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7. Substantives of more than one syllable ending in nt generally form their plural by changing the t into s; as, un enfant, a child ;

des enfans, children. le commandement, the command; des commandemens, commands *.

8. But those of one syllable only preserve the t, and form the plural by adding s; as, une dent, a tooth;

des dents, teeth. un pont, a bridge ;

des ponts, bridges. 9. The following do not conform to any established rule:

un aïeul, a grandfather ; des aïeux, grandfathers. du bétail, cattle ;

des bestiaux, cattle. le ciel, heaven;

les cieux, heavens. un cil, an eye ;

des yeux, eyes. Except { des cicle de lit, testers of beds.

des æils de beuf, small round windows. Compound words, in French, require some attention from the learner, in the formation of their plural; for example:

10. When a noun is composed of a substantive and an adjective united by a hyphen, both words take the sign of the plural; as,

un gentil-homme, a nobleman; des gentils-hommes, noblemen.

11. When the two substantives are connected by a preposition between hyphens, the first substantive only in French takes the sign of the plural; as,

un arc-en-ciel, a rainbow ; des arcs-en-ciel, rainbows. un chef-d'æuvre, a master- des chefs-d'æuore, masterpiece.

pieces. 12. Some, composed of a noun substantive and a preposition or a verb, remain the same as in the singular; as, un avant-toit, eaves ;

des avant-toit, eaves. casse-noisettes, nut- des casse-noisettes, nut-crackcracker ; un garde-fou, a rail

des garde-fou, rails, &c.

un

a

ers.

:

* The French Academy have lately decided that the t should not be dropped, and most modern writers leave it also in the plural: moments. 13. Monseigneur, my

lord
Monsieur, Mr. or Master
Madame, Mrs. or Madam
Mademoiselle, Miss

make in
the plural

Messeigneurs, my lords.
Messieurs, gentlemen.
Mesdames, ladies.
Mesdemoiselles, misses.

MANNER OF RENDERING IN FRENCH SOME ENGLISH

COMPOUND WORDS.

14. Sometimes two substantives are used together in English, the former of which serves to express the material of which the latter is made, or the place whence it comes; such as a silver fork, i. e. a fork made of silver; Burgundy wine, i. e. wine from Burgundy. When translating this kind of compound substantives, that which is put first in English must be placed last in French, and they must be connected by the preposition de. Ex.

a brick house; une maison de brique.
a straw hat;

un chapeau de paille.
sea fish;

du poisson de mer. 15. But if the former word, in English, expresses the use to which the latter is destined, the preposition à, instead of de, must be put between them. Ex.

some gunpowder ; de la poudre à canon.

OF CASES.

It has been asserted by some, that what are called cases, in the language of grammar, do not exist in French, nor in English, because the relation in which the nouns substantive stand, in a sentence, is not marked by their ter

in mination, as in Latin and in Greek. Thus, for instance, N. Dominus, the lord,

le seigneur,
G. Domini, of the lord,

du seigneur,
D. Domino, to the lord, au seigneur,
Ac. Dominum,
the lord,

le seigneur,
Domine, O lord,

O seigneur, Ab. Domino, from the lord, du seigneur, each case is marked, in the Latin, by the alteration in the termination of Dominus ; whereas lord and seigneur remain the same. But it may be observed that, on the other hand, different prepositions, of, to, from: de, à, are used before

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the nouns in French and English, which answer the same purpose. It may, therefore, be said that cases exist in these languages. Besides, as young gentlemen are familiarised with the technical words nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, vocative, and ablative, any other expressions would puzzle them; and they may easily be explained by the master to those who do not understand them. In the meantime, as a considerable difference exists between the formation of the French and the Englishı genitive, the student must attend to the following

16. RULE ON THE FORMATION OF THE FRENCH GENITIVE.

When the English genitive is formed by adding an s and an apostrophe (') to the first of two substantives, the French genitive must be formed by connecting the two substantives by means of the preposition de, taking care that the substantive which is placed first in English shall be last in French. Ex. That man's voice,

la voix de cet homme. Your father's love, l'amour de votre père.

QUESTIONS FOR EXAMINATION

ON THE SUBSTANTIVE.

Define the substantive.

What is the difference between a substantive common and a substantive proper?

What are substantives collective ?
How many genders are there in French ?
How many numbers ?

How is the plural of French substantives generally formed ?

How do those ending in s, x, or z form their plural ?
Those ending in au, eau, &c. ?
Those ending in al and ail?
Those ending in nt ?
Mention those which do not conform to any rule.
How is the plural of compound substantives formed?

How do you render, in French, such expressions as a straw hat, Burgundy wine ?

How is the genitive case formed in French?

EXERCISES ON THE SUBSTANTIVE.

Preliminary Observations. When figures are attached to one or more words, in the following exercises, they indicate the order in which those words must be placed in French.

The letter m, placed after a substantive means that it is masculine ; f, feminine; pl. plural.

This mark s placed under a word signifies that that word must be omitted in French.

When two or more English words are put between brackets, they are rendered by the single French word placed under them.

EXERCISE ON THE FORMATION OF THE PLURAL OF

SUBSTANTIVES.

an.

ces

See Rules 1 to 13, p. 7-9. Those houses. In the fields. By his letters. In

Ces maison. Dans les champ. Par ses lettre. Dans six years.-From those voices.- In their palaces.-Vasix

De
voix. Dans leurs palais.

Difrious countries.-On our boats. Buy those pictures.férent pays.

Sur nos bateau Achetez ces tableau. Her beautiful jewels.-Fifteen horses.-By their works.Ses beaux bijou. Quinze cheval. Par leurs travail. Bring me those fans.

· By their presents.

Call the Apportez-moi ces évantail.

Par leurs présent.

Appelez les children.—Her beautiful teeth.—Under the bridges.—Like enfant. Ses belles dent. Sous

les pont.

Comme his ancestors.—In their eyes.— The Hamlet of Shakespeare

aïeul. Dans leurs vil. Le Hamlet de Shakespeare and the Athalie of Racine are master-pieces of compoet ľ Athalie de Racine sont des chef-d'ouvre de composition. sition.

ses

EXERCISE ON CERTAIN SUBSTANTIVES,

a

a

au

See Rules 14 and 15, p. 9. Your sister has silk

gown

and a straw hat. It is Votre søur

une soie robe un paille chapeau. C'est a marble pillar.-Have you spoken (to the wine merchant? un marbre pilier. Avez-vous parlé

vin marchand? -She has bought a gold watch. Bring me my velvet Elle a acheté une

montre. Apportez-moi mon velours cap. - They drink spring water.-(Do you see) those bonnet. Ils boivent source de l'eau. Voyez-vous windmills ?— They have a silver spoon. Gunpowder vent moulin? Ils ont une argent cuillère. Canon la poudre was invented by a monk. fut inventée par un moine.

or

ces

EXERCISE ON THE GENITIVE.

See Rule, 16, p. 10. Alexander's ambition, Plato's wisdom. Apollo's Alexandre l'ambition.

Platon la sagesse.

Apollon voice. · His brother's name. Your mother's hope. la voix. Son frère le nom.

Votre mère l'espoir. My sister's book.—This man's folly. Their father's Ma

le livre. Cet homme la folie. Leur père advice. My cousin's direction.—To-morrow's lesson.le conseil. Mon cousin l'adresse. Demain

la leçon. Your aunt's book. - In my mother's letter. His Votre tante le livre. Dans

mère la lettre. Son inaster's orders. -With your father's permission. maître les ordres. Avec votre père la permission,

saur

ma

CHAPTER II.

OF THE ARTICLE.

THERE are, in French, three Articles ; the definite, the indefinite, and the partitive.

The definite article, which is so called from its serving to define or fix particularly the substantive, or person, or

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