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man, into whose bands I will commit my Edwin.” And the Bishop did so about twelve months after this resolution.

And doubtless, as to these two, a better choice could not be made: for Mr. Hooker was now in the nineteenth year of his age; had spent five in the university; and had, by a constant unwearied diligence, attained unto a perfection in all the learned languages; by the help of which, an excellent tutor, and his unintermitted study, he had made the subtilty of all the arts easy and familiar to himself, and useful for the discovery of such learning as lay hid from common searchers. So that by these, added to his great reason, and his industry added to both, he did not only know more of causes and effects; but what he knew, he knew better than other men. And with this knowledge he had a most blessed and clear method of demonstrating what he knew, to the great advantage of all his pupils (which in time were many), but especially to his two first, his dear Edwin Sandys, and his as dear George Cranmer; of which there will be a fair testimony in the ensuing relation.

This for his learning. And for his behaviour, amongst other testimonies, this still remains of him, that in four years he was but twice absent from the chapel-prayers; and that his behaviour there was such as shewed an awful reverence of that God which he then worshipped and prayed to; giving all outward testimonies that his affections were set on heavenly things. This was his behaviour towards God; and for that to inan, it is observable, that he was never known to be angry, or passionate, or extreme in any of his desires ; never heard to repine or dispute with Providence, but, by a quiet gentle submission and resignation of his will to the wisdom of his Creator, bore the burden of the day with patience; never heard to utter an uncomely word ; and by this, and a grave behaviour, which is a Divine charm, he begot an early reverence unto his person, even from those that at other times, and in other companies, took a liberty to cast off that strictness of behaviour and discourse that is required in a collegiate life. And when he took any liberty to be pleasant, his wit was never blemished with scoffing, or the utterance of any conceit that bordered upon, or might beget a thought of, looseness in his hearers. Thus innocent and exemplary was his behaviour in his college; and thus this good man continued till death; still increasing in learning, in patience, and piety.

In this nineteenth year of his age, he was chosen, December 24, 1573, to be one of the twenty scholars of the foundation; being elected and admitted as born in Devonshire (out of which county a certain number are to be elected in vacancies by the founder's statutes). And now he was much encouraged; for now he was perfectly incorporated into this beloved college, which was then noted for an eminent library, strict students, and remarkable scho. lars. And indeed it may glory, that it had Bishop Jewel, Dr. John Reynolds, and Dr. Thomas Jackson, of that foundation. The first, famous by his learned Apology for the Church of England, and his Defence of it against Harding. The second, for the learned and wise manage of a public dispute with John Hart, of the Roman persuasion, about the head and faith of the church, then printed by consent of both parties. And the third, for his most excellent Exposition of the Creed, and for his other treatises : all such as hath given greatest satisfaction to men of the greatest learning. Nor was this man more eminent for his learning than for his strict and pious life, testified by his abundant love and charity to all.

In the year 1576, February 23, Mr. Hooker's Grace was given him for inceptor of arts ; Dr. Herbert Westphaling, a man of noted learning, being then vice-chancellor, and the act following he was completed master, which was anno 1577, his patron, Dr. Cole, being that year vice-chancellor, and his dear friend, Henry Savil, of Merton-college, then one of the proctors. It was that Henry Savil that was after Sir Henry Savil, warden of Merton-college, and provost of Eton: he which founded in Oxford two famous lectures, and endowed them with liberal maintenance. It was that Sir Henry Savil that translated and enlightened the History of Cornelius Tacitus with a most excellent comment; and enriched the world by his laborious and chargeable collecting the scattered pieces of St. Chrysostom, and the publication of them in one entire body in Greek; in which language he was a most judicious critic. It was this Sir Henry Savil that had the happiness to be a contemporary, and a most familiar friend, to our Richard Hooker, and let posterity know it.

And in this year of 1577, he was chosen fellow of the college : happy also in being the contemporary and friend of Dr. John Reynolds, of whom I bave lately spoken, and of Dr. Spencer; both which were afterward successively made presidents of his college: men of great learning and merit, and famous in their generations.

Nor was Mr. Hooker more happy in his contemporaries of his time and college, than in the pupilage and friendship of his Edwin Sandys a:d George Cranmer; of whom my reader may note, that this Edwin Sandys was after Sir Edwin Sandys, and as famous for his Speculum Europæ as his brother George for making posterity beholden to his pen by a learned relation and comment on his dangerous and remarkable travels; and for his harmonious translation of the Psalms of David, the Book of Job, and other poetical parts of holy writ, into most high and elegant verse. And for Cranmer, his other pupil, 1 shall refer my reader to the printed testimonies of our learned Master Camden, the Lord Tottenes, Fines Morrison, and others.

This Cranmer, whose Christian name was George, was a gentleman of singular hope, the eldest son of Thomas Cranmer, son of Edmund Cranmer, the Archbishop's brother: he spent much of his youth in Corpus Christi-college in Oxford, where he continued master of arts for many years before he removed, and then betook himself to travel accompanying that worthy gentleman Sir Edwin Sandys into France, Germany and Italy, for the space of three years ; and after their happy return, he betook himself to an em. ployment under Secretary Davison : after whose fall, he went in place of secretary with Sir Henry Killegrew in his embassage into France; and after his death he was sought after by the most noble Lord Mountjoy, with whom he went into Ireland, where he re. mained, until, in a battle against the rebels near Charlinford, an unfortunate wound put an end both to his life, and the great hopes that were conceived of him."

Betwixt Mr. Hooker and these his two pupils, there was a sacred friendship; a friendship made up of religious principles, which increased daily by a similitude of inclinations to the same recreations and studies; a friendship elemented in youth, and in a university, free from self-ends, which the friendships of age usually are not. In this sweet, this blessed, this spiritual amity, they went on for many years : and, as the holy prophet saith,“so they took sweet counsel together, and walked in the house of God as friends." By which means they improved it to such a degree of amity, as bordered upon heaven; a friendship so sacred, that when it ended in this world, it began in the next, where it shall have no end.

And, though this world cannot give any degree of pleasure equal to such a friendship ; yet obedience to parents, and a desire to know the affairs, and manners, and laws, and learning of other nations, that they might thereby become the more serviceable unto their own, made them put off their gowns, and leave Mr. Hooker to his college: were he was daily more assiduous in his studies, still enriching his quiet and capacious soul with the precious learning of the philosophers, casuists, and schoolmen; and with them the foundation and reason of all laws, both sacred and civil ; and with such other learning as lay most remote from the track of common studies.

And as he was diligent in these; so he seemed restless in searching the scope and intention of God's Spirit revealed to mankind in the sacred Scripture : for the understanding of which he seemed to be assisted by the same Spirit with which they were written ; he that regardeth truth in the inward parts, maketh him to understand wisdom secretly. And the good man would often say, " The Scripture was not writ to beget pride and disputations, and opposition to government; but moderation, and cha

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rity, and bumility, and obedience, and peace, and piety in man. kind; of which no good man did ever repent himself upon his deathbed.” And that this was really his judgment, did appear in his future writings, and in all the actions of his life. Nor was this excellent man a stranger to the more light and airy parts of learning, as music and poetry; all which he had digested, and made useful; and of all which the reader will have a fạir testimony in what follows.

Thus he continued his studies in all quietness for the three or more years; about which time he entered into sacred orders, and was made both deacon and priest; and not long after, in obedience to the college statutes, he was to preach either at St. Peter's, Oxford, or at St. Paul's Cross, London, and the last fell to his allotment.

In order to which sermon, to London he came, and immediately to the Shunammite's house ; which is a house so called, for that besides the stipend paid the preacher, there is provision made also for his lodging and diet two days before, and one day after his sermon. This house was then kept by John Churchman, sometime a draper of good note in Watling-street, upon whom, after many years of plenty, poverty had at last come like an armed man, and brought him into a necessitous condition : which, though it be a punishment, is not always an argument of God's disfavour, for he was a virtuous man: I shall not yet give the like testimony of his wife, but leave the reader to judge by what follows. But to this house Mr. Hooker came so wet, so weary, and wheather-beaten, that he was never known to express more passion, than against a friend that dissuaded him from footing it to London, and for hiring him no easier a horse (supposing the horse trotted when he did not); and at this time also, such a faintness and fear possessed him, that he would not be persuaded two days' quietness, or any other means could be used to make him able to preach his Sunday's sermon; but a warm bed, and rest, and drink proper for a cold, given to him by Mrs, Churchman, and her diligent attendance added unto it, enabled him to perform the office of the day which was in or about the year 1581.

And in this first public appearance to the world, he was not so happy as to be free from exceptions against a point of doctrine delivered in his sermon, which


6 that in God there were two wills; an antecedent and a consequent will: his first will, that all mankind should be saved; but his second will was, that those only should be saved, that did live answerable to that degree of grace which he had offered or afforded them.” This seemed to cross a late opinion of Mr. Calvin's, and then taken for granted by many that had not a capacity to examine it, as it had been by him, and had been since by Dr. Jackson, Dr. Hammond, and others of great learning, who

of so

believe that a contrary opinion trenches upon the honour and justice of our merciful God. How he justified this, I will not undertake to declare : but it was not excepted against (as Mr. Hooker declares in an occasional answer to Mr. Travers) by John Elmer, then bishop of London, at this time one of his auditors, and at last one of his advocates too, when Mr. Hooker was accused for it. But the justifying of this doctrine did not prove

bad consequence, as the kindness of Mrs. Churchman's curing him of his Jate dįstemper and cold; for that was so gratefully apprehended by Mr. Hooker, that he thought himself bound in conscience to believe all that she said: so that the good man came to be persuaded by her, “that he was a man of a tender constitution; and, that it was best for him to have a wife, that might prove a nurse to him; such a one as might both prolong his life, and make it more comfortable; and such a one she could and would provide for him, if he thought fit to marry." And he not considering, that“ the children of this world are wiser in their generation than the children of light;" but, like a true Nathaniel, who feared no guile, because he meant none; did give her such power as Eleazar was trusted with, when he was sent to choose a wife for Isaac; for even so he trusted her to choose for him, promising upon a fair summons to return to London, and accept of her choice; and he did so in that or the year following. Now the wife provided for him was her daughter Joan, who brought him neither beauty nor portion : and for her conditions, they were too like that wife's, which is by Soloman compared to a dripping-house; so that he had no reason to rejoice in the wife of his youth but ra. ther to say with the holy prophet, “ Woe is me, that I am constrained to have my habitation in the tents of Kedar!"

This choice of Mr. Hooker's (if it were his choice) may be won. dered at; but let us consider that the prophet Ezekiel says, " There is a wheel within a wheel;" a secret sacred wheel of Providence, (especially in marriages), guided by his hand, that allows not the race to the swift, nor bread to the wise, nor good wives to good' men: and he that can bring good out of evil (for mortals are blind to such reasons) only knows why this blessing was denied to patient Job, and (as some think) to meek Moses, and to our as meek and patient Mr. Hooker. But so it was; and let the reader cease to wonder, for affliction is a Divine diet; which though it bé unpleasing to mankind, yet Almighty God hath often, very often imposed it as good, though bitter physic to those children whose souls are dearest to him.

And by this means the good man was drawn from the tranquillity of his college; from that garden of piéty, of pleasure, of peace, and a sweet conversation, into the thorny wilderness of a busy world; into those corroding cares that attend a married priest, and a coun

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