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than my pen can purchase for him, by that of our learned Cambden and others.

This William Cranmer, and his two forenamed sisters, had some affinity, and a most familiar friendship with Mr. Hooker, and bad bad some part of their education with him in his house, when he was parson of Bishop's Born, near Canterbury; in which city their good father then lived. They had (I say) a great part of their education with him, as myself, since that time, a happy cohabition with them; and baving some years before read part of Mr. Hooker's works with great liking and satisfaction, my affection to them made me a diligent inquisitor into many things that concerned him : as namely, of his person, bis nature, the management of his time, his wife, his family, and the fortune of him and his. Which inquiry hath given me much advantage in the knowledge of what is now under my consideration, and intended for the satisfaction of my reader.

I had also a friendship with the Reverend Doctor Usher, the late learned archbishop of Armagh; and with Doctor Morton ; the late learned and charitable bishop of Durham; as also with the learned John Hales, of Eton-college; and with them also (who loved the very name of Mr. Hooker) I have had


discourses concerning bim; and from them, and many others that have now put off mortality, I might have bad more informations, if I could then have admitted a thought of any fitness for what by persuasion I have now undertaken. But, though that full harvest be irrecoverably lost, yet my memory hath preserved some gleanings, and my dili. gence made such additions to them, as I hope will prove useful to the completing of what I intend. In the discovery of which I shall be faithful, and with this assurance put a period to my Introduction.


His birth and youth.

It is not to be doubted, but that Richard Hooker was born within the precincts, or in the city of Exeter : a city which may justly boast that it was the birth-place of him and Sir Thomas Bodley; as in. deed the county may, in which it stands, that it hath furnished this nation with Bishop Jewel, Sir Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh, and many others memorable for their valour and learning. He was born about the year of our redemption one thousand five hundred fifty and three, and of parents that were not so remarkable for their extraction or riches, as for their virtue and industry and God's blessing upon both; by which they were enabled to educate their children in some degree of learning, of which our Richard Hooker may appear to be one fair testimony; and that Nature is not so partial as

always to give the great blessings of wisdom and learning, and with them the greater blessings of virtue and government, to those only that are of a more high and honourable birth.

His complexion (if we may guess by him at the age of forty) was sanguine, with a mixture of choler; and yet his motion was slow, even in his youth, and so was his speech, never expressing an earnestness in either of them, but a gravity suitable to the aged. And it is observed (so far as inquiry is able to look back at this distance of time) that at his being a schoolboy, he was an early questionist, quietly inquisitive, Why this was, and that was not, to be remembered ? Why this was granted, and that denied ? This being mixed with a remarkable modesty, and a sweet serene quietness of nature; and with them a quick apprehension of many perplexed parts of learning, imposed then upon him as a scholar, made his master and others to believe him to have an inward blessed Divine light, and therefore to consider him to a little wonder. For in that, children were less pregnant, less confident, and more malleable, than in this wiser, but not better

age. This meekness and conjuncture of knowledge, with modesty in his conversation, being observed by his schoolmaster, caused him to persuade his parents (who intended him for an apprentice) to continue him at school till he could find out some means, by persuading his rich uncle, or some other charitable person, to ease them of a part of their care and charge; assuring them, that their son was so enriched with the blessings of nature and grace, that God seemed to single him out as a special instrument of his glory. And the good man told them also, that he would double his diligence in instructing him, and would neither expect nor receive any other reward, than the content of so hopeful and happy an employment.

This was not unwelcome news, and especially to his mother, to whom he was a dutiful and dear child ; and all parties were so pleased with this proposal, that it was resolved so it should be. And in the mean time his parents and master laid a foundation for his future happiness, by instilling into his soul the seeds of piety, those conscientious principles of loving and fearing God; of an early belief, that he knows the very secrets of our souls; that he punisheth our vices, and rewards our innocence; that we should be free from hypocrisy, and appear to man what we are to God, because first or last the crafty man is catched in his own snare. These seeds of piety were so seasonably planted, and so continually watered, with the daily dew of God's blessed Spirit, that his infant virtues grew into such holy habits as did make him grow daily into more and more favour both with God and man : which with the great learning that he did attain to, hath made Richard Hooker honoured in this, and will continue him to be so to succeeding generations,

This good schoolmaster, whose name I am not able to recover (and am sorry, for that I would have given him a better memorial in this humble monument, dedicated to the memory of his scholar), was very solicitous with John Hooker, then chamberlain of Exeter, and uncle to our Richard, to take his nephew into his care, and to maintain him for one year in the university, and in the mean time to use his endeavours to procure an admission for him into some college; still urging and assuring him that his charge would not continue long; for the lad's learning and manners were both so remarkable, that they must of necessity be taken notice of; and that God would provide him some second patron, that would free him and his parents from their future care and charge.

These reasons, with the affectionate rhetoric of his good master, and God's blessing upon both, procured from his uncle a faithful promise that he would take him into his care and charge before the expiration of the year following, which was performed.

This promise was made about the fourth year of the reign of Queen Mary; and the learned John Jewel (after bishop of Salisbury) having been in the first of this Queen's reign expelled out of Corpus Christi-college in Oxford (of which he was a fellow), for adhering to the truth of those principles of religion, to which he had assented in the days of her brother and predecessor, Edward the Sixth; and he having now a just cause to fear a more heavy punishment than expulsion, was forced, by forsaking this, to seek safety in another nation, and, with that safety, the enjoyment of that doctrine and worship for which he suffered.

But the cloud of that persecution and fear ending with the life of Queen Mary, the affairs of the church and state did then look more clear and comfortable; so that he, and many others of the same judgment, made a happy return into England about the first of Queen Elizabeth; in which year this John Jewel was sent a commissioner or visitor of the churches of the western parts of this kingdom, and especially of those in Devonshire, in which county he was born ; and then and there he contracted a friendship with John Hooker, the uncle of our Richard.

In the third year of her reign, this John Jewel was made bishop of Salisbury: and there being always observed in him a willingness to do good and oblige his friends, and now a power added to it; John Hooker gave him a visit in Salisbury, and besought him for charity's sake to look favourably upon a poor nephew of his, whom nature had fitted for a scholar; but the estate of his parents was so narrow, that they were unable to give him the advantage of learning; and that the Bishop would therefore become his patron, and prevent him from being a tradesman; for he was a boy of remarkable hopes. And though the Bishop knew men do not usually look

was anno

his patron.

with an indifferent eye upon their own children and relations, yet he assented so far to John Hooker, that he appointed the boy and his schoolmaster should attend him about Easter next following at that place; which was done accordingly; and then, after some questions and observations of the boy's learning, and gravity, and behaviour, the Bishop gave the schoolmaster a reward, and took order for an annual pension for the boy's parents, promising also to take him into his care for a future preferment; which was performed. For, about the fourteenth

year of his age,

which 1567, he was by the Bishop appointed to remove to Oxford, and Admitted there to attend Dr. Cole, then president of Corpus Christi-college; Christi-colwhich he did ; and Doctor Cole had (according to a promise made lege, Oxon. to the Bishop) provided for him both a tutor (which was said to be the learned Doctor John Reynolds) and a clerk's place in that college: which place, though it were not a full maintenance, yet with the contribution of bis uncle, and the continued pension of his pa. tron, the good Bishop, gave him a comfortable subsistence. Aud Bp. Jewel, in this condition he continued unto the eighteenth year of his age, still increasing in learning and prudence, and so much in humility and piety, that he seemed to be filled with the Holy Ghost, and even, like St. John Baptist, to be sanctified from his mother's womb, who did often bless the day in which she bare him.

About this time of his age he fell into a dangerous sickness, which lasted two months: all which time, his mother, baving notice of it, did in her hourly prayers as earnestly beg his life of God as the mother of St. Augustine did, that he might become a true Christian; and their prayers were both so heard, as to be granted : which Mr. Hooker would often mention with much joy, and pray that he might never live to occasion any sorrow to so good a mother; wliom, he would often say, he loved so dearly, that he would endeavour to be good, even as much for her sake as for his own.

As soon as he was perfectly recovered from his sickness, he took a journey from Oxford to Exeter, to satisfy and see his good mother, being accompanied with a countryman and companion of his own college, and both on foot; which was then either more in fashion, or want of money, or their humility made it so: but on foot they went, and took Salisbury in their way, purposely to see the good Bishop, who made Mr. Hooker and his companion dine with him at his own table; which Mr. Hooker boasted of with much joy and gratitude when he saw his mother and friends: and at the Bishop's parting with him, the Bishop gave bim good counsel, and his benediction, but forgot to give him money; which when the Bishop had considered, he sent a servant in all hąste to call Richard back to him: and at Richard's return, the Bishop said to him,

Richard, I sent for you back to lend you a horse which hath car

ried me many a mile, and, I thank God, with much ease.” And presently delivered into his hand a walking-staff, with which he professed he had travelled through many parts of Germany. And he said, “ Richard, I do not give, but lend you my horse; be sure you be honest, and bring my horse back to me at your return this way to Oxford. And I do now give you ten groats to bear your charges to Exeter; and here is ten groats more, whic I charge you to deliver to your mother, and tell her, I send her a bishop's benediction with it, and beg the continuance of her prayers for me. And if you bring my horse back to me, I will give you ten groats more, to carry you on foot to the college: and so God bless you, good Richard.”

And this, you may believe, was performed by both parties. But, alas! the next news that followed Mr. Hooker to Oxford


that his learned and charitable patron had changed this for a better life. Which may be believed, for that as he lived, so he died, in devout meditation and prayer; and in both so zealously, that it became a religious question, Whether his last ejaculations, or bis soul, did first enter into heaven?

And now Mr. Hooker became a man of sorrow and fear: of sorrow, for the loss of so dear and comfortable a patron; and of fear, for his future subsistence. But Mr. Cole raised his spirits from this dejection, by bidding him go cheerfully to his studies, and assuring him, that he should neither want food nor raiment (which was the utmost of his hopes), for he would become his patron.

And so he was for about nine months, or not much longer; for about that time the following accident did befal Mr. Hooker.

Edwin Sandys (then bishop of London, and after archbishop of York) had also been in the days of Queen Mary forced, by forsaking this, to seek safety in another nation; where, for many years, Bishop Jewel and he were companions at bed and board in Germany; and where, in this their exile, they did often eat the bread of sorrow, and by that means they there began such a friendship as time did not blot out, but lasted till the death of Bishop Jewel, which was one thousand five hundred seventy and one. A little before which time the two bishops meeting, Jewel began a story of his Richard Hooker, and in it gave such a character of his learning and manners, that though. Bishop Sandys was educated in Cambridge, where be had obliged, and had many friends; yet his resolution was, that his son Edwin should be sent to Corpus Christicollege, in Oxford, and by all means be pupil to Mr. Hooker, though his son Edwin was then almost of the same age: for the Bishop said, “ I will have a tutor for any son, that shall teach him learning by instruction, and virtue by example; and my greatest care shall be of the last, and (God willing) this Richard Hooker shall be the

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