

- My sister lives Guillaume Conquérant, m. Ma, pro. demeure, v. at York, the capital city of the county of the same

comté, m. même, adj. -Mr. L. the rector of the parish of St. James, and nom, m.

curé paroisse, f. Jacques his brother, the dean of the cathedral, were the sons of son, pro.

doyen cathédrale, f. Mr. L., the first lord of the Admiralty. premier, adj.

lord

amirauté, f.

à, P.

name,

VI. EXERCISE ON RULES 9, 10, AND 11, p. 15.

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lande,

Have you passed through Spain, Portugal, or Hol

Avez passé par Espagne, f. Portugal, m. ou Holland ?-(It is said) that Prussia, Austria, and Russia, will

f. On dit que Prusse, f. Autriche, f. et Russie, f. seront soon be at war with England.—We intend to pass through bientôt en guerre avec

comptons apasser par Italy, Germany, and Prussia.—The Alps and the PyreItalie, f. Allemagne, f. Prusse, f. Alpes Pyrénees are very high mountains.—Where is

your

father?nées de très haut montagne, f.

votre He is in Russia ; and from thence he (will go) to Poland. —

, ady. ira en Pologne. (A great deal) of wool

from Germany to Beaucoup laine, f. vient maintenant England; and it is better

than that which comes elle meilleure, adj. que celle qui vient from Spain.—Two missionaries arrived

yesterday from missionnaire arrivèrent hier

en

dc

comes

now

en

Africa, and three (are to go to Asia.—We (were speaking) trois doivent aller en

parlions of America.

VII. EXERCISE ON RULE 12, P. 15. The town was taken by storm; men, women,

ville, f. fut, v. prise, p. p. de assaut, m. children, (old people) (every body) was put' to

vieillard, m. tous, adj. furent mis, p. p. à death.—Palaces, temples, public buildings, private mort, f. Palais

publics édifice', m. particulière, adj. houses, (everything) was destroyed, and the enemies did maison', f. tout fut détruit, p. p. not leave stone

upon

stone.-His father laissèrent, v. pierre, f. Sur, P. will spare neither pains

money.-(He is) a n'épargnera, v. ni peine ni

C'est, v. un (fatherless child); he has neither parents nor friends.

orphelin, adj. nia ni parent, m. ami, m.

Son, pro.

nor

vu

VIII. EXERCISE ON RULES 13 AND 14, P. 15, 16. I have seen the king's apartments and the queen's jewels. Jai

roi appartement, m. reine bijou, m. -That man's strength is surprising.--The title of Dauphin

Cet homme force, f. est étonnante titre, m. belongs to the king of France's eldest son.-My cousin's appartient

aîné filst Mon cousin master is

my uncle's best friend.- I have spoken to the maitre

oncle meilleur ami, m. Marchioness of ****, sister to the queen's first lady of Marquise

dame honour.-Mr. Henry, perfumer to the princess, has made a Henri

fait considerable fortune. -The heir to the crown of Portuconsidérablefortune', f. -héritier

couronne, f. gal is the prince of Brazil. --My father was witness to Brésil, m.

témoin that quarrel.-I am a friend to diligent scholars, cette, pro. querelle, f. suis le diligent? écoliers', m. and an enemy to idleness.

le ennemi, m.

a été

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