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cised considerable influence on the thought of the time, concerning himself with a wide range of questions, political, religious, literary, and artistic. Having genius, he was none the less a practical man; and a good part of his life had been passed in administering government affairs, and in the diplomatic service. As ambassador at the courts of Denmark, Prussia, and Russia, he had not only gained a large experience of men, and insight into the current political movements, but he had commanded the respect and esteem of his associates, of the sovereigns whom he served, and of those to whom he was accredited. During the last nineteen years of his life, he used his learning and talents in the interest of the Church. By nature a singer of love and truth and beauty, his soul was filled with higher ideals than of old. Not content with moving the imagination of men, Stolberg sought to stem the flood of infidelity by an appeal to right reason and the realities of fact. He became a historian . Besides the “ Life of Alfred the Great " (Münster, 1815), he published the “ History of the Religion of Jesus Christ " (15 vols., Hamburg, 1806–1819), a work conceived on a large plan, and full of learning as of thought. More than one life of Stolberg had been written. In 1862, Menge published a lengthy and careful, though somewhat heavy study, entitled, “Count F. L. Stolberg and his Contemporaries” (2 vols., Gotha). Like the others, this was but the life of a dead man. No one had, thus far, revealed the real Stolberg to the world, the warm-hearted, honest-minded, deeply-religious Christian, whose soul burned with love for all good and hated all evil; the earnest patriot whose enthusiastic love of country was only equalled by his love of liberty, and whose love of liberty was limited only by respect for law; the dutiful husband and father, whose love of family was second only to that he had for God and the Church; the scholar who loved all learning, but loved it only as a means to inform and elevate mankind.

Janssen's work as a biographer had shown that he was gifted with rare powers of observation and analysis, and with a peculiarly sympathetic nature which readily merged itself in the personality of another. As pupil and tutor he had passed many happy days in the old Westphalian town of Münster, where Stolberg had lived the greater part of his new life, and where his name and fame were still fresh among the people. Everything pointed to Janssen as the fitting biographer of the brother-historian who had been animated by a spirit so like unto his own; and, though busied with exacting studies, he generously undertook the work. Stolberg's private papers were placed in his hands, and in 1876 he published the life of “ Friedrich Leopold von Stolberg” (2 vols., Freiburg). The favor with which these volumes were received prompted him to prepare a new and smaller edition, on a modified plan, which, sacrificing no important detail of the original, utilized new material so as to give a more complete view of Stolberg's character. This later volume shows Janssen's constructive skill at its best. We lose sight of the biographer and see and hear only Stolberg's self. He it is who lays bare for us his own manly, tender heart, and the aims and strivings of a noble soul. The story of his life and of the development of his mind is instructive and stimulating. As a member of the famed " Hain," an association which played an important part in the politico-literary history of Germany during the latter part of the eighteenth century, he had, in youth, been carried away by the false enthusiasms of his fellow-poets, and with them dreamed of liberty glorified by the revolution. Only a good Providence saved him from casting his lot with Goethe at the court of Weimar. A clear and strong intellect kept him Christian while the weak and restless minds around him fell into paganism, or so-called rationalism ; and a burning love for freedom led him at length, after seven years of bitter struggle, into the Catholic Church ; where, as he recognized—and where only—man is free indeed. He knew all the foremost men of the Aufklärung," had seen into their minds and hearts, and watched and measured the effect of their work upon society; hence, his testimony as to their character, and the condition of society under the influence of their godless teachings, is particularly impressive. The reader of Janssen's essays on this period will gather from Stolberg new facts and ideas, helpful to a just estimate of a past whose false ideals control so large a part of mankind in the present. On the Church in Germany, as well as on Protestantism and atheism, Stolberg's conversion produced a remarkable effect. Protestants were for the moment stunned; still the man's ability and honesty were so well established that his action received more of regretful sympathy than abuse—though abuse was not wanting. His old friend, Voss -" the Christian poet ”—pursued him bitterly to the very edge of the grave. In the atheist's eyes, he had betrayed liberty. Ministers of the gospel reasoned with him, and found him only too reasonable. Impressed by his acceptance of Catholic doctrine, many were led to inquire into the Church's teachings, and the conversions that followed, among the most intelligent laymen and churchmen, were numerous. The "History of the Religion of Jesus Christ" made a stir at the universities. Friedrich von Schlegel bore witness to the effect it produced at Heidelberg, and to the change wrought by its argument in the prevailing atheistic thought. He was not the only advanced thinker won over to the Church by Stolberg's presentation of the justice of her claims to lead mankind, and of the beauty and security of her teachings. German Catholics gained new courage in their trials, when they saw the loved and honored Stolberg return to the fold. They were moved to greater activity; and he was ready to help or to lead. Inspiring people and clergy, he sought, by word and example, to raise both one and the other to higher aims and nobler lives, in the interest of their country and their countrymen. Janssen's admirable book, giving new life to the great convert's words and works, is worthy the attention not of Germans only, or of students of history, but of men of every country who would be lifted out of the narrow circle of material thoughts which so confine the ideals and actions of young and old to-day.

In the same year in which the first edition of Stolberg's biography appeared (1876)-after twenty-five years of such rare training, and of so varied yet single-minded study, having utilized every published work and document of value, and a number of hitherto unprinted manuscripts, and having examined the archives of Frankfurt, Treves, Mainz, Lucerne, Zürich, Wertheim (not to mention other German “ Sources "), and the Nunciature reports in the Vatican-Janssen issued the first half of the first volume of the “ History of the German People.” This volume was completed in 1878; the second appeared in 1879; and the third, fourth and fifth volumes have since been sent to press, as health allowed. If we knew nothing of the man, his education, powers or purpose, the list of the thirteen hundred and fifty manuscripts and printed works he has consulted would suffice to assure us of the broad and solid foundation on which he has builded. The use made of the material at command testifies not only to its extent, but to its value in helping unprejudiced inquirers fully to understand the deformation which some uninstructed writers still qualify as a “Reformation.” Janssen is no polemist, neither defender nor opponent of individual, party or sect. Without passion, without one word of

. criticism, with no single expression of personal opinion, he records the facts ; facts substantiated by credible witnesses and stated in their own words. Every page supports his simple statement of the purpose of his work, as given in the preface to the sixth edition of the first volume: “My endeavor is plainly to expose the truth of history, as well as I can gather it from the original authorities; from any other 'tendency' whatever I know myself to be free." The success of this endeavor and the force of plain truth have been practically illustrated by the effect of Janssen's history upon non-Catholics. Through reading it many have been brought back to the Mother-Church ; and no less than fifty Protestants, including ministers and teachers in public institutions, sent congratulatory letters to the author on the twenty-fifth anniversary of his ordination.

Among those who cannot believe the truth, because it is so new, Janssen has spread consternation. Other weapons failing, the standard dictionary of bad language has been greatly enlarged and flung

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full at his head. “The enemy is under our walls. The Reformation is once more about to enter on a deadly struggle with Rome. Gird up your loins and stand as one man. The Lord fill you with hate against the Pope!" Such is the appeal of one Martin Rode, a theologian, of course. Professor Hans Delbrück, of Berlin, not satisfied with associating Janssen with the “ Prince of Darkness," and Judas, denounces him as a “coiner," and wants to have his ears cut off! In America the Lutheran Familienblatt and the St. Louis Abendschule have been quite as scientifically critical. Professor Walther, of St. Louis, having probably run out of epithets, republished some of Cranach's wood-cuts, ridiculing the Papacy, with the original Luther-text-certainly a powerful answer, though inordinately abridged, to Janssen's five volumes of solid text, without illustrations. The Evangelical Church Advertiser, of Berlin, wants some one to draw out of its scabbard the sword of the heroic age of reform and hit the insolent enemy on the head with it;” and some one else to inflame“ the holy Protestant scorn of apocalyptic Rome." The Advertiser proudly announces that a number of learned Germans have at length founded a “Reformation ” History Society, in Magdeburg-ominous name ! Indeed, a cry has gone up for an Anti-Janssen; a history written in the Protestant sense, and which shall at the same time undo Janssen's work. How useless such a pseudo-history would be now, how unimpregnable is the simple, though novel, method of massing fixed fact on fact, of letting men speak for themselves and of the scenes in which they played a part, Janssen has made clear in his two admirable little volumes addressed "To My Critics" (Freiburg, 1882–1883). Models of polite, incisive controversy, they are the most unanswerable refutations of the ill-provided critics, who had learned to look upon their text-books as a part of the Gospel, and they are an equally complete defence of the facts by the facts. He himself had made his task easy.'

Catholics may be proud of having given to England a John Lingard, and to Italy a Cesare Cantù. Giving to Germany a Johannes Janssen they have no less reason to be proud. But not content with pointing to the works of these great men, they should be moved by a noble ambition to do like service in like ways. The

The following extract from a long, and on the whole fair review of Janssen's History, by M. Paul Bourdeau, in the Revue des Deux Mondes, April, 1888, is worth quoting: in fact, it is much easier to get angry with M. Janssen, and even to abuse him, than it is to refute him. It will not do to put up against him M. von Ranke, a rather vague historian, who excels in unravelling diplomatic affairs, in pointing out the movement of opinions, in drawing historical portraits, but who never gets down among the masses. All this history would have to be made over again, with the immense labor, and the realistic exactitude which M. Janssen has consecrated to it." -When the folks who think they are reformed have reformed their history books, they will have taken the first practical step in the way of intelligent, honest reform. Reformer, reform thyself!

aim of the true scholar is not personal. Seeking not fleeting fame or uncertain honors, his strivings are directed by the love of truth and the hope that he may become the intellectual father of a progeny of truth-lovers. Still, the true scholar deserves to be honored in his lifetime ; and Janssen has received worthy recognition at the hands of Catholics. Würzburg conferred upon him the degree of Doctor in Theology, Louvain that of Doctor of Laws; the Archbishop of Freiburg appointed him one of his councillors, and our sympathetic Pope, Leo XIII., who has spoken such moving words to students of history, raised the historian to the offices of Prelate and Apostolic Prothonotary. But his greatest, most lasting honor is his masterly history.


Problèmes et Conclusions de l'Histoire des Religions, par l'Abbé de

Broglie, Professeur d'Apologétique à l'Institut Catholique de Paris,

Paris, 1885. Le Dictionnaire Théologique de Bergier, Approprié au Mouvement Intel

lectuel de la Seconde Moitié du XIXe Siècle, par l'Abbé Le Noir; article Bouddhisme, Paris, 1876.

OF all the religions now or ever professed by men, only three

are universalist, that is, calculated by principle and by dogma to be received not merely by a portion, but by all of mankind. These religions are Christianity, Islamism, and Buddhism. This fact alone would render a comparative study of these systems an interesting and profitable one. But Christianity and Buddhism present, in their origin, history and teaching, so many points of resemblance; they both, though in a different degree, so far excel all other systems in the tone of their morality, that a special comparison between them is almost forced on the attention of all who are interested in the great problems which every religion claims to be able to solve. It is strange that, until a comparatively recent date, so little should have been known concerning a religion professed, according to the most moderate of trustworthy estimates, by two hundred and fifty millions of beings, and dating from at least the sixth century before our era. Of course, even in the Middle Ages the Lamaism of Thibet, the Fo-ism of China, and the

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