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dieu ;

Alexandre ordonna que tous ses Alexander ordered that all sujets l'adorassent comme un his subjects should worship

him as a god. Je voulais que vous écrivissiez I wished you to write to your à votre sæur ;

sister. Il souhaiterait que vous pris- he would wish you to take

siez des mesures plus conve- some more proper step. nables;

27. The preterite of the subjunctive mood is used when we speak of an action past and accomplished, with regard to the tense of the verb which precedes the conjunction ; and this tense is generally the present, preterite-indefinite, or future of the indicative. Ex. Je doute qu'aucun philosophe I doubt whether any, philo

ait jamais bien connu l'union sopher has ever well underde řáme avec le corps ;

stood the union of the soul

with the body. Il a fallu que jaie consulté I was obliged to consult all tous les médecins ;

the physicians. Je me garderai bien d'y aller I shall by no means go thi

que je n'aie reçu quelque as- ther till I have received some surance d'être bien accueilli ;

of being wel


28. After the imperfect, preterite, preterpluperfect of the indicative, or one of the two conditionals, we use the preterpluperfect of the subjunctive mood; likewise after the conjunction si, when it precedes a compound tense. Ex. J'ignorais que vous eussiez em- I did not know you had embrassé cette profession ;

braced that profession. Vous n'aviez pas cru que je you did not believe I should fusse arrivé avant vous ;

have arrived before you. Nous aurions été fâchés que we should have been


if vous vous fussiez adressé à

you had applied to any d'autres qu'à vous ;

others but us. J'aurais agi de la même ma- I should have acted in the

nière, si j'eusse été à votre same manner, had I been in place ;

your place.

Numbers and Persons.

29. A tense contains both numbers, the singular and the plural.

That there are three persons has already been observed

under the personal pronouns; we have only to remark that
one of these three persons is always joined to the verb
as its subject : therefore the verb must agree with that
subject in number and person. Ex.
Je fais, I do ;

nous faisons, we do.
Tu fais, thou dost ; vous faites, you or ye do.
Il fait, he does;

ils font, they do.

30. The pronoun vous, you, denotes the second person singular and plural, with this difference, that when we speak to one person only, the attribute, or qualifying noun, must be put in the singular. Ex.

Etes-vous marié, Monsieur? and

not mariés ;

are you married, Sir ?

31. When the verb has two or more nouns or pronouns for its subjects, it must be put in the plural, though all these subjects be in the singular ; because two or more nouns in the singular are equivalent to a plural, with regard to verbs as well as to adjectives. Ex.

Mon frère et ma seur sont

partis ;

my brother and sister are


32. If the verb has for its subjects one pronoun of the first person and one of the second, the pronoun nous must be added to them, and the verb is to be put in the first person plural ; but if one of the subjects is of the second person, and the other of the third, the pronoun vous must follow them, and the verb is to be put in the second person plural. See p. 55, Rule 11. Ex.

Vous et moi, nous partirons

demain ; Vous et votre frère, vous

l'avez promis ;

you and I shall set off to

morrow. you and your brother have

promised it to me.


33. In such instances the person spoken to is always to come first, the person spoken of comes next, and the person who speaks is placed the last.



What is a verb ?
What are called active ?
What passive ?
What neuter ?
What reflective ?
What impersonal ?
What is to conjugate verbs ?
What is meant by regular and irregular verbs ?
What verbs are called defective ?
What auxiliary?
What is meant by the mood of a verb ?
How many moods are there, and what are they?
What is the use of the infinitive mood ?
What is that of the indicative ?
What is that of the imperative ?
What is that of the subjunctive ?

[French ? How many tenses are there in the infinitive mood in How many

in the indicative ? How many in the imperative ? How many in the subjunctive ? When is the present of the indicative used ? Instead of what other tense is it sometimes used ? When is the imperfect of the indicative used ? When is the preterite definite used ? What is the use of the future tense ? Are there various ways of expressing the future ? What does the conditional express ? What does the preterite indefinite express? In what other manner can the same tense be expressed ? What does the preterite anterior express ? What does the preterpluperfect express ? What is meant by future-past ? What does the conditional-past express ? What does the subjunctive mood express ?


These verbs being used, not only to form the compounds of all other verbs, but occuring frequently in sentences, a perfect knowledge of them is indispensable; and that it may be acquired with less difficulty, they are given here, conjugated at full, both affirmatively and negatively. See Supplement, Use of avoir.





cues, had.

Present. Avoir, to have. Present. Ne pas avoir, not to

have. Participle present. Ayant, Participle present. N'ayant pas, having.

not having. Participle past. Eu, eue, eus, Participle past. Eu, &c., had. Compound of the present. Compound of the present, Avoir eu, to have had.

N'avoir pas eu, not to have

had. Compound of the past. Ayant Compound of the past. Nayant eu, having had.

pas eu, not having had. Participle future. Devant avoir, Participle future. Ne devant pas about to have.

avoir, not about to have.


Present Tense. J'ai, I have. tu as, thou hast. il a, he has. nous avons, we have. vous avez, you have. ils ont, they have.

Compound of the Present. J'ai eu, I have had. tu as eu, thou hast had. il a eu, he has had. nous avons eu, we have had. vous avez eu, you have had. ils ont eu, they have had.

Present Tense. Je n'ai pas, I have not, tu n'as pas, thou has not. il n'a pas, he has not. nous n'avons pas, we have not. vous n'avez pas, you have not. ils n'ont pas, they have not.

Compound of the Present. Je n'ai pas eu, I have not had. tu n'a pas eu, thou hast not had. il n'a

pas eu, he has not had. nous n'avons pas eu, we have n. h. vous n'avez pas eu, you have n. h. ils n'ont pas eu, they have n. h.

Imperfect. J'avais, I had. tu avais, thou hadst. il avait, he had. nous avions, we had. vous aviez, you had. ils avaient, they had.

Imperfect. Je n'avais pas, I had not. tu n'avais pas, thou hadst not. il n'avait pas, he had not. nous n'avions pas, we had not. vous n'aviez pas, you had not. ils n'avaient pas, they had not.

Compound of the Imperfect. Compound of the Imperfect. J'avais eu, I had had.

Je n'avais pas eu, I had not had. tu avais eu, thou hadst had. tu n'avais pas eu, thou hadst n. h. il avait eu, he had had. il n'avait pas eu, he had not had. nous avions eu, we had had. nous n'avions pas eu, we had n. h. vous aviez eu, you had had. vous n'aviez pas eu, you had n. h. ils avaient eu, they had had. ils n'avaient pas eu, they had n. h.



Jeus, I had.
tu eus, thou hadst.
il eut, he had.
nous eûmes, we had.
vous eûtes, you had.
ils eurent, they had.

Je n'eus pas, I had not.
tu n'eus pas, thou hadst not.
il n'eut pas, he had not.
nous n'eûmes pas, we had not.
vous n'eûtes pas, you had not.
ils n'eurent pas, they had not.

Compound of the Preterite. Compound of the Preterite.

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